SECTION 360 The Laws [Governing the Construction of] Barriers [to Enable Carrying] on Shabbos (1-8)

סימן שס דִּין הֶקֵּף מְחִצּוֹת לְשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ח' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply when] one person spends Shabbos in an open area:1 If, [on Friday,] he surrounded [the place where he will spend Shabbos] with inferior barriers, e.g., [poles] that run vertically but [are not connected] horizontally or bars that run horizontally but [are not connected] vertically, as will be explained in sec. 362[:10, these barriers] are effective in having the [enclosed area] deemed a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law, even if [the enclosed area] is several mil in size. Thus, one who throws an object into it from the public domain is liable. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, [such barriers] are not effective in causing carrying to be permitted within [this area], or from it to [an area that is classified as] a private domain in a complete sense unless [this area] is smaller than beis sasayim.2 [If the enclosure is smaller than beis sasayim, carrying within it] is permitted even in a populated area,3 and even when it was possible for the person to erect complete walls. If, however, the [enclosed area] is larger than beis sasayim, one may only carry four cubits in it, as in a karmelis.

If, however, one enclosed the open area with complete walls, it is permitted to carry within [the enclosure] even if it is larger than beis sasayim. [Such an enclosed area] is not comparable to a karpeif that was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation [where carrying is prohibited], because [this area] was enclosed [expressly] to dwell in it on Shabbos.

א יָחִיד שֶׁשָּׁבַת בְּבִקְעָה,א,1 וְהִקִּיף מְחִצּוֹת גְּרוּעוֹתב כְּגוֹן שְׁתִי בְּלֹא עֵרֶב אוֹ עֵרֶב בְּלֹא שְׁתִי, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"בג שֶׁהֵן מוֹעִילוֹת לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּמָּה מִילִין, וְהַזּוֹרֵק לְתוֹכוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חַיָּב – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין מוֹעִילוֹת לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל בְּתוֹכָן וּמִתּוֹכָן לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין בְּתוֹכָן רַק בֵּית סָאתַיִם,ד,2 וְאָז מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה כֵּן בְּיִשּׁוּב,ה,3 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצּוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת.ו אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בְּתוֹכָן יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בְּתוֹכָן אֶלָּא בְּד' אַמּוֹת כְּמוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית. אֲבָל הַמַּקִּיף בִּמְחִצּוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת, מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכָן אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בְּתוֹכָן יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם,ז וְאֵינָן כְּקַרְפֵּף שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִקִּיפָן לָדוּר בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת:ח

2 When, by contrast, a convoy4 camped in an open area and enclosed it with inferior barriers, it is permitted to carry in the entire enclosed area,5 even if [the enclosed area] is very large. [The rationale is that] since there are many people [in the convoy, our Sages] permitted them to carry wherever they need to. “Many people” is defined as no less than three.6

[The above leniency is granted] provided they do not enclose an area larger than what is necessary for their needs.7 [That is defined as an area] having less than beis sasayim of empty space, [i.e., space] not necessary for the use of their articles8 and animals. If, however, [an area] beis sasayim is left empty, it is only permitted to carry four cubits in the entire enclosure. [The rationale is that the enclosure] is entirely open to a place in which it is forbidden [to carry], i.e., the [area] beis sasayim in size that is empty.

When does the above apply? When [the members of the convoy] enclosed an area larger than that in which six seah [of grain] can be sown.9 If, however, [the members of the convoy] did not enclose an area larger than that in which six [seah of grain] can be sown, even though beis sasayim is left empty – i.e., they only needed an area large enough for four seah [of grain to be sown – carrying] is permitted. [The rationale is that] they are three people and each of them is granted beis sasayim. There are other authorities who differ [and rule stringently]. With regard to actual practice, [since the matter concerns] Rabbinic Law, the more lenient ruling should be followed.

ב אֲבָל שַׁיָּרָאט,4 שֶׁחָנְתָה בְּבִקְעָה וְהִקִּיפוּהָ מְחִצּוֹת גְּרוּעוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא הֶקֵּף גָּדוֹל מְאֹד – מְטַלְטְלִים בְּכֻלּוֹ,1 שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֵם רַבִּים הִתִּירוּ לָהֶםי לְטַלְטֵל כָּל צָרְכָּם. וְאֵין רַבִּים פְּחוּתִים מִשָּׁלֹשׁ.יא,5 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַקִּיפוּ יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי מִכְּדֵי צָרְכָּם,7 שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר בֵּית סָאתַיִם פָּנוּייב שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לָהֶם לְתַשְׁמִישׁ כְּלֵיהֶםיג,8 וּבְהֶמְתָּם.יד אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁאַר בֵּית סָאתַיִם פָּנוּי – אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בְּכָל הַמֻּקָּףטו אֶלָּא בד' אַמּוֹת,8 שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לְמָקוֹם הָאָסוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ לְבֵית סָאתַיִם הַפָּנוּי.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהִקִּיפוּ יוֹתֵר עַל שֵׁשׁ סְאִין.9 אֲבָל אִם לֹא הִקִּיפוּ יָתֵר עַל שֵׁשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בֵּית סָאתַיִם לָהֶם פָּנוּי, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לָהֶם אֶלָּא ד' סְאִין – מֻתָּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם שְׁלֹשָׁה וּלְכָל אֶחָד יֵשׁ לוֹ סָאתַיִם.טז וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין.יז וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל:יח

3 When, by contrast, two people camp in an open area, they are governed by the same laws as one person. The two together are granted only beis sasayim [in which they may carry], even though they [may] require a larger area.

If [the two Jews] are accompanied by a non-Jew, [the non-Jew’s] presence does not cause it to be considered as if they are a convoy [of three or more travelers].10 There are authorities who maintain that the same ruling applies [if the two Jews are accompanied by] a minor.

ג אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁחָנוּ בְּבִקְעָה – דִּינָם כְּיָחִיד,יט,7 וְאֵין לִשְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד אֶלָּא בֵּית סָאתַיִם בִּלְבָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִים לְיוֹתֵר.כ

וְאִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶם נָכְרִי, אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם לִהְיוֹת שַׁיָּרָא.כא,10 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכב שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין לְקָטָן:10

4 When there were three [travelers], they enclosed an area for all their needs that encompassed more than beis sasayim, and one [traveler] died on Shabbos, the [remaining two] are permitted [to carry in the entire enclosure] throughout that entire Shabbos. [The rationale is that] inasmuch as they were permitted to do so when Shabbos entered, the license remains [valid the entire Shabbos].11

If there were two [travelers] who enclosed an area larger than beis sasayim, and other [travelers] joined them on Shabbos, [the two original travelers and their guests] are forbidden [to carry more than four cubits in that enclosure during that Shabbos], since they were forbidden to do so at the onset of Shabbos. The [status of the enclosure at the onset of] Shabbos determines [the ruling for the entire Shabbos].

ד הָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה, וְהִקִּיפוּ כָּל צָרְכָּם יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, וּמֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּרִים כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ,כג,8 כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה שַׁבָּת בְּהֶתֵּר,כד וְהוֹאִיל וְהֻתְּרָה – הֻתְּרָה.כה,11

הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם, וְהִקִּיפוּהָ יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, וְנִתּוֹסְפוּ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת – אֲסוּרִים,כו,8 כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה שַׁבָּת בְּאִסּוּר,כז שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת גּוֹרֶמֶת:

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5 [The following laws apply when] three [travelers] made separate enclosures next to each other, [intending] to dwell in [the enclosures] on Shabbos, and established an eruv12 among themselves:13 If the outer [enclosures] are wide and the middle enclosure is narrow, the middle enclosure will be entirely open to the outer enclosures.14 The outer [enclosures, by contrast], will not be open entirely to the middle enclosure.15 Instead, [the outer enclosures See fig. 48.] have protrusions that extend outward on either side. [Accordingly,] the [residents of the] outer enclosures “rule” over [the person in] the middle one. It is considered as if [the residents of the outer enclosures] dwell in [the middle enclosure] as well. Hence, the three [enclosures] are [grouped] together. [The rationale is that] there is no divider separating between [the resident of the middle enclosure] and [those in the outer enclosures], for his [i.e., the middle] enclosure is entirely open to theirs. Thus, it is as if [the person in the middle enclosure] is located in a corner of the [two outer enclosures], for he does not have a distinct domain. Therefore, they are [all] permitted to carry in the middle [enclosure], even if it is very large,16 since it is [as if] a convoy [camped] there.17 [Moreover,] it is even permitted [for all the travelers] to carry in the outer [enclosures], for [the outer enclosures] are considered as courtyards for the middle [enclosure], which is considered a dwelling for [the people in the outer enclosures], since they became a convoy within [the middle enclosure].

There are authorities who maintain that [carrying in] the outer [enclosures] is permitted only when they are less than beis sasayim in size, since [the outer enclosures] are not a single domain with each other because of the protrusions that separate between them. [Therefore,] if one of [the residents of the outer enclosures] enclosed an area larger than beis sasayim, even [the resident of] the middle [enclosure] is forbidden [to carry in his enclosure], because [that area] is entirely open to a place [where it is] forbidden [to carry]. However, [the resident of] the other outer area that is only beis sasayim or less [in size] is permitted [to carry in his enclosure]. With regard to actual practice, [since the matter concerns] Rabbinic Law, the more lenient ruling should be followed.

ה הָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה, וְהִקִּיפוּ כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ זֶה בְּצַד זֶה לָדוּר בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,כח וְעֵרְבוּ12 יַחַד,כט,13 אִם הַחִיצוֹנִים רְחָבִים וְהָאֶמְצָעִי קָצָר, שֶׁנִּמְצָא הָאֶמְצָעִי פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לְהַחִיצוֹנִים,14 וְהַחִיצוֹנִים אֵינָם פְּרוּצִים בְּמִלּוּאָם לָאֶמְצָעִי15 אֶלָּא יֵשׁ לָהֶם גִּפּוּפִים עוֹדְפִים עָלָיו מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן – הֲרֵי דִּיּוּרֵי הַחִיצוֹנִים מוֹשְׁלִים בָּאֶמְצָעִי,ל דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ הֵם גַּם כֵּן דָּרִים בְּתוֹכוֹ, וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּיַחַד, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מְחִצָּה לַחֲצוֹץ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּפְרַץ לָהֶם בְּמִלּוּאוֹ, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּקֶרֶן זָוִיּוֹת לָהֶם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ. וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בָּאֶמְצָעִי אֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָדוֹל הַרְבֵּה,16 כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בּוֹ שַׁיָּרָא.17 וְאַף בַּחִיצוֹנִים מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל,לא לְפִי שֶׁהֵם נֶחְשָׁבִים כְּחָצֵר לְהָאֶמְצָעִי,לב שֶׁהוּא בֵּית דִּירָה לָהֶם, שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בּוֹ שַׁיָּרָא.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלג שֶׁהַחִיצוֹנִים אֵינָם מֻתָּרִים אֶלָּא עַד סָאתַיִם, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם אֵינָם רְשׁוּת אַחַת זֶה עִם זֶה, מִפְּנֵי גִּפּוּפֵיהֶם הַמַּפְסִיקִין בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְאִם הֶקֵּף אֶחָד מֵהֶם יוֹתֵר מִסָּאתַיִם, גַּם הָאֶמְצָעִי אָסוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לְמָקוֹם הָאָסוּר.לד אֲבָל הַחִיצוֹן הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא סָאתַיִם, מֻתָּר.לה וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל:


Fig. 48: A narrow enclosure whose projections jut into wider enclosures on either side. a) The outer enclosures; b) The middle enclosures; c) The portions of the wall of the middle enclosure that extend into the outer enclosure; d) The portions of the wall of the outer enclosures that extend on either side of the middle enclosure
Fig. 48: A narrow enclosure whose projections jut into wider enclosures on either side. a) The outer enclosures; b) The middle enclosures; c) The portions of the wall of the middle enclosure that extend into the outer enclosure; d) The portions of the wall of the outer enclosures that extend on either side of the middle enclosure

6 [In the above situation, different laws apply] if the middle [enclosure] is wider than the outer ones, in which instance, the outer [enclosures] are entirely open to the middle one and the middle [enclosure] has protrusions extending beyond [the outer enclosures] on either side. If there is one person dwelling in each of [the enclosures], each person is granted only beis sasayim. [It can]not [be said that] the residents of the outer [enclosures] are located in the middle one, since [the middle enclosure] is not open to [the outer ones] in its entirety. Instead, the middle enclosure is considered part of both of [the outer enclosures], since [the outer enclosures] are entirely open to [the middle enclosure]. Thus, there are only two residents in each of the outer [enclosures] – i.e., the resident of the outer [enclosure] and the resident of the middle one, since [the two residents of] the outer [enclosures] are not joined with each other, because the protrusions of the middle [enclosure] separate between them.18 If one of the outer [enclosures] is larger than beis sasayim, only [the resident of that enclosure] is forbidden [to carry. The resident of] the middle [enclosure] is not forbidden, because his [enclosure] has protrusions that set it off. Needless to say, [the resident of] the other outer [enclosure is also permitted].

[The leniencies in the above rulings apply] provided the opening between the middle [enclosure] and the outer ones is not larger than ten cubits, because an opening of that [size] causes a prohibition, as will be explained in sec. 362[:18].19

If, however, the middle [enclosure] is larger than beis sasayim,20 even [the residents of] the outer [enclosures] are forbidden [to carry], because [their enclosures] are entirely open to [the middle enclosure].

[Different laws apply,] however, if there is [only] one person in each of the outer [enclosures] and two people [are present] in the middle one, or two [people are present] in each of the outer [enclosures] and one [person is present] in the middle [enclosure]. The [residents of] the two outer enclosures are granted [the license to carry] for all their needs. [The rationale is that] it is considered as if the resident(s) of the middle [enclosure] are present in both of [the outer enclosures] and thus, [it is as if] there are three people together in each [enclosure. Hence,] even [the residents of] the middle [enclosure] are permitted [to carry] for all their needs, because [that enclosure] is considered as a courtyard for the outer [enclosures] according to the first opinion explained [above].21

ו וְאִם הָאֶמְצָעִי רָחָב מֵהַחִיצוֹנִים,13 שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ הַחִיצוֹנִים פְּרוּצִים בְּמִלּוּאָם לָאֶמְצָעִי,14 וְהָאֶמְצָעִי יֵשׁ לוֹ גִּפּוּפִים עוֹדְפִים עֲלֵיהֶם מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן – אִם יָחִיד בְּזֶה וְיָחִיד בְּזֶה וְיָחִיד בְּזֶה, אֵין נוֹתְנִין לְכָל אֶחָד אֶלָּא בֵּית סָאתַיִם, שֶׁהֲרֵי דִּיּוּרֵי הַחִיצוֹנִים אֵינָם בָּאֶמְצָעִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ, אֶלָּא הָאֶמְצָעִי הוּא בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם, שֶׁהֵם פְּרוּצִים לוֹ בְּמִלּוּאָם, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם – הוּא וְהָאֶמְצָעִי, שֶׁהַחִיצוֹנִים אֵינָם מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה מִפְּנֵי גִפּוּפֵי הָאֶמְצָעִי הַמַּפְסִיקִין בֵּינֵיהֶם.לו,18 וְאִם אֶחָד מֵהַחִיצוֹנִים יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם – הוּא לְבַדּוֹ אָסוּר, וְהָאֶמְצָעִי אֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ גִּפּוּפִין הַמַּפְסִיקִין,לז וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַחִיצוֹן הַשֵּׁנִי.

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא הַפִּרְצָה שֶׁבֵּין אֶמְצָעִי לַחִיצוֹנִים יְתֵרָה מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, שֶׁהִיא פִּרְצָה אוֹסֶרֶת,לח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ב.לט,19

אֲבָל אִם הָאֶמְצָעִי יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם20 – גַּם הַחִיצוֹנִים אֲסוּרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם פְּרוּצִים לוֹ בְּמִלּוּאָם.מ

אֲבָל אִם יָחִיד בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהַחִיצוֹנִים וּשְׁנַיִם בָּאֶמְצָעִי, אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהַחִיצוֹנִים וְיָחִיד בָּאֶמְצָעִי – נוֹתְנִים לִשְׁנַיִם הַחִיצוֹנִים כָּל צָרְכָּן, שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ דִּיּוּרֵי הָאֶמְצָעִי הֵם בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם, וַהֲרֵי הֵם שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּיַחַד בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם.מא,13 וְגַם בָּאֶמְצָעִי מֻתָּרִים כָּל צָרְכָּן, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נֶחְשָׁב כְּחָצֵר לַחִיצוֹנִיםמב לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:מג,21

7 All the above applies when the two walls of the length of the narrow enclosure, which is entirely open [to the adjacent enclosure], jut out and enter into the inner space of the wide [enclosure. See fig. 48.] If not, it is not [considered as if the enclosures are] entirely open, for [a side of] an enclosure, a courtyard, or a house, is not considered as entirely open unless the entire wall of the width [of that area] ceases to exist.

[Different rules apply] if, by contrast, the wall [along] the width of the [wider enclosed area] is longer than the empty space [of the narrow area], extending [at least] a handbreadth further on both sides.22 [If one side of the wider area] was breached to the [full] measure of [the narrow area’s] inner space and the handbreadth-long strips [that extend] on either side remain – even if those strips do not enter into the inner space between the walls [along] the length [of the area], but rather are present only on the outside – this is not considered as open entirely. [See fig. 49. The rationale is that] there remain small protrusions from the breached wall [on either of its sides]. Even though these protrusions are not visible to a person inside the enclosure, courtyard, or house which has an entirely open [side], since they would be visible to a person standing outside [of the narrow enclosure, i.e., a person standing within the wider enclosure], they are considered as strips [that remain on the sides of] the open portion, just as a lechi23is valid for a lane [even when] it is visible only from outside the [area] and not from inside the [area], as will be explained in sec. 363[:11]. Accordingly, in this instance as well, one standing outside the narrow enclosure – i.e., within the wider enclosure – will see these wider strips that extend on either side of the open portion as the remnants and protrusions of the wall [that would have enclosed] the width of the narrow portion. [Thus, it is as if] only [the wall’s] middle portion is breached.24

In contrast, when the walls [along] the length of the narrow [enclosure] jut out and enter into the inner space of the wider [enclosure], it is obvious that the protrusions [on the side] are not part of the wall [that would have enclosed] the width of the narrow [enclosure].25 [The above applies] provided the ends of the walls that jut out [into the middle enclosure] are separated from the wall [along] the length of the wider enclosure next to them by [at least] three handbreadths, i.e., the protrusions [extending on either side of the breached wall] are each [at least] three handbreadths long. If, however, [the ends of the walls of the narrow enclosure] are not three handbreadths distant [from the wall of the wider enclosure], they are considered as attached and part of the wall [along] the length of the wider [enclosure], and the space between them is deemed as closed.26 Thus, there are protrusions for the narrow enclosure, i.e., from the ends of the walls [along] its length [that reach] until the walls [along] the length of the wider portion, for [these walls] are less than three handbreadths [apart] on either side. [As a result, the wall of the narrow enclosure] is not entirely open.

ז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁשְּׁנֵי כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַקַּרְפֵּף הַקָּצָר הַפָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ הֵם בּוֹלְטִים וְנִכְנָסִים לְתוֹךְ חָלָל הָרָחָב,מד שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אֵין זוֹ פִּרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִקְרֵאת פִּרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִפְרַץ כָּל כֹּתֶל רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל קַרְפֵּף אוֹ חָצֵר אוֹ בַּיִת, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כֹּתֶל הָרֹחַב אָרֹךְ מֵחֲלַל הָרֹחַב וּבוֹלֵט טֶפַח לְכַאן וְטֶפַח לְכַאן,22 וְנִפְרַץ כְּמִדַּת הֶחָלָל, וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ הַפַּס טֶפַח שֶׁמִּכַּאן וּפַס טֶפַח שֶׁמִּכַּאן,מה אַף שֶׁאֵין הַפַּסִּין בּוֹלְטִין לְצַד הַפְּנִים לְתוֹךְ הֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּין כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ אֶלָּא לְצַד חוּץ – אֵין זוֹ פִּרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, הוֹאִיל וְנִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ גִּפּוּפִים קְטַנִּים מֵהַכֹּתֶל הַנִּפְרָץ. וְאַף שֶׁגִּפּוּפִים אֵלּוּ אֵינָן נִרְאִין לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד בִּפְנִים בְּתוֹךְ הַקַּרְפֵּף אוֹ הֶחָצֵר אוֹ הַבַּיִת הַנִּפְרָץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם נִרְאִים לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ – נִדּוֹנִין מִשּׁוּם פַּסִּין לַפִּרְצָה,מו כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַלֶּחִי23 הַנִּרְאֶה מִבַּחוּץ וְלֹא מִבִּפְנִים נִדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם לֶחִי לְמָבוֹי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג.מז וְאִם כֵּן גַּם כֵּן כַּאן הֲרֵי הָעוֹמֵד חוּץ לַקַּרְפֵּף הַקָּצָר, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּתוֹךְ קַרְפֵּף הָרָחָב, נִרְאִין לוֹ אֵלּוּ גִּפּוּפִים הָרְחָבִים הָעוֹדְפִים מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן לַפִּרְצָה כְּאִלּוּ הֵם שִׁיּוּרִין וְגִפּוּפִין מִכֹּתֶל הָרֹחַב שֶׁל הַקָּצָר, וְלֹא נִפְרַץ אֶלָּא בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ בִּלְבָד.מח,24

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁכָּתְלֵי אָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּצָר בּוֹלְטִים וְנִכְנָסִים לְתוֹךְ הֶחָלָל הָרָחָב,מט אֲזַי נִכָּר וְנִרְאֶה שֶׁהַגִּפּוּפִים הַלָּלוּ אֵינָם מִכֹּתֶל רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּצָר.נ,25 וְהוּא שֶׁרָאשֵׁי כְּתָלִים אֵלּוּ הַבּוֹלְטִים שָׁמָּה הֵם מֻפְלָגִים שָׁם ג' טְפָחִים24 בְּרֹחַב מִן כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ קַרְפֵּף הָרָחָב שֶׁבְּצִדָּם,נא כְּגוֹן שֶׁגִּפּוּפִים אֵלּוּ יֵשׁ בְּאֹרֶךְ כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם ג' טְפָחִים. אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם מֻפְלָגִים מֵהֶם ג' טְפָחִים, הֲרֵי הֵם כִּלְבָדִים וּסְנִיפִים שָׁם לְצַד כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הָרָחָב, וְהָאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם הוּא כְּסָתוּם.26 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם גִּפּוּפִים לְקַרְפֵּף הַקָּצָר, דְּהַיְנוּ מֵרָאשֵׁי כָּתְלֵי אָרְכּוֹ עַד כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הָרָחָב, שֶׁהֵם פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים מִכַּאן וּפָחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים מִכַּאן, וְאֵין כַּאן פִּרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ:נב


Fig. 49: A narrow enclosure with wider enclosures on either side. a) The outer enclosures; b) The middle enclosures; c) The portions of the wall of the outer enclosures that extend on either side of the middle enclosure
Fig. 49: A narrow enclosure with wider enclosures on either side. a) The outer enclosures; b) The middle enclosures; c) The portions of the wall of the outer enclosures that extend on either side of the middle enclosure

8 Whenever a wall is not open in its entirety, each [of the enclosures] is considered as a domain in its own right. [Hence, the residents of] each [enclosure are allowed to carry] only in [an area that is no larger than] beis sasayim. If one of [the enclosures] is larger than beis sasayim, it is only forbidden [to carry in that enclosure]. It is, [however,] permitted [to carry in] the other [enclosures], because [the other enclosures] are not entirely open to each other and there is no opening larger than ten [cubits].27

ח וְכָל שֶׁאֵין שָׁם פִּרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, הֲרֵי כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמָן, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִים לָהֶם בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶלָּא בֵּית סָאתַיִם.נג וְאִם יֵשׁ בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם – הוּא לְבַדּוֹ אָסוּר וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָם פְּרוּצִים זֶה לְזֶה בְּמִלּוּאָם, וְאֵין בְּפִרְצָה יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר:נד,27