SECTION 362 Which Partitions are Defined as Walls [to Permit] Carrying [within their Confines]

סימן שסב אֵיזֶה מְחִצָּה קָרוּי מְחִצָּה לְטַלְטֵל וּבוֹ כ"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 All walls that were not made for the purpose of habitation, [i.e., for people to dwell] within them – [the latter phrase refers to walls with entrances through which people] enter and depart on a regular basis (see sec. 358[:6] with regard to a karpeif) – [are not considered as valid walls.1 This includes:]

a) [walls constructed] to protect [items] stored within them,

b) [walls constructed] to abide inside them while guarding fields,2 but not to dwell in [the enclosure] during both the day and the night, instead [these walls were constructed] only to take shelter in their shade when the sun beats down upon [a watchman], (by contrast, a hut in which a watchman dwells [both] day and night is deemed a totally acceptable dwelling, as explained in sec. 358[:6]), similarly,

c) walls constructed simply for the purpose of concealment, for example, walls constructed by builders who work in the sun and make [temporary] walls to protect themselves from the sun, and also,

d) an exedra3 that is built in an orchard, (for these walls are also not used in an ongoing and consistent manner, [i.e., the exedra is not made] to take shelter in its shade even for one day and one night in an ongoing and consistent manner; instead, [such a shelter is used] only [infrequently], when the sun beats down.

When, however, walls are constructed [for daily use, if] even for [but] one day and one night, they are considered a totally acceptable dwelling, as explained in sec. 360[:1].)4

[True,] all the walls mentioned above are considered walls in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law – even when they enclose [an area of] several mil5 – and thus, one who throws an object into [these walls] from the public domain is liable.6 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, one may not carry more than four cubits within them if they enclose an area larger than beis sasayim, because they are not considered as having been enclosed for the purpose of habitation. Even so, it is permitted to carry throughout an enclosure [of one of the types described above] that is beis sasayim or less.

א כָּל מְחִצּוֹת שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ כְּדֵי לָדוּר בְּתוֹכָן,א דְּהַיְנוּ לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּמִידב (עַיֵּן סִמָּן שנ"חג גַּבֵּי קַרְפֵּף),1 אֶלָּא לִשְׁמוֹר מַה שֶׁיַּנִּיחוּ בְּתוֹכָןד,1 אוֹ לֵישֵׁב בְּתוֹכָן לִשְׁמוֹר הַשָּׂדוֹת,ה,2 שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָר בָּה יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה אֶלָּא מִסְתּוֹפֵף בְּצִלָּהּ בִּלְבָד כְּשֶׁהַחַמָּה עוֹמֶדֶת עָלָיוו (אֲבָל סֻכָּה שֶׁדָּר בָּהּ הַשּׁוֹמֵר יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה – דִּירָה מְעֻלָּה הִיא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"חז), וְכֵן מְחִצּוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיִין לִצְנִיעוּת בְּעָלְמָא,ח,1 כְּגוֹן הַבַּנָּאִים שֶׁבּוֹנִים בַּחַמָּה וְעוֹשִׂין מְחִצָּה לְהָגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה,ט וְכֵן הָאַכְסַדְרָה3 שֶׁבּוֹנִים בְּתוֹךְ הַפַּרְדֵּסי (שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁ מְחִצָּה זוֹ גַּם כֵּן אֵינוֹ קָבוּעַיא לְהִתְלוֹנֵן בְּצִלָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד בִּקְבִיעוּת, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַחַמָּה קוֹדֶרֶת בִּלְבָד, אֲבָל מְחִצָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְיוֹם וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד – דִּירָה מְעֻלָּה הִיא,יב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"סיג,4).

וְכָל מְחִצּוֹת אֵלּוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְחִצּוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְהַזּוֹרֵק לְתוֹכָן מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חַיָּביד,6 אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בְּתוֹכָן כַּמָּה מִילִין,טו,5 מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בְּתוֹכָן אֶלָּא בְּד' אַמּוֹת אִם יֵשׁ בְּתוֹכָן יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבוֹת מֻקָּפוֹת לְדִירָה. אֲבָל עַד בֵּית סָאתַיִם וְעַד בִּכְלָל, מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּכָל הַמֻּקָּף:טז

2 Accordingly,7 when the branches of a tree [or trees]8 descend and surround the tree[s] in its entirety,9 they are considered as [forming] a wall if they descend lower than three handbreadths above the ground10 and the ends [of the branches] that are connected to the tree are [at least] ten handbreadths high.11 [The branches] are considered as [forming totally valid] walls, and it is permitted to carry inside [this enclosure] even though it was not constructed for the sake of habitation.

[The above applies] provided one fills the space between the branches with wood or straw, and ties them there so that the wind does not move them. [This is necessary] because any wall that cannot stand firmly in the face of an ordinary wind12 is not a [valid] wall.13

The same ruling applies if [the branches] are not ten handbreadths high where they are attached to the tree; they are ten [handbreadths] high only in their middle of their span, i.e., they are bow-shaped. The entire [area] that is ten [handbreadths] high must comprise [an area measuring] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths]. If [the space beneath the branches] is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area without including the portion] that is less than ten [handbreadths high, the status of this space is downgraded] and it is deemed a karmelis.14

ב לְפִיכָךְ7 אִילָן8 שֶׁעֲנָפָיו יוֹרְדִין לְמַטָּה כָּל סְבִיבוֹ,9 אִם אֵינָם גְּבוֹהִים ג' טְפָחִים מִן הָאָרֶץיז,10 וְעִקָּרָן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמְּחֻבָּרִים לָאִילָן הוּא גָבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים11יח – הֲרֵי הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים מְחִצָּה וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ לְדִירָה.

וְהוּא שֶׁיְּמַלֵּא הָאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּין הָעֲנָפִים בְּעֵצִים אוֹ בְּקַשׁיט וִיקַשְּׁרֵםכ שָׁםכא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְנִידֵם הָרוּחַ, שֶׁכָּל מְחִצָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמוֹד בְּרוּחַ מְצוּיָה12 אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה.כב, 13

וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם אֵין גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמְּחֻבָּרִים לָאִילָן, אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּאֶמְצַע הֵם גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁעֲשׂוּיִים כְּקֶשֶׁת. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בֵּינֵיהֶם ד' עַל ד' בְּכָל גֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁאִם אֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם ד' אֶלָּא מִלְּמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְאֵילַךְ – הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכַרְמְלִית:כג, 14

3 All the above applies when [the space under the tree or trees] is beis sasayim [or less]. However, it is forbidden to [carry under a tree or trees] if [that space] is more than beis sasayim.15 [This applies] even if the person planted the tree[s] initially for that reason16 – i.e., for its branches to serve as a wall around [this area] so that carrying will be permitted there. [The person’s actions] are not at all effective, since [the “walls”]17 were not made to dwell within their [confines], but rather to take shelter under [their] shade so that he could guard the fields.18

[A different rule applies] if, by contrast, [the enclosure] was made [explicitly with the intent of] dwelling within it19 – even if [the tree] was not planted with the intent of dwelling under it, but one filled the space between the branches with straw with that intent. If the majority of the wall consists of the straw placed there with the intent of [making] a dwelling, it is as if the entire wall was made for the purpose of habitation, and one may carry [in the enclosure] even if [the area] is larger than beis sasayim. (It is permitted [to carry in the enclosure] even if [the space filled by] the straw is not more than ten [handbreadths] wide. And if [the space the straw fills] is more than ten [handbreadths] wide, it is permitted [to carry in the enclosure] even if [that space] does not constitute the majority of the wall, as explained in sec. 358[:7].)20

ג וְכָל זֶה עַד בֵּית סָאתַיִם, אֲבָל יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם – אָסוּר.כד,15 וַאֲפִלּוּ נָטַע הָאִילָן מִתְּחִלָּה לְשֵׁם כָּךְ,כה,16 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנָפָיו מְחִצּוֹת סְבִיבוֹ, לְהַתִּיר שָׁם הַטִּלְטוּל – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי17 לָדוּר בּוֹ אֶלָּא לְהִסְתּוֹפֵף בְּצִלּוֹ לִשְׁמוֹר הַשָּׂדוֹת.כו,18 אֲבָל אִם הוּא עָשׂוּי לָדוּר בּוֹ,19 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נְטָעוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי לָדוּר בּוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּלֵּא קַשׁ בֵּין הָעֲנָפִים כְּדֵי לָדוּר בּוֹכז – אִם רֹב הַדֹּפֶן מִן הַקַּשׁ הַמְמַלֵּא שָׁם לְדִירָה, הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ כָּל הַדֹּפֶן עָשׂוּי לְדִירָה, וּמְטַלְטְלִין שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹתֵר מִסָּאתַיִםכח (וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁאֵין בְּרֹחַב הַקַּשׁ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר – מֻתָּר. וְאִם יֵשׁ בְּרָחְבּוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רֹב הַדֹּפֶן – גַּם כֵּן מֻתָּר,כט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"חל):20

4 When one constructs a wall five handbreadths high on top of a mound that is five handbreadths high, [the enclosed area] on [the mound] is deemed a private domain21 in all contexts.22 [The rationale is that] there is a barrier ten handbreadths [high around the mound] – i.e., the five handbreadths of [the mound’s] height, concerning which the principle of gud asik is applied, i.e., the sides of the mound itself are considered to have been extended upward, as explained in sec. 345[:1], and the five handbreadths of the wall. An actual wall and [a virtual wall that depends on the principle of] gud [asik] may be combined [to produce a valid barrier].

A “wall” that comes into being as a matter of course, i.e., it was not made [with the intent that it serve] as a wall,23 is acceptable in all contexts.

ד תֵּל שֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ ה' טְפָחִים, וְעָשָׂה עָלָיו מְחִצָּה ה' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי זֶה עַל גַּבָּיו רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָהלא,21 לְכָל דָּבָר,לב,22 שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ כַּאן מְחִצָּה י' טְפָחִים, הַיְנוּ ה' טְפָחִים מִן גֹּבַהּ עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁאוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "גּוּד אַסֵּק מְחִצָּה" לְמַעְלָה,לג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה,לד וְה' טְפָחִים מִן הַמְּחִצָּה, שֶׁהַמְּחִצָּה וְ"גוּד" מִצְטָרְפִין.

מְחִצָּה הָעוֹמֶדֶת מֵאֵלֶיהָ,לה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית לְשֵׁם מְחִצָּהלו, 23 – כְּשֵׁרָה לְכָל דָּבָר:

5 A “wall” that was unintentionally made on Shabbos24 is acceptable in all contexts. If [the “wall”] was made intentionally, it is considered as a “wall” as a stringency, i.e., one who throws [an object] from within [its enclosure] into the public domain is liable, but not for the sake of leniency, i.e., to allow carrying inside25 [the domain that was purposely created on Shabbos]. This is a penalty.26

When does the above apply? When there was no “wall” there at the onset of the Shabbos. If, however, there had been a “wall” there originally, [and the person] removed it and then replaced it, even intentionally, [the enclosure] reverts to its original status and [hence, carrying within the enclosure] is permitted.

ה מְחִצָּה שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת בְּשׁוֹגֵג,24 כְּשֵׁרָה לְכָל דָּבָר. בְּמֵזִיד – מְחִצָּה הִיאלז לְהַחֲמִיר, לְחַיֵּב הַזּוֹרֵק מִתּוֹכָהּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲבָל לֹא לְהָקֵל, לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל בְּתוֹכָהּ,לח,25 מִשּׁוּם קְנָס.לט,26 בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה שָׁם מְחִצָּה כְּלָל בִּתְחִלַּת הַשַּׁבָּת. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה שָׁם וֶהֱסִירָהּ וְחָזַר וַעֲשָׂאָה – אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד חָזְרָה לְהֶתֵּרָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן:מ

6 All the above applies when the “wall” is located in a public domain or a karmelis, and a private domain is established there as a result [of its enclosure on Shabbos. Different laws apply] however, if, even without the “wall” [made on Shabbos], there exist other “walls” which cause [the domain] to be deemed a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law, but it is forbidden to carry there according to Rabbinic Law.27 [In such an instance], even if the wall did not exist at the onset of the Shabbos and was intentionally made on Shabbos, it is effective [and] carrying is permitted [within the enclosure].

If [there was a wall that enables carrying to be permitted] around [such an enclosure] at the onset of Shabbos, but it fell afterwards, [carrying] is permitted [within the formerly enclosed area] even if [the wall] was not rebuilt [later. The rationale is that] since even without that [wall], there are other walls, we apply the principle:28 Since license [to carry was] granted for [this] Shabbos, the license remains.

ו וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהַמְּחִצָּה הִיא בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית, וְעַל יָדָהּ נַעֲשָׂה שָׁם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. אֲבָל אִם גַּם בְּלֹא מְחִצָּה זוֹ יֵשׁ שָׁם עוֹד מְחִצּוֹת, שֶׁעַל יָדָן נַעֲשָׂה שָׁם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל שָׁם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים27 – מוֹעֶלֶת מְחִצָּה זוֹ לְהַתִּיר לְטַלְטֵל שָׁם,מא וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיְתָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַשַּׁבָּתמב וְנַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמֵזִיד.

וְאִם הָיְתָה שָׁם בִּתְחִלַּת הַשַּׁבָּת וְנָפְלָה אַחַר כָּךְ – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לֹא חָזְרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית כְּלָל, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁגַּם מִבַּלְעָדֶיהָ יֵשׁ שָׁם עוֹד מְחִצּוֹת, הֲרֵי אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים28 "שַׁבָּת – כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה, הֻתְּרָה":מג

7 What is implied? Two or three people made an enclosure29 with mats [placed] around them in a public domain or in a karmelis, and they also made separations [with mats] between their individual [places. The people] did not make an eruv [to join their individual places]. Thus, each person was permitted to carry [only] in his place. On Shabbos, the mats [that separated] between their [individual places] were rolled up.30 [See fig. 51. In such a situation,] we apply the principle: Since license [to carry was] granted for [this] Shabbos, the license remains,31 for even without the mats between their [domains, the entire area] was a private domain in a complete sense because of the original mats.

Ifthere were no mats spread out between their [separate domains] before Shabbos, although they were spread out on Shabbos, even intentionally, they are [all] permitted [to carry throughout the entire area].32

If, however, the mats [forming] the outer [enclosure] were spread out on Shabbos in intentional [violation of the Shabbos prohibitions], they are not effective [in causing carrying in the entire enclosure to be permitted] unless they had already been spread out at the onset of Shabbos, were [then] rolled close, and then spread out again. [In such an instance, if the mats] were not spread out again, we do not apply the principle: Since license [to carry was] granted for [this] Shabbos, the license remains. [The rationale is that] there are no “walls” separating between [the areas in which the people dwell] and the public domain or the area that is a karmelis in a complete sense.33

(By contrast, even though a karpeif that is larger than beis sasayim, andthat was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation is deemed a karmelis according to Rabbinic Law, it is a private domain according to Scriptural Law. Hence, [with regard to such an area] we do apply the principle: Since license [to carry was] granted for [this] Shabbos, the license remains, as stated in sec. 360[:4].)

ז כֵּיצַד? כְּגוֹן שְׁנַיִם אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁהִקִּיפוּ29 בְּמַחְצְלָאוֹת סְבִיבוֹתֵיהֶםמד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית,מה וְהִבְדִּילוּ גַּם בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד, וְהָיָה כָּל אֶחָד מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּשֶׁלּוֹ,מו וּבְשַׁבָּת נִגְלְלוּ הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם30 – אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה",מז,31 כֵּיוָן שֶׁגַּם מִבַּלְעֲדֵי הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם הָיְתָה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה עַל יְדֵי מַחְצְלָאוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת.

וְאִם קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת לֹא הָיוּ מַחְצְלָאוֹת פְּרוּסוֹת בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְנִפְרְסוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד – מֻתָּר.מח, 32

אֲבָל מַחְצְלָאוֹת הַחִיצוֹנוֹת שֶׁנִּפְרְסוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמֵזִיד אֵינָן מוֹעִילוֹת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ כְּבָר פְּרוּסוֹת בִּתְחִלַּת הַשַּׁבָּת וְנִגְלְלוּ וְחָזְרוּ וְנִפְרְסוּ.מט וְאִם לֹא חָזְרוּ וְנִפְרְסוּ, אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶם "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה", הוֹאִיל וְאֵין כַּאן מְחִצּוֹת הַמַּפְסִיקוֹת בֵּין רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ כַּרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָה.נ, 33

(אֲבָל קַרְפֵּף יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא כְּכַרְמְלִית מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה – אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"סנא):


Fig. 51: Enclosures made with mats. a) A public domain; b) A enclosure made by one person; c) An enclosure made by a second person; d) An enclosure made by a third person; e) The mats used to make the inner enclosures that were later rolled up; f) The mats used to make the outer enclosures
Fig. 51: Enclosures made with mats. a) A public domain; b) A enclosure made by one person; c) An enclosure made by a second person; d) An enclosure made by a third person; e) The mats used to make the inner enclosures that were later rolled up; f) The mats used to make the outer enclosures

8 Similarly, when two ships at sea were tied together and an eruv was established between them and[later their connection] was severed on Shabbos, we do not apply the principle: Since license [to carry was] granted for [this] Shabbos, the license remains. [The rationale is that] since [their connection] was severed, it is as if the sea is intervening between [the ships], as stated in sec. 355[:8], and the sea is a karmelis in a complete sense.34 If, however, [the ships] were tied together again [on Shabbos]– even in purposeful [violation of the Shabbos laws] – the original license [to carry between them] is restored,35 since both of [the ships] were private domains even without [their being connected].36

ח וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי סְפִינוֹת שֶׁבַּיָּם שֶׁהֵן קְשׁוּרוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ וְעֵרְבוּ יַחַד,נב וּבְשַׁבָּת נִפְסְקוּ – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶן "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה",30 לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּפְסְקוּ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הַיָּם מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶן,נג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ה,נד וְהַיָּם הוּא כַּרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָה.נה,34 אֲבָל אִם חָזְרוּ וְנִקְשְׁרוּ, אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד – חָזְרוּ לְהֶתֵּרָן הָרִאשׁוֹן,נו,35 כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּבַּלְעֲדֵי זֶה הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד:נז,36

9 One may carry throughout an entire ship,37 even if its area is larger than beis sasayim, because it is considered [an area that has been] enclosed for the purpose of habitation. It is not said that its walls were [solely] made to prevent water from entering and not for [the purpose of] habitation.

Needless to say, [the above applies] if one [removed the ship from the sea and] overturned it in order to dwell under it, for by overturning it, one creates walls under which it is fit to dwell.38 [Moreover,] doing so also causes the area on top of [the ship] to be considered as enclosed for the purpose of habitation, based on the principle of gud asik.39

If, however, one overturned [a ship] larger than beis sasayim in order to apply tar to it, it is forbidden to carry more than four cubits under it and on top of it. The reason is that by overturning [the ship], one nullified the conception of dwelling in it – both above and below it. For as long as [the ship] is overturned [for tarring], it is not prepared for dwelling – neither below [the hull] or above it.

ט סְפִינָה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּכֻלָּהּנח,37 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֲשׁוּבָה לְמֻקֶּפֶת דִּירָה.נט וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים מְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ לְהַבְרִיחַ מַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ,ס שֶׁלֹּא לְדִירָה.סא

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם כְּפָאָהּ לָדוּר תַּחְתֶּיהָ,סב שֶׁכְּפִיָּתָהּ – זוֹ הִיא עֲשִׂיַּת מְחִצָּתָהּ לְדִירַת מַטָּה,38 וְנַעֲשָׂה עַל יְדֵי כֵן מֻקֶּפֶת לְדִירָה גַּם עַל גַּבָּהּ מִלְמַעְלָה מִשּׁוּם "גּוּד אַסֵּק".סג, 39

אֲבָל אִם כְּפָאָהּ לְזַפְּתָהּ – אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בָּהּ,סד בֵּין תַּחְתֶּיהָסה בֵּין עָלֶיהָ, אֶלָּא בְּד' אַמּוֹת,37 אִם הִיא יוֹתֵר מִסָּאתַיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּטֵּל מְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ מִתּוֹרַת דִּירָה בִּכְפִיָּתָן זוֹ, שֶׁאֵינָן עוֹמְדוֹת כָּל זְמַן כְּפִיָּתָן לֹא לְדִירַת מַטָּה וְלֹא לְדִירַת מַעְלָה:סו

10 While it is still day [on Friday], a partition can be made with any type of object.40 [This includes] even implements and saddles41 that are ten handbreadths high,42 although they will be removed after Shabbos.43[The above even] includes dividers that are merely horizontal, e.g., ropes stretched out [and extended] from one post to another surrounding the enclosure, one rope above another,44 [until they reach] a height of ten handbreadths. [And it] also [includes] dividers that are merely vertical, e.g., poles ten [handbreadths] high that are implanted in the ground one next to another.45 Such an enclosure is valid even for one person in a settled area, as long as [the enclosed area] is not larger than beis sasayim, as explained in sec. 360[:1].

[The above applies] provided that there is less than three handbreadths [distance] between one rope and another or between one pole and another, [for] any space that is less than three handbreadths [wide] is considered as closed entirely.46 If, however, there are three handbreadths between even one [of the] rope[s] and [the next rope], the partition is not valid at all.

([The only] exception is when the space of three handbreadths is in the middle [of the partition]) and there are more than three handbreadths that are enclosed by ropes from the rope that is directly above these three [middle] handbreadths to the highest rope in the barrier, and [similarly,] the space from the rope that is directly below these three [middle] handbreadths to a point less than three handbreadths above the earth is enclosed by ropes.47 [To explain:] If there are only three handbreadths of space that is closed with ropes from the rope directly above the open space to the highest rope of the divider, the open space on either side of the three handbreadths of closed space – i.e., the open space above the highest rope of the barrier and the three handbreadths [of open space below it] – nullify the three handbreadths of closed space between them. If, however, the closed [space] above the open space is larger than three handbreadths, the open [space] does not nullify the closed [space], because the closed space is larger. [See fig. 52.]

All the above applies [to space] between one rope and another. If, however, there are three handbreadths of open space between the ground and the lowest rope, even if there are more than 100 cubits of closed space above it, it is not considered a valid partition, since young goats can pass under [the bottom rope], as stated in sec. 355[:10].

י בַּכֹּל עוֹשִׂין מְחִצָּהסז מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,40 אֲפִלּוּ בְּכֵלִיםסח וְאֻכָּפוֹתסט, 41 הַגְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים,ע, 42 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסּוֹפָן לְהִנָּטֵל אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת,עא, 43 וַאֲפִלּוּ מְחִצּוֹת שֶׁל עֵרֶב בְּלֹא שְׁתִי,עב כְּגוֹן שֶׁל חֲבָלִים הַמְּתוּחִים עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת סָבִיבעג חֶבֶל עַל גַּבֵּי חֶבֶל44 בְּגֹבַהּ י' טְפָחִים, אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁתִי בְּלֹא עֵרֶבעד, כְּגוֹן קָנִים הַגְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה הַנְּעוּצִים בָּאָרֶץ זֶה אֵצֶל זֶהעה, 45 – הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹעֶלֶת עַד בֵּית סָאתַיִם, אֲפִלּוּ לְיָחִיד בְּיִשּׁוּב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ס.עו

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בֵּין חֶבֶל לַחֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ בֵּין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ ג' טְפָחִים.עז וְכָל אֲוִיר שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים נֶחְשָׁב כְּסָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי.עח, 46 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בֵּין חֶבֶל אֶחָד לַחֲבֵרוֹ ג' טְפָחִים – אֵינוֹ מְחִצָּה כְּלָל, (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָאֲוִיר שֶׁל ג' טְפָחִים הוּא בָּאֶמְצַע) וְיֵשׁ מֵחֶבֶל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁל ג' טְפָחִים הַלָּלוּ עַד חֶבֶל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ גֹּבַהּ הַמְּחִצָּה יוֹתֵר מִג' טְפָחִים סָתוּם בַּחֲבָלִים, וּמֵחֶבֶל הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁל ג' טְפָחִים אֲוִיר הַלָּלוּ סָתוּם גַּם כֵּן בַּחֲבָלִים עַד פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ,עט, 47 שֶׁאִם אֵין מֵחֶבֶל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁל ג' טְפָחִים הַלָּלוּ עַד חֶבֶל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ גֹּבַהּ הַמְּחִצָּה אֶלָּא ג' טְפָחִים סְתוּמִים בַּחֲבָלִיםפ – הֲרֵי הָאֲוִיר שֶׁמִּצַּד זֶה וּמִצַּד זֶה לְג' טְפָחִים הַלָּלוּ הַסְּתוּמִים, דְּהַיְנוּ הָאֲוִיר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁעַד חֶבֶל שֶׁבְּרָאשֵׁי גֹּבַהּ הַמְּחִצָּה עִם הָאֲוִיר שֶׁל ג' טְפָחִים הַלָּלוּ, בָּאִים וּמְבַטְּלִים הַג' טְפָחִים סְתוּמִים שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם.פא אֲבָל אִם הַסָּתוּם יוֹתֵר מִג' טְפָחִים, אֲזַי אֵין אֲוִיר זֶה מְבַטֵּל הַסָּתוּם שֶׁעָלָיו, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מְרֻבֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ.

וְכָל זֶה בֵּין חֶבֶל לְחֶבֶל. אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ אֲוִיר ג' טְפָחִים מֵהָאָרֶץ עַד חֶבֶל הַתַּחְתּוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ מִשָּׁם וְאֵילַךְ סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי יוֹתֵר מִמֵּאָה אַמָּה – אֵין זוֹ מְחִצָּה, הוֹאִיל וְהַגְּדָיִים יְכוֹלִים לִבְקוֹעַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ,פב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ה:פג


Fig. 52: A partition formed by ropes. a) A space larger than 3 handbreadths enclosed by ropes; b) An empty space of 3 handbreadths; c) A space of 3 handbreadths enclosed by ropes running to a point less than 3 handbreadths above the earth; d) The height of the partition as a whole, 10 handbreadths
Fig. 52: A partition formed by ropes. a) A space larger than 3 handbreadths enclosed by ropes; b) An empty space of 3 handbreadths; c) A space of 3 handbreadths enclosed by ropes running to a point less than 3 handbreadths above the earth; d) The height of the partition as a whole, 10 handbreadths

11 All the above48 applies with regard to ropes. [Different laws apply to] poles: If there is [an open space] three handbreadths [wide]49 or [even] more, until ten cubits, between one pole and [the next], the barrier is not disqualified because of [the open space], unless there is more open space than there is closed space, as will be explained.50

Even if there is open space next to one end of the barrier and more than ten [cubits] of space closed [by an actual barrier] do not remain until its [other] end, [see fig. 53], it is not said that the open space [on one side of the barrier]51 and the open space on the outside [of the barrier]52 nullify the closed portion [of the barrier] which remains from this open space until the end [of the enclosure. The rationale is that] it is only said that open space nullifies a closed portion [of a barrier] when the open space would be considered closed because of the standing [portion of the barrier], for example, [the instance mentioned in the previous subsection. In that instance,] the open space in the midst of the barrier and the open space until the heavens – which would also be considered as closed when there is [a portion of the barrier] standing ten [handbreadths] high53 – [combine to nullify the closed portion]. In contrast, [in the instance mentioned here,] the open space on the outside [of the barrier] is not considered as closed by the partition. Hence, it does not nullify [the barrier. See fig. 53.]

יא וְכָל זֶה48 בַּחֲבָלִים. אֲבָל בְּקָנִים, אִם יֵשׁ בֵּין קָנֶה אֶחָד לַחֲבֵרוֹ ג' טְפָחִים49 אוֹ יוֹתֵר, עַד עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת – אֵין הַמְּחִצָּה נִפְסֶלֶת בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה,פד,41 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַפָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.פה,50 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ אֲוִיר סָמוּךְ לִקְצֵה הַמְּחִצָּה, וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר שָׁם עוֹמֵד יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר עַד הַקָּצֶה – אֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁיָּבֹא אֲוִיר זֶה51 עִם אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם שֶׁחוּץ לַקָּצֶה52 וִיבַטְּלוּ עוֹמֵד הַנִּשְׁאָר מֵאֲוִיר זֶה עַד הַקָּצֶה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהָאֲוִיר מְבַטֵּל הָעוֹמֵד אֶלָּא בַּאֲוִיר שֶׁהוּא נֶחְשָׁב כְּסָתוּם עַל יְדֵי הָעוֹמֵד, כְּגוֹן הָאֲוִיר שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַמְּחִצָּה וְהָאֲוִיר שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה עַד לָרָקִיעַ, שֶׁהוּא נֶחְשָׁב גַּם כֵּן כְּסָתוּם כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ תַּחְתָּיו עוֹמֵד גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה.53 אֲבָל אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם שֶׁחוּץ לִקְצֵה52 הַמְּחִצָּה אֵין נֶחְשָׁב כְּסָתוּם כְּלָל עַל יְדֵי הָעוֹמֵד, וְלָכֵן אֵינוֹ מְבַטְּלוֹ כְּלָל:פו


Fig. 53: Open space in a barrier constructed from poles. a) Poles that form the barrier; b) A space less than three handbreadths between poles; c) Open space less than 10 cubits in middle of the barrier; d) The remaining space closed by the barrier until the end, is less than 10 cubits; e) Open space outside the barrier
Fig. 53: Open space in a barrier constructed from poles. a) Poles that form the barrier; b) A space less than three handbreadths between poles; c) Open space less than 10 cubits in middle of the barrier; d) The remaining space closed by the barrier until the end, is less than 10 cubits; e) Open space outside the barrier

12 A partition may even be made from [live] animals,54 i.e., while it is still day on Friday,55 one positions an animal to serve as a wall [of an enclosure]. One may then carry [within the enclosure] on Shabbos, provided [the animal] is tied there in the manner to be described in sec. 363[:5]. If the space between its legs, [between its body and the ground,] is more than three handbreadths high, a barrier of reeds must be made there.56

יב אֲפִלּוּ מִבַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים עוֹשִׂים מְחִצָּה,פז,54 שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד שָׁם בְּהֵמָה לְדֹפֶן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםפח,55 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁתְּהֵא קְשׁוּרָה שָׁם,פט עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג.צ וְאִם הֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּין הָרַגְלַיִם גָּבוֹהַּ ג' טְפָחִים – צָרִיךְ לִגְדוֹר שָׁם בְּקָנִים:צא,56

13 Even on Shabbos itself, it is permitted to make a barrier by having people stand next to each other,57 less than three handbreadths away from each other.58 [Such an enclosure may be made on Shabbos,]because this is not the [ordinary] way one builds. ([In contrast to the animals mentioned in the previous subsection,] a human being possesses the capacity to make independent decisions and he, himself, makes the decision to stand [in place]. In contrast, an animal resembles a piece of wood.59 [Therefore,] having [an animal] stand as a barrier resembles building [and thus the animal must be positioned before Shabbos].)

Even when people are walking, they are considered as a barrier and the space between them is deemed a private domain in the complete sense (provided that they form four partitions that encompasses the space in their midst).60

יג וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה מֵהָאֲנָשִׁיםצב הָעוֹמְדִים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה57 בְּפָחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים,צג,58 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בִּנְיָן בְּכָךְצד (שֶׁהֲרֵי הָאָדָם הוּא בֶּן דַּעַת וְעוֹמֵד לְדַעַת עַצְמוֹ,צה מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִיא כְּעֵץ בְּעָלְמָא59 וְהַעֲמָדָתָהּ לִמְחִצָּה דּוֹמָה לְבִנְיָןצו) וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁהֵם מְהַלְּכִים חֲשׁוּבִים מְחִצָּהצז וּבֵינֵיהֶם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָהצח (אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מֵהֶם כְּד' מְחִצּוֹת מַקִּיפוֹת לֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם):60

14 When does [the statement that] it is permitted to cause [people] to stand [together to form a barrier] apply? When [the people involved] are unaware that they are being caused to stand there to create a barrier.61 (Since [the people involved] do not intend to create a barrier, they possess the capacity to make independent decisions and they, themselves, decide to stand [there, their actions] do not [violate the prohibition against] making a barrier on Shabbos.)62 If, however, even one of [the people involved] knows [that a barrier is being formed by their standing in this manner], it is forbidden to cause them to stand [together]. If one willfully transgressed and had [the people] stand [together], the laws that pertain [to this situation] are the same as those that apply to a barrier willfully constructed on Shabbos that were explained above.63

[Moreover,] even if the person did not inform the others that he is forming an enclosure with them, if it is likely that [the people involved] will realize [his intent], for example, [this person] formed an enclosure with [these same people] once [previously] and it became known to them, [the person] should not use [the same people] to make an enclosure again. [The rationale is that the people] may realize [that the person is using them to form an enclosure] before they [are able to] complete the enclosure and [still] complete [its formation] afterwards.64 Thus, [the enclosure] would have been made in a forbidden manner. It is, however, questionable if another person may use [these people] to form an enclosure at a later time.65 (The question was left unresolved [by our Sages. Hence, since the matter concerns] a Rabbinic decree, leniency is allowed.)

יד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַעֲמִידָם בְּשַׁבָּת? אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֵם אֵינָם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁלְּשֵׁם מְחִצָּה הוּא מַעֲמִידֵם שָׁםצט,61 (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם אֵינָם מִתְכַּוְּנִים לִמְחִצָּה, וְהֵם בְּנֵי דַעַת וְעוֹמְדִים לְדַעַת עַצְמָן, אֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם עֲשִׂיַּת מְחִצָּה בְּשַׁבָּתק).62 אֲבָל אִם אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד מֵהֶם יוֹדֵעַ – אָסוּר לְהַעֲמִידָם.קא וְאִם עָבַר וְהֶעֱמִידָם בְּמֵזִיד, דִּינָם כִּמְחִצָּה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית בְּמֵזִיד בְּשַׁבָּתקב שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קג,63

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הוֹדִיעָם עַתָּה שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶם מְחִצּוֹת, אִם קָרוֹב הַדָּבָר שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁעָשָׂה מֵהֶם מְחִצָּה פַּעַם אַחַת וְנוֹדַע לָהֶם כְּבָר – לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה הוּא מֵהֶם מְחִצָּה עוֹד,קד שֶׁמָּא יַרְגִּישׁוּ בַּדָּבָר טֶרֶם שֶׁיַּסְפִּיקוּ לִגְמוֹר עֲשִׂיַּת הַמְּחִצָּהקה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִגְמְרוּהָ,64 וְנִמְצָא נַעֲשֵׂית בְּאִסּוּר.קו אֲבָל יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם אָדָם אַחֵר רַשַּׁאי לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶם מְחִצָּה עוֹדקז, 65 (וּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵלקח):

15 Even when one causes [a group of people] to form an enclosure for the first time, if he has them form an enclosure and then has them walk forward so that he can carry between them, it is likely that they will realize the matter before he completes having them proceed as an enclosure. [After all, the person] had [the group] stand [together] and then had them walk while he walked between them. It is not permitted to carry between [people who form] such an enclosure while they are walking unless they walk on their own initiative.

טו וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶם מְחִצָּה פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה, אִם מַעֲמִידֵם תְּחִלָּה כִּמְחִצּוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹלִיכֵם כָּךְ כְּדֵי לְטַלְטֵל בֵּינֵיהֶם כְּשֶׁהֵם מְהַלְּכִים – קָרוֹב הַדָּבָר שֶׁיַּרְגִּישׁוּ בַּדָּבָר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְמוֹר הוֹלָכָתָם אוֹתָם כִּמְחִצּוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָם תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹלִיכָם, וְהוּא הוֹלֵךְ בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל בֵּינֵיהֶם דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכָם אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֵם מְהַלְּכִים מֵעַצְמָם:קט

16 If initially [the group of people] came together [and formed an enclosure] unintentionally, even though later, after the enclosure was established, they realized the matter, before one [actually] carried [in the enclosure] they made, this is of no consequence [and carrying in the enclosure is permitted,] since [the people acted] unintentionally at the time they formed the enclosure.

טז אִם בָּאוּ תְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ הִרְגִּישׁוּ בַּדָּבָר, לְאַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מֵהֶם הַמְּחִצּוֹת, קֹדֶם שֶׁהִסְפִּיק לְטַלְטֵל בֵּינֵיהֶם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיַּת הַמְּחִצָּה הָיְתָה שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת:קי

17 One may not make [an enclosure using] people as a wall unless there is a need [for this to be done] and the situation is pressing. If one forgot an object [and left it] in the public domain, it is preferable that [the person have] young children go there and pick up [the object] on their own initiative and bring it home,66 than to have people make an enclosure and then have an adult bring [the object] in.

[The above applies] provided the young child does not know that the object belongs to his father. Instead, [the child] intends to bring [the object] home for his own benefit, for he thinks he found an [ownerless] object in the public domain.67 If, however, [the child] knows that the object belongs to his father, it can be assumed that he intends to bring it for his father’s sake. [In such an instance, any person who sees the child carrying the object] must admonish this child so that he will not bring [the object], as explained in sec. 334[:26].68 How much more so should [the child] not be brought there so that he will bring [the object home]. (The same law applies if the object belongs to another person whom the child knows and recognizes69 and to whom he will bring [the object].)

All the above applies with regard to others. The child’s father, by contrast, is commanded to educate him70 [in the observance of mitzvos], rebuke him, and distance him [from transgression] when he sees [his child] desecrate the Shabbos,even if [the child] acts for his own satisfaction,71 and even when [merely] a Rabbinic prohibition is involved, as stated in sec. 343[:2]. How much more so may [a father] not take [his child] to [the place where the object is located] so that [the child] bring it, even if [the object] does not belong to [the father].72

יז אֵין לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַצֹּרֶךְ וּבִשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק.קיא וְאִם שָׁכַח חֵפֶץ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְהוֹלִיךְ שָׁם תִּינוֹקוֹת, וְהֵם יַגְבִּיהוּ הַחֵפֶץ מֵאֲלֵיהֶם וִיבִיאוּהוּ לַבַּיִת,קיב,66 מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מְחִצּוֹת שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם וִיבִיאֶנּוּ גָּדוֹל.קיג

וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין הַתִּינוֹק יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁחֵפֶץ זֶה הוּא שֶׁל אָבִיו, וְלַהֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּהֲבָאָתוֹ אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁסָּבוּר שֶׁמָּצָא חֵפֶץ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.67 אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁחֵפֶץ זֶה שֶׁל אָבִיו, הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן מִן הַסְּתָם בַּהֲבָאָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל אָבִיו,קיד, 66 וְצָרִיךְ כָּל אָדָם לִמְחוֹת בְּתִינוֹק זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יְבִיאֶנּוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ד,קטו, 68 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיכֶנּוּ שָׁמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּבִיאֶנּוּ (וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הַחֵפֶץ הוּא שֶׁל אַחֵר,קטז וְהַתִּינוֹק יוֹדְעוֹ וּמַכִּירו ֹ69 וִיבִיאֶנּוּ אֵלָיו).

וְכָל זֶה בַּאֲחֵרִים. אֲבָל אָבִיוקיז מְצֻוֶּה לְחַנְּכוֹקיח, 70 וְלִגְעוֹר בּוֹ וּלְהַפְרִישׁוֹ כְּשֶׁרוֹאֵהוּ מְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ לַהֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ,71 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ג,קיט וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיכֶנּוּ שָׁמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּבִיאֶנּוּ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַחֵפֶץ שֶׁלּוֹ:72

18 Whenever there is an enclosure [made up] of partitions but its open portion exceeds its closed portion, it is forbidden [to carry within the confines of the enclosure].73 It is as if the area is entirely open.74 The only exception is when each of these open [portions] is less than three handbreadths wide.75 When, however, the open space is exactly equal to the closed space, it is permitted [to carry within the enclosed area]. ([This applies] whether the dividers are [positioned merely] vertically or [merely] horizontally.)76 For this is a halachah transmitted to Moshe at Sinai, that the majority [of an enclosure] may not be open, but it is not necessary that the majority be closed,77 provided there not be [even] one place that is open more than ten cubits. An opening of ten cubits or less, by contrast, is permitted because it resembles an entrance.

יח כָּל הֶקֵּףקכ מְחִצּוֹת שֶׁהַפָּרוּץ שֶׁבּוֹ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד – אָסוּר,קכא,73 וּכְאִלּוּ כֻּלּוֹ פָּרוּץ,74 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כָּל פִּרְצָה מֵהֶם פְּחוּתָה מִג' טְפָחִים.קכב,75 אֲבָל אִם הַפָּרוּץ כְּעוֹמֵד שָׁוֶה בְּשָׁוֶה – מֻתָּרקכג (בֵּין בִּמְחִצּוֹת שֶׁל שְׁתִיקכד בֵּין בִּמְחִצּוֹת שֶׁל עֵרֶבקכה),76 שֶׁכָּךְ הִיא הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַיקכו – שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה הָרֹב פָּרוּץ, וְלֹא שֶׁיְּהֵא צָרִיךְ הָרֹב עוֹמֵד,קכז,77 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד פָּרוּץ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת. אֲבָל עַד עֶשֶׂר וְעַד בִּכְלָל – מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּפֶתַח:קכח,76

19 If one made a tzuras hapesach, [lit., “the frame of an entrance,”]78 even for an open space larger than ten [cubits], it is permitted [to carry within the enclosure.79 The rationale is that it is as if] there is no open space at all.80

When does the above apply? In a residential courtyard or a lane, [whose residents] enclose [the area] for the purpose of dwelling there, and not merely so that they would be allowed to carry. Therefore, it is effective when their dwellings are enclosed by having a tzuras hapesach on each of [the area’s] four sides.81 By contrast, in a bikah,82 where one makes an enclosure to enable carrying to be permitted, merely enclosing [the area] with a tzuras hapesach on each of its four sides is not effective according to Rabbinic Law.83 If, however, the enclosure was made in a valid manner,84 but it has breaches that are more than ten [cubits wide], a tzuras hapesach is effective in creating [an enclosure] even if the [enclosure’s] open portion exceeds the closed portion.

There are authorities85 who maintain that a tzuras hapesach is not effective in enclosing a breach wider than ten [cubits], even in a courtyard, unless the enclosed portion is greater than the open portion, or [when the tzuras hapesach serves] as the third side of a lane, as explained in sec. 364[:1].86 When, however, the breach is ten [cubits or less], a tzuras hapesach is effective and it is permitted [to carry] even in a bikah87 even if the open [portion] is greater than the enclosed [portion], and even when all four sides are enclosed via a tzuras hapesach and [each tzuras hapesach] is no more than ten [cubits] by ten [cubits]. It is desirable to give weight to their words [and follow this stringency], even though fundamentally, the halachah follows the first view.88

יט אִם עָשָׂה צוּרַת פֶּתַח,78 אֲפִלּוּ לְפִרְצָה יְתֵרָה מֵעֶשֶׂר – מֻתָּר,קכט,79 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין כַּאן פָּרוּץ כְּלָל.קל,80 בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּחָצֵר וּמָבוֹי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם דִּיּוּרִים וּמַקִּיפִים אוֹתָם לְדִירָה וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הֶתֵּר טִלְטוּל בִּלְבָד, לָכֵן מוֹעִיל בָּהֶם כְּשֶׁהֶקֵּף דִּירָתָם הוּא עַל יְדֵי צוּרַת פֶּתַח מִד' רוּחוֹת.קלא,81 אֲבָל בְּבִקְעָה82 שֶׁבָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהּ הֶקֵּף כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ, אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקלב כְּשֶׁכָּל הַד' רוּחוֹת מֻקָּפוֹת עַל יְדֵי צוּרַת פֶּתַח בִּלְבָד.קלג,83 אֲבָל אִם הַהֶקֵּף הוּא כְּתִקּוּנוֹ,84 אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ פְּרָצוֹת יְתֵרוֹת עַל עֶשֶׂר – מוֹעִיל בָּהֶן צוּרַת פֶּתַח, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַפָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד.קלד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלה, 85 שֶׁאֵין צוּרַת פֶּתַח מוֹעִיל לְפִרְצָה יְתֵרָה מֵעֶשֶׂר אֲפִלּוּ בְּחָצֵר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עוֹמֵד מְרֻבֶּה עַל הַפָּרוּץ, אוֹ בְּרוּחַ שְׁלִישִׁית שֶׁל מָבוֹי,קלו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן (שס"ג) [שס"ד].קלז, 86 אֲבָל לְפִרְצַת עֶשֶׂר מוֹעִיל צוּרַת פֶּתַח אֲפִלּוּ פָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד. וַאֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַד' רוּחוֹת הֵן עַל יְדֵי צוּרַת פֶּתַח, וְאֵין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא עֶשֶׂר עַל עֶשֶׂר – מֻתָּר,קלח אֲפִלּוּ בְּבִקְעָה.קלט, 87 וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא רִאשׁוֹנָה:88

20 What constitutes a tzuras hapesach, i.e. “the frame of an entrance”? [Merely placing] a [vertical] reed89 on one side, a [vertical] reed on the other side90 – even if one is distant from91 the other – with a [horizontal] reed [placed] above them. [Moreover, a tzuras hapesach is valid] even if [the reed that serves as the lintel] is not touching [the side-posts, and] even if there are several cubits between [the lintel and the side-posts, see fig. 54,] as long as the reeds on each side are ten handbreadths high and are aligned with the upper reed. In such an instance, they resemble an entrance, i.e., a lintel positioned over doorposts.

If, however, [the side-posts] are not aligned directly under [the upper reed], even if there is the smallest deviation, [see fig. 55, the structure] is invalid, because it does not resemble an entrance. Similarly, if one attached the upper reed to the side-posts – or [just] to one of them – from the side, instead of placing it above them, [the structure] is also invalid.92 [See fig. 56. The rationale is that the structure] does not resemble an entrance, for in that instance, the lintel is placed above the doorposts.

[In an instance where a reed serving as a doorpost was not aligned under the upper reed]93 and one set up another reed aligned under [the upper reed],94 one should nevertheless remove the invalid reed because of the impression that may be created.

When one tied a rope over the reeds, there are authorities who maintain that if [the rope] is wound around the top of the reeds and no portion of the reeds projects beyond the rope, it is acceptable, even though the rope is not placed on the actual top of the reeds, but wound around their sides. It is desirable to be stringent and to tie [the rope] on the actual top of the reeds.95

כ מַהוּ צוּרַת פֶּתַח? קָנֶה89 מִכַּאן וְקָנֶה מִכַּאן,קמ,90 אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד רָחוֹקקמא,91 מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, וְקָנֶה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶםקמב אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם כַּמָּה אַמּוֹת,קמג וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא גֹּבַהּ הַקָּנִים שֶׁמִּכַּאן וּמִכַּאן י' טְפָחִים,קמד וְיִהְיוּ מְכֻוָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד קָנֶה הָעֶלְיוֹן,קמה שֶׁאָז דּוֹמֶה לְפֶתַח, שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקוֹף נִתָּן עַל הַמְּזוּזוֹת.קמו אֲבָל אִם הֵם מְרֻחָקִים מִכְּנֶגְדּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא – פָּסוּל,קמז שֶׁאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְפֶתַח.קמח וְכֵן אִם חִבֵּר קָנֶה עֶלְיוֹן לִשְׁנֵי הַקָּנִיםקמט אוֹ לְאֶחָד מֵהֶםקנ מִן הַצַּד, וְאֵינוֹ נָתוּן עַל גַּבּוֹ מִלְמַעְלָה – שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְפֶתַח, שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקוֹף נִתָּן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמְּזוּזוֹת מִלְמַעְלָהקנא – גַּם כֵּן פָּסוּל.92

וְאִם עָשָׂה גַּם קָנֶה אַחֵר93 מְכֻוָּן תַּחַת הָעֶלְיוֹן,94 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לִשְׁלוֹף קָנֶה הַפָּסוּל מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן.קנב

וְאִם עָשָׂה חֶבֶל עַל הַקָּנִים – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקנג שֶׁאִם הוּא כָּרוּךְ בְּרָאשֵׁי הַקָּנִים מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בּוֹלֵט כְּלוּם מֵהַקָּנִים לְמַעְלָה מֵהַחֶבֶל, כָּשֵׁר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַחֶבֶל נָתוּן עַל גַּבֵּי רָאשֵׁי הַקָּנִים מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא כָּרוּךְ שָׁם עַל צִדֵּיהֶם. וְטוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר לְכָרְכוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי רָאשֵׁי הַקָּנֶה מַמָּשׁ:קנד, 95


Fig. 54: A valid tzuras hapesach, where the string serving as the lintel is positioned far above the side-posts
Fig. 54: A valid tzuras hapesach, where the string serving as the lintel is positioned far above the side-posts

Fig. 55: An invalid tzuras hapesach; the string serving as the lintel is not aligned with the side-posts
Fig. 55: An invalid tzuras hapesach; the string serving as the lintel is not aligned with the side-posts

Fig. 56: An invalid tzuras hapesach; the lintel is attached to the side-posts from the side
Fig. 56: An invalid tzuras hapesach; the lintel is attached to the side-posts from the side

Fig. 57: A tzuras hapesach formed by tying a string to nails on the top of the side-posts
Fig. 57: A tzuras hapesach formed by tying a string to nails on the top of the side-posts

21 The reeds that are on either side [of the tzuras hapesachi]must be strong enough to hold a door of any type, even one made of straw or of reeds.96 By contrast, any object – even a bulrush stalk97 – is valid to serve as the upper reed.

כא הַקָּנִים שֶׁמִּכַּאן וּמִכַּאן צְרִיכִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ חֲזָקִים לְקַבֶּל דֶּלֶת כָּל שֶׁהוּא, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל קַשׁקנה אוֹ שֶׁל קָנִיםקנו.96 אֲבָל קָנֶה הָעֶלְיוֹן דַּי בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁל גֶּמִי:קנז,97

22 When a gateway is rounded, like an arch, [carrying] is permitted if there is a [perpendicular] portion at the base [of its sides] that extends ten handbreadths before the arch begins, as [in an enclosure with a standard] tzuras hapesach.98

כב שַׁעַר הֶעָשׂוּי בְּעִגּוּל כְּכִפָּה, אִם יֵשׁ גֹּבַהּ י' טְפָחִים בְּרַגְלָיו, דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לְהִתְעַגֵּל – מַתִּיר מִשּׁוּם צוּרַת פֶּתַח:קנח,98