SECTION 357 The Laws That Apply to a Courtyard That Is Less than Four Cubits [by Four Cubits] and to a Gutter (1-8)

סימן שנז דִּינֵי חָצֵר פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּבִיב וּבוֹ ח' סְעִיפִים:

1 When a courtyard [that measures] less than four cubits by four cubits is located next to a public domain,1 water should not be poured into [the courtyard] on Shabbos [from one’s home]2during the summer.3 [The rationale is that] since [the total area of the courtyard] is less than four cubits [by four cubits], the two seah4 of water that a person normally uses daily will not be absorbed5 in [the courtyard and it will subsequently flow into the public domain]. Hence, it is as if [the person] poured the water [directly] into the public domain.6

True, there is no Scriptural prohibition against pouring the water [into] a courtyard [when it will then flow into the public domain on its own] (as long as [the water] is not poured directly close to the public domain, but rather slightly distant from it in a manner that [the water] will flow into the public domain as a matter of course and not as a result of the force of the person pouring it. Instead, [the person’s] pouring will merely serve as the [initial] cause.) Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden by Rabbinic Law (in all cases). [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one pour [water] directly into the public domain (or pour it in [a portion of] the courtyard [that is] right next to the public domain).

Therefore, [for one to be permitted to pour his water into such a courtyard,] it is necessary [for him] to make a cavity whose hollow can contain two seah,7so that the water he uses [on Shabbos] could be contained in it. Thus, [when the person pours water into the courtyard], it will not be as if he is pouring it into the public domain.

[License is granted] whether [the person] makes [the cavity] in the courtyard or in the public domain in immediate proximity to the courtyard. If, however, [one] makes [a hole] outside [the courtyard], he must cover it with boards. [The rationale is that] if [the hole] remains open, there are times when mire or mud will [collect] in it and [thus] it will not be ten [handbreadths] deep. [Hence, the hole] will be deemed a karmelis.8 When, however, [the area] is covered and opens to a private domain,9 it is considered as a hole [directly] off a private domain, which is also deemed a private domain.10

א חָצֵר שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִד' אַמּוֹתא עַל ד' אַמּוֹתב וּסְמוּכָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,ג,1 אֵין שׁוֹפְכִין לְתוֹכָהּ מַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת2 בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה,ד,3 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ ד' אַמּוֹת, אֵין סָאתַיִם4 מַיִם שֶׁאָדָם רָגִיל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל יוֹםה רְאוּיִים לִבָּלַע בָּהּ,ו,5 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹפְכָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.6

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּשְׁפִיכָה זוֹ שֶׁמֵּחָצֵר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה (אִם אֵינוֹ שׁוֹפְכָן סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַמָּשׁ אֶלָּא בְּרָחוֹק מְעַט, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיְּצִיאָתָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הִיא מֵאֲלֵיהֶן,ז וְאֵינֶנָּה כֹּחַ שְׁפִיכָתוֹ מַמָּשׁ אֶלָּא כֹּחוֹ הוּא גוֹרֵם בִּלְבָדח), וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר (בְּכָל עִנְיָן), גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםט (אוֹ בְּחָצֵר סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים) מַמָּשׁ.

לְכָךְ צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת גּוּמָא שֶׁתְּהֵא חֲלָלָהּ מַחֲזֶקֶת סָאתַיִם,י,7 שֶׁיּוּכְלוּיא מִי תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ לֵירֵד לְתוֹכָהּ, וְלֹא יִהְיֶה כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹפְכָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – בֵּין אִם יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בֶּחָצֵר בֵּין אִם יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים סָמוּךְ לֶחָצֵר מַמָּשׁ.יב,7 אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בַּחוּץ, צָרִיךְ לְכַסּוֹת בִּנְסָרִים,יג שֶׁאִם תְּהֵא מְגֻלָּה – פְּעָמִים שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רֶפֶשׁ וְטִיט בְּתוֹכָהּ וְלֹא תְהֵא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה, וְתִהְיֶה כַּרְמְלִית.8 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִיא מְכֻסָּה וּפִיהָ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,יד,9 הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁהֵם כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.טו,10

2 Once one makes a cavity [that can contain] two seah, he is permitted to pour as much [water] as he desires into it and/or [into] the courtyard,11 even a kor12 or two kor.13 [This leniency applies] even if the cavity was [already] full on Friday.14 [The rationale is that] since the Sages ordained that [a specific act15 be performed to ensure] the person [remembers] the Shabbos so that he will not forget and pour [the water directly] into the public domain, there is no reason for concern if [after the person adhered to their instructions, the water] flows into the public domain as a matter of course.16

([The person] should, however, take care not to pour the water out into [a place in the courtyard that is] in direct proximity to the public domain and distant from the cavity in a manner that the flow [of the water] into the public domain actually comes about directly as a result of the power of his pouring.17 This would constitute a Scriptural prohibition, like one who rolls an object from a private domain to a public domain.)

If, however, [the cavity] is not [capable of] containing two seah, [the person] may not pour even a small amount into it. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one pour a large amount [of water] into [the cavity, i.e.,] more than it can contain.18

ב וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה גוּמָא סָאתַיִם, מֻתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהּ וּבֶחָצֵרטז כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶהיז,11 – אֲפִלּוּ כּוֹר12 וַאֲפִלּוּ כּוֹרַיִם,יח,13 וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְמַלְּאָה הַגּוּמָא מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,יט,14 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים זֵכֶר לְשַׁבָּת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִשְׁפְּכֵם בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ, שׁוּב אֵין לָחוּשׁכ אִם הֵם יוֹצְאִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםכא,16 (רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁפְּכֵם סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַמָּשׁכב שֶׁלֹּא אֵצֶל הַגּוּמָא, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיְּצִיאָתָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הִיא כֹּחַ שְׁפִיכָתוֹ מַמָּשׁ,17 שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּזֶה אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ בִּמְגַלְגֵּל חֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםכג). אֲבָל אִם אֵינָהּ מַחֲזֶקֶת סָאתַיִם, לֹא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט,כד גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהִיא מַחֲזֶקֶת:כה,18

3 All of the above applies during the summer, when a person is careful that his courtyard [not become] soiled and he desires that the water flow out of it. Thus, when [the water] flows out, his intent is fulfilled. Hence, there is reason [to institute] a decree lest he pour [water] out [into the public domain]. In the rainy season, by contrast, when a person is not bothered by his courtyard [becoming] soiled19 and he does not [necessarily] intend for the water to flow out of it, there is no concern [that he will pour water out into the public domain. The person] may, [therefore,] pour as much water as he desires [into his courtyard] even if [his courtyard] is very small. ([This license is granted] even if [the person] pours [the water] in direct proximity to the public domain, as long as it is not inevitable20 that [the water] will immediately flow into the public domain as a direct result of his pouring.)

ג וְכָל זֶה בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, שֶׁאָדָם מַקְפִּיד עַל לִכְלוּךְ חֲצֵרוֹ וְחָפֵץ הוּא שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ הַמַּיִם מִמֶּנָּה לַחוּץ,כו וּכְשֶׁהֵם יוֹצְאִים הֲרֵי נִתְקַיְּמָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ, וְיֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁפְּכֵם בְּעַצְמוֹ הַחוּצָה.כז,18 אֲבָל בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְפִּיד עַל לִכְלוּךְ חֲצֵרוֹכח,19 וְאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ הַמַּיִם מִמֶּנָּה לַחוּץכט, אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְכָךְ, וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהּ כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶהל,18 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא קְטַנָּה מְאֹד (וַאֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹפְכָן סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַמָּשׁ, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"20 שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִיָּד מִכֹּחַ שְׁפִיכָתוֹ מַמָּשׁלא):

4 [One might ask:] Why are we not concerned with the impression that might be created, i.e., that one who sees water flowing out of the drains in the earth of [a person’s] courtyard on Shabbos will say that [the person] poured [the water] into the public domain (or in his courtyard in direct proximity to where [the water] will flow out to the public domain with the intent that it flow out to the public domain)? [The rationale is that] in the rainy season, the drains [naturally] gush with rain water and an observer will say that [the water gushing forth] is from [the] rain. Even when it is not raining [at that moment], one will say that [the water] is from the collection of past rains that are now flowing out.

ד וְלָמָּה אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן, שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה שֶׁהַצִּנּוֹר שֶׁבְּקַרְקָעוּת חֲצֵרוֹ מְקַלֵּחַ מַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת יֹאמַר שֶׁהוּא עַצְמוֹ שְׁפָכָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםלב (אוֹ בֶּחָצֵר סָמוּךְ מַמָּשׁ לִיצִיאָתָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים)? לְפִי שֶׁבִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים סְתָם צִנּוֹרוֹת מְקַלְּחִים הֵם מֵי גְשָׁמִים,לג וְיֹאמַר הָרוֹאֶה שֶׁמֵּי גְשָׁמִים הֵם.לד,18 וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַגֶּשֶׁם, יֹאמְרוּ מֵי גְשָׁמִים הֵם שֶׁמִּתְמַצִּים וְהוֹלְכִים מִן הַגְּשָׁמִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ:לה

5 If the area of the courtyard is [equal to] four [cubits] by four [cubits] – even if it is not square, but rather, long and narrow, e.g., eight cubits by two [cubits] – it is permitted to pour as much [water] as one desires into [the courtyard],21 even in the summer. [The rationale is that there is no reason] to impose a restrictive decree [against pouring] into this courtyard the two seah that a person is accustomed to use each day, because [this quantity of water] is fit to be absorbed in [the courtyard itself]. If so, when [one] pours [water] there, he is not pouring it with the intent that it flow outside [to the public domain]. Even if it comes to pass that [the water] does flow out [of the courtyard to the public domain], that was not his intent, and his intent was not fulfilled if [the water] flowed out [of the courtyard to the public domain. There is also no reason] to impose a restrictive decree lest [one intentionally] pour [the water] out to the public domain.

Therefore, even if [one] wishes to [pour] more than two seah [of water] into [the courtyard, the Sages] did not impose a restrictive decree, because this is an uncommon situation. Similarly, even if [the courtyard] was filled with water on Friday, since this is also an uncommon situation, [the Sages] did not desire to impose a restrictive decree for this reason alone, because there would be no reason to impose a decree [in an ordinary situation, i.e.,] with regard to the two seah [of water] that would [normally] be absorbed within [the courtyard]. (Nevertheless, one must be careful not to pour [the water] in immediate proximity to the public domain, as explained.)22

ה וְאִם יֵשׁ בֶּחָצֵר ד' עַל ד', אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ מְרֻבַּעַת אֶלָּא אֲרֻכָּה וּקְצָרָה,לו,18 כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָרְכָּהּ שְׁמֹנֶה אַמּוֹת וְרָחְבָּהּ ב'לז – מֻתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהּ כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶהלח,21 אֲפִלּוּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַסָּאתַיִם שֶׁאָדָם רָגִיל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל יוֹם אֵין לִגְזוֹר בָּהֶם בְּחָצֵר זוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאוּיִים לִבָּלַע בָּהּ,לט וְאִם כֵּן כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפְכָן אֵינוֹ שׁוֹפְכָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ לַחוּץ. וְאַף אִם אֵרַע שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין, אֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְכָךְ, וְלֹא נִתְקַיְּמָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ בִּיצִיאָה זוֹ,מ וְאֵין לִגְזוֹר בָּהּ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁפְּכֵם הוּא עַצְמוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.21 לְפִיכָךְ אַף אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ יוֹתֵר מִסָּאתַיִם – לֹא גָזְרוּ, שֶׁדָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי הוּא.מא וְכֵן אַף אִם הִיא מְלֵאָה מַיִם מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,מב שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי, וְלֹא רָצוּ לִגְזוֹר בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה בִּלְבָד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּסָאתַיִם שֶׁרְגִילִים לְהִבָּלַע בָּהּ אֵין לִגְזוֹר בָּהֶם (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁפּוֹךְ סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַמָּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרמג):

6 [When there is] a courtyard and an exedra23 where neither one alone [has an area of] four cubits [by four cubits], but together [they reach that size], they are considered as a combined entity of four cubits [by four cubits] with regard to the license of pouring out [water] there.24 The same law applies to two balconies in front of two lofts, [when the balconies have] a large ceiling on them in which the water could be absorbed. [Although] neither one of [the balconies] alone [has an area of] four cubits [by four cubits], they are considered as a combined entity and as one balcony, provided that they are within four handbreadths of each other, and thus it is easy for [a person on] one [balcony] to make use of the other.

ו וְחָצֵר וְאַכְסַדְרָה23 שֶׁאֵין בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן לְבַדָּהּ ד' אַמּוֹת, אֶלָּא בְּהִצְטָרְפוּת שְׁתֵּיהֶן – הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת לְד' אַמּוֹת לְהַתִּיר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהֶן.מד,24 וְהוּא הַדִּין שְׁתֵּי דְּיוּטָאוֹת שֶׁלִּפְנֵי ב' עֲלִיּוֹת וַעֲלֵיהֶן מַעֲזִיבָהמה רַבָּהמו שֶׁרְאוּיִים הַמַּיִם לִבָּלַע בָּהּ, וְאֵין בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן לְבַדָּהּ ד' אַמּוֹת – מִצְטָרְפוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ אִם הֵן סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ בְּתוֹךְ ד' טְפָחִים, שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישָׁן נוֹחַ מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ וַהֲרֵי הֵן כִּדְיוּטָא אַחַת:מז

7 All the above applies to a courtyard next to the public domain. If, however, [the courtyard] is [located] next to a karmelis, it is not necessary for it to have a cavity [dug in it]. Even if [the courtyard] is very small, it is not necessary for it to have a cavity [dug in it, and] it is permitted to pour out as much [water] as one desires there, even in the summer and even if one intends for [the water to] flow out [into the karmelis. The rationale is that:] As long as one does not pour the water directly into the karmelis or in direct proximity to the karmelis,25but rather, [the water flows] into the karmelis as a result of [the person’s] power, [the act is permitted, and our Sages] did not impose a [restrictive] decree [against the effects of one’s] power in a karmelis, as stated in sec. 355[:4].

There are, [however,] authorities who maintain that there is no difference between a public domain and a karmelis in this context. [Our Sages’] statement that a [restrictive] decree was not imposed [against the effects of one’s] power in a karmelis applies only to seas and rivers,26 which will not be confused with an area that is a public domain [in a complete sense. Similarly, this statement] even [applies] regarding a karmelis on dry land, [but] which is outside a town.27 [Such a karmelis] also will not be confused with a public domain in a complete sense, for it is uncommon for so many people to be found outside a town that there will be [sufficient] human traffic to constitute a public domain in a complete sense. In contrast, a karmelis [located] within a town can be confused with a public domain in a complete sense. This applies even in the present era, when there are authorities who maintain that a public domain in a complete sense does not exist because 600,000 people do not pass through [the domain].28 Nevertheless, such confusion can arise in a large city where there are 600,000 [people who indeed do pass through its streets].29

True, license was granted [to pour waste water] through a hole in a balcony above water even though, as a result of [the person’s] power, the waste water flows outside the partition that is around the balcony, as stated in sec. 355[:1. However, that license was only granted] because the person did not have that intent [in mind],30 as stated in that source. In this instance, by contrast, when a person pours water into a courtyard that is not four cubits [by four cubits in area] in the summer, he intends that [the water] flow outside the courtyard so [the courtyard] does not become soiled. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this opinion [and, hence, stringency is required].

All authorities agree that a [restrictive] decree [against the effects of] one’s power was not imposed when [two] courtyards [are adjacent, but] an eruv was not established between them.31 It is permitted to pour [water] into one courtyard with the intent that it flow into the other, even though an eruv was not established between them. A walled city in which an eruv was not established is governed by the same laws as [two adjacent] courtyards for which an eruv was not established. [The rationale is that the city] is [after all, surrounded by] partitions; it merely lacks an eruv.

ז וְכָל זֶה בְּחָצֵר הַסְּמוּכָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל הַסְּמוּכָה לְכַרְמְלִית, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא קְטַנָּה מְאֹד – אֵין צָרִיךְ גּוּמָא, וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהּ כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה אֲפִלּוּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה,מח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ לַחוּץ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹפְכָן בְּיָדָיו לְכַרְמְלִית אוֹ סָמוּךְ לְכַרְמְלִית מַמָּשׁ,מט,25 אֶלָּא מִכֹּחוֹ הֵם בָּאִים לְכַרְמְלִית, וְכֹחוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית לֹא גָזְרוּ,נ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ה.נא

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנב שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק כַּאן בֵּין רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְכַרְמְלִית, וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁכֹּחוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית לֹא גָזְרוּ אֶלָּא בְּיַמִּים וּנְהָרוֹתנג,26 שֶׁאֵינָם מִתְחַלְּפִים בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כַּרְמְלִית שֶׁבַּיַּבָּשָׁה אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא חוּץ לָעִיר,נד,27 שֶׁגַּם כֵּן אֵינָהּ מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִהְיוֹת רַבִּים מְצוּיִים כָּל כָּךְ חוּץ לָעִיר כְּשִׁעוּר בְּקִיעַת הָרַבִּים בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, אֲבָל כַּרְמְלִית שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה.נה וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שִׁשִּׁים רִבּוֹא בּוֹקְעִים בָּהּ,נו,28 מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִתְחַלֶּפֶת הִיא בְּעִיר גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ ס' רִבּוֹא.נז,29 וּמַה שֶּׁהִתִּירוּ בִּגְזוּזְטְרָא שֶׁעַל פִּי הַמַּיִם לִשְׁפּוֹךְ דֶּרֶךְ הַנֶּקֶב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשּׁוֹפָכִין הוֹלְכִין מִכֹּחוֹ לְהָלְאָה מִכְּנֶגֶד מְחִצַּת הַגְּזוּזְטְרָא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ה,נח הוּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ,נט,30 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם. אֲבָל כַּאן כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ לֶחָצֵר שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ ד' אַמּוֹת בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה מִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ לַחוּץ מִשּׁוּם לִכְלוּךְ חֲצֵרוֹ.ס וְכֵן עִקָּר.סא

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל בְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ,30 וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בְּחָצֵר זוֹ בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִמֶּנָּה לְחָצֵר זוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד.סב וְעִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ בָּהּ, כְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת הִיא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּחֻסֶּרֶת עֵרוּב:סג,31

8 [The following laws apply to] a gutter,32 i.e., a ditch made for waste water to flow from a courtyard to a public domain that extends along a goodly portion of [the length of] the public domain. If [the gutter] is covered in the four cubits of the public domain that are [directly] adjacent to a courtyard, and [the gutter] is also [at least] four cubits wide,33 it is even permitted to pour water into the opening of the gutter [located] in the courtyard in direct proximity to the public domain, and [it is] even [permitted to do so] in the summer. [One is allowed to pour] the water even though it flows immediately from his hand to the public domain outside the four cubits [of the gutter] that are covered. [The rationale is that] the four [cubit] by four [cubit portion of] the covered gutter that is in the public domain is comparable to apertures [in the wall of] a private domain. Thus, [this portion of the gutter is] governed by the same laws as a courtyard that is four [cubits] by four [cubits], into which it is permitted to pour [water] even in the summer. [The rationale is that the] four [cubits] by four [cubits] of the gutter are fit to absorb two seah of water, just as the courtyard does. [This leniency applies] provided the gutter duct is not made of wood, which is not fit to absorb the water. If, however, [the gutter] is made like a stone floor, it is fit to absorb [the water] and [one] is permitted [to pour water into it].

All the above applies to [pouring water into] a public domain. In a karmelis, by contrast, it is permitted [to pour water] even when [using] a wooden duct, according to the first opinion [mentioned above].34 Although fundamentally, the halachah does not [follow the opinion of these authorities], it is possible to rely on their words and rule leniently with regard to [pouring water into] a [half-] pipe that flows into a karmelis from a point ten [handbreadths above the ground]. It is permitted to pour water into [such a pipe] even with the intent that it descend [and flow] into a karmelis. [The rationale is that the water] passes through the open space of a makom p’tur,35 and there are authorities who permit [such a transfer] in a karmelis,36 as stated in sec. 346[:4].37

ח בִּיב,סד,32 וְהוּא חָרִיץ הֶעָשׂוּי לְקַלֵּחַ שׁוֹפָכִין שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםסה וּמוֹשֵׁךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ בְּמֶשֶׁךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הַרְבֵּה, אִם הוּא מְכֻסֶּה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים ד' אַמּוֹת הַסְּמוּכִים לֶחָצֵר, וְיֵשׁ בְּרָחְבּוֹ גַּם כֵּן ד' אַמּוֹתסו,33 – מֻתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַל פִּי הַבִּיב שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר סָמוּךְ מַמָּשׁ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲפִלּוּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּיִם יוֹצְאִים מִיָּד מִיָּדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְחוּץ מִד' אַמּוֹת הַמְּכֻסִּים,סז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁד' עַל ד' אֵלּוּ שֶׁל בִּיב הַמְּכֻסִּים בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁהֵם כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,סח,10 דִּינָם כְּחָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ ד' עַל ד' שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, לְפִי שֶׁבְּד' עַל ד' שֶׁל בִּיב רָאוּי גַּם כֵּן לִבָּלַע סָאתַיִם כְּמוֹ בֶּחָצֵר.סט

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא סִלּוֹן שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם רְאוּיִים לִבָּלַע בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם עָשׂוּי כְּעֵין רִצְפָּה שֶׁל אֲבָנִים, רָאוּי לִבָּלַע בּוֹ וּמֻתָּר.ע

וְכָל זֶה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל לְכַרְמְלִית – אֲפִלּוּ בְּסִלּוֹן שֶׁל עֵץעא מֻתָּרעב לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.עג,34 וְאַף שֶׁאֵין זֶה עִקָּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּצִנּוֹר הַמְקַלֵּחַ לְמַעְלָה מִי' בְּכַרְמְלִית, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ הַמַּיִם לְכַרְמְלִית, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם עוֹבְרִים דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,עד,35 שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִים בְּזֶה בְּכַרְמְלִית,36 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו:עה,37