SECTION 348 The Laws Pertaining to One Who Extends a Utensil from One Domain to Another (1-3)

סימן שמח דִּין הַמּוֹשִׁיט כְּלִי מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 [When a person] standing in a private domain extends his hand that is [holding] produce into the public domain (or even a karmelis)1 within ten [handbreadths of the ground],2 he is forbidden to bring [his hand] back inside [the private domain] until after Shabbos concludes.3 [This applies even if the person intends to [bring his hand back after lifting it] higher than [ten handbreadths] above [the ground].4 Our Sages penalized [such a person] and required him to [keep his hand] extended in this manner, [holding the produce in the public domain] until Saturday night, because he violated their prohibition5 and performed an akirah from a private domain to a public domain or to a karmelis.

א הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְהוֹצִיא יָדוֹ מְלֵאָה פֵּרוֹת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםא בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָהב,2 (אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְכַרְמְלִיתג)1 – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָהד עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,ה,3 (א) שֶׁקְּנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִיםו,3 לִהְיוֹת יָדוֹ תְּלוּיָה כָּךְ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת עַל שֶׁעָבַר עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם5 וְעָשָׂה (ב) עֲקִירָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית:

2 When does the above apply? When the person performs the transfer intentionally. If, however, [the person] transgresses unknowingly,6 our Sages did not penalize him, and he is permitted to return [his hand] to the courtyard in which he is standing. [The person] is forbidden, however, to extend [his hand] into another courtyard7 [and deposit the produce there]8 even when that courtyard also belongs to him and there is no need for an eruv.

[This prohibition even applies when the Scriptural prohibition against] extending [objects] from a private domain to [another] private domain via the public domain does not apply, i.e., when the two courtyards are opposite each other and the public domain intervenes between them,9 or even when they are in the same row but the public domain does not intervene between them at all,10 i.e., the public domain runs in front of them and not between them. [True, a person] who extends an object from one private domain to another private domain is only liable when a public domain intervenes between them, as was the case in the Sanctuary. Nevertheless, our Sages instituted a prohibition here so that the person will not have carried out his intent, which is to transfer the produce from this courtyard.11 [The rationale is that] if [the person] is permitted to [transfer] the produce into the other courtyard, he will have carried out his intent. Hence, [our Sages felt it necessary to] impose a decree lest, on another occasion, [the person] cast [the produce] into the public domain. [There is,] however, no need to impose a decree when [the person merely] returns the produce to the [original] courtyard [in which he is currently standing,] since his intent [to transfer the produce to a different courtyard] was not fulfilled.

ב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁעָשָׂה כֵּן בְּמֵזִיד, אֲבָל בְּשׁוֹגֵג6 לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים, וּמֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לְאוֹתָהּ חָצֵר שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בָּהּ. אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהוֹשִׁיטָהּ לְחָצֵר7 אַחֶרֶת,ז,8 אֲפִלּוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ עֵרוּב,ח וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מוֹשִׁיט מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כְּגוֹן שֶׁחֲצֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ וְרֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶן,9 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הֵן (ג) בִּדְיוּטָא אַחַת אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין אֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּלָל,ט,10 שֶׁרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מְהַלֶּכֶת לִפְנֵיהֶן וְלֹא בֵּינֵיהֶן, וְהַמּוֹשִׁיט מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּןי – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים כַּאן, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִתְקַיֵּם מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹיא שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְפַנּוֹת הַפֵּרוֹת מֵחָצֵר זוֹ,11 שֶׁאִם נַתִּיר לוֹ לְהוֹשִׁיטָן לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, הֲרֵי נִתְקַיְּמָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ, וְיֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת יַשְׁלִיכֵן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמַּחֲזִירָהּ לְאוֹתָהּ חָצֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַיְּמָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ – אֵין לִגְזוֹר כְּלוּם בְּזֶה:יב

3 When does the above [decree] apply? When [one] takes [the produce] out via a public domain. If, however, [one merely] takes it out via a karmelis, he may even extend it to the other courtyard [and deposit the produce there]. Our Sages did not impose this decree12 when a karmelis [intervenes between the two courtyards], because it would be a gezeirah legezeirah, a safeguard for a Rabbinic safeguard.13

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיאָהּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיאָהּ לְכַרְמְלִית – מֻתָּר לְהוֹשִׁיטָהּ אֲפִלּוּ לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, שֶׁבְּכַרְמְלִית לֹא גָזְרוּ גְּזֵרָה זוֹ,יג,12 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהִיא גְזֵרָה לִגְזֵרָה:יד,13