SECTION 347 When One is Liable for Removing [an Object from a Domain] According to Scriptural Law (1-10)

סימן שמז עַל אֵיזֶה הוֹצָאָה חַיָּב מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וּבוֹ י' סְעִיפִים:

1 According to Scriptural Law, a person is not liable [for hotzaah, i.e. transferringan object] unless he picks up the object, [thus performing an akirah,]in a private domain and [transfers the object] to the public domain and places it down there, [thus performing a hanachah,] or does the converse. When, however, a person stands in one of these domains and extends his hand to the other domain while holding an object in his hand, and another person standing in that domain takes [the object] from him, [neither are liable. The rationale is that] one person picked up [the article] in one domain and the other placed it down in the other domain. [Hence,] they are both exempt,1 as [can be derived from] the phrase,2 “From the people of the land who shall perform….” [This phrase can be interpreted to mean,] “One who performs [a transgression] in its entirety [is liable,] not one who performs only a portion of it. One person who performs [a forbidden act] alone is liable. Two people who perform it [together] are exempt.”3 Nevertheless, these individuals are forbidden from acting in this manner by Rabbinic Law.4 [This is] a decree lest each one of them come to perform a forbidden labor in its entirety on Shabbos.

א מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעוֹקֵר חֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּמַנִּיחוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ. אֲבָל הָעוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְׁתֵּי רְשֻׁיּוֹת אֵלּוּ וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ, וּנְטָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ חֲבֵרוֹ הָעוֹמֵד שָׁם, שֶׁזֶּה עָקַר מֵרְשׁוּת זוֹ וְזֶה הִנִּיחַ בִּרְשׁוּת הַשְּׁנִיָּה – שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִים,א,1 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרב,2 "מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ בַּעֲשׂוֹתָהּ" – הָעוֹשֶׂה אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וְלֹא הָעוֹשֶׂה אֶת מִקְצָתָהּ; יָחִיד וְעָשָׂה אוֹתָהּ – חַיָּב, שְׁנַיִם וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָהּ – פְּטוּרִין.ג,3 אֲבָל אֲסוּרִים לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ד,4 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹאוּ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה שְׁלֵמָה בְּשַׁבָּת:ה

2 If a person was standing in one of these two domains and he extended his hand to the other domain where another person was standing, and took an object from [that person’s] hand and brought it [back] into the domain in which he is standing, he is liable. [This ruling] applies even if [the person taking the object] did not place the object down on the ground. [The rationale is that] since [the object] is being held in his hand, it is as if it is placed down on the ground, for [a person’s] hand is categorized as an extension of his body, and his body is standing on the ground [of that domain].5 ([This principle applies] even if [the person] is standing in the public domain and his hand that is holding the object is more than ten handbreadths above [the ground]6 – i.e., in [a place which is] a makom p’tur.7 [The rationale is that] the sons of Kehos would carry the Ark in such a manner, i.e., they would carry [the Ark] on their shoulders.8 Thus, the entire Ark was ten handbreadths above the ground.)

ב הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְׁתֵּי הָרְשֻׁיּוֹת וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְנָטַל הַחֵפֶץ מִיָּדוֹ וְהוֹצִיא לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁעוֹמֵד בּוֹו – אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִנִּיחוֹ בָּאָרֶץ, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מֻנָּח בְּיָדוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ,ז שֶׁהַיָּד נִגְרֶרֶת אַחַר הַגּוּף וְהַגּוּף הוּא עוֹמֵד בָּאָרֶץח,5 (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, (א) וְיָדוֹ שֶׁהַחֵפֶץ בְּתוֹכָהּ הִיא לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים,6 שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר 7 – הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב,ט,1 שֶׁכֵּן הָיָה מַשָּׂא בְּנֵי קְהָת, שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹשְׂאִים הָאָרוֹן עַל כִּתְפֵיהֶם,8 וְהָיָה הָאָרוֹן כֻּלּוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים מֵהָאָרֶץי):

3 However, the person from whom the object was taken is exempt.9 [Furthermore, his actions] are permitted with regard to the Shabbos prohibitions, for he did not do anything.10 [The person is,] however, forbidden [to do so] by Scriptural Law – because he is enabling the other person to [perform a] transgression by [enabling him to take]11 an object to transfer from one domain to another domain. [Thus, the person holding the object] violates the prohibition,12 “Do not place a stumbling block before the blind.”

If the object was located in a place where [the transgressor] could take it on his own even if the other person did not give it to him, [then, if even if the person allows the transgressor to take the object from his hand,] he does not violate the Scriptural prohibition, “[Do not place a stumbling block] before the blind.” According to Rabbinic Law, however, it is forbidden for [the person holding the object] to [allow the other person to take it from his hand]. This [ruling] applies even if [the recipient] is a non-Jew and even if [the recipient] is [standing] in a karmelis, as stated in sec. 325[:2ff.], for the reason explained there.13

If [the recipient] is Jewish, yet another Rabbinical prohibition is involved – [that of] assisting a transgressor.14 Therefore, it is forbidden to give an apostate Jew a forbidden object even when the apostate could take [the object] on his own.

ג אֲבָל זֶה שֶׁנִּטַּל הַחֵפֶץ מִמֶּנּוּ – פָּטוּר9 וּמֻתָּריא מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר שַׁבָּת,יב שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם,יג,10 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמַּכְשִׁיל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ11 חֵפֶץ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת,יד וְעוֹבֵר עַל12 "לִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשׁוֹל".טו וְאִם הַחֵפֶץ הָיָה מֻנָּח בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה נוֹתְנוֹטז לוֹ הָיָה יָכוֹל לִטְּלוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ – אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל "לִפְנֵי עִוֵּר" מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ לוֹיז,11 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נָכְרִי, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"היח מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.יט,13

וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ עוֹד אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ לְעוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה.כ,14 וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְהוֹשִׁיט לְמוּמָרִים דְּבַר אִסּוּרכא אֲפִלּוּ יָכוֹל הַמּוּמָר לִטְּלוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ:כב

4 Similarly, it is forbidden on Shabbos to lend out utensils to a Jew who is suspect to perform forbidden labor on Shabbos [and who may use these utensils for that purpose. The prohibition applies] even if [the Jew] could borrow these utensils from someone else. If, however, [the prospective lender] has reason to think that [the other Jew] will perform a permitted task with [the utensil], it is permitted to lend him a utensil that is easily available. If, however, [the utensil] is not easily available, it is forbidden to lend it to [the other Jew] unless the matter involves “the ways of peace.”15 When, by contrast, [the lender] has no reason to think [that the other Jew] will perform a permitted task with it, it is forbidden to lend him [the utensil] even when the matter involves “the ways of peace.”16

Similarly, when [a fellow Jew] is performing a forbidden labor, it is forbidden to wish him, “Be successful in your task,” even though it is [common] etiquette to offer [such wishes] to anyone who performs such a task,17 even to a non-Jew, as an expression of “the ways of peace.”18 Nevertheless, it is forbidden [to make such statements] to a Jew [who performs such labor] because [by doing so] one encourages transgressors.

ד וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַשְׁאִיל כְּלִי מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הֶחָשׁוּד לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי הַמָּצוּי לוֹ לִשְׁאוֹל בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר. וְאִם יֵשׁ לִתְלוֹת שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בּוֹ מְלֶאכֶת הֶתֵּר – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁאִילוֹ אִם הוּא כְּלִי הַמָּצוּי, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מָצוּי – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁאִילוֹ לוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם.15 אֲבָל אִם אֵין לִתְלוֹת שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בּוֹ מְלֶאכֶת הֶתֵּר – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁאִילוֹ לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם.כג,16

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁעוֹסֵק בִּמְלֶאכֶת אִסּוּר, אָסוּר לוֹמַר לוֹ "תִּצְלַח מְלַאכְתְּךָ",כד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ לוֹמַר כֵּן לְכָל עוֹסֵק בִּמְלָאכָהכה,17 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַכּוּ"ם, מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם,כו,18 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמַּחֲזִיק יְדֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה:כז

5 When [a person standing in a public or private domain] extends his hand into the opposite [type of] domain while holding an object in his hand and places [the object] in the hand of a person standing there, [the one placing the object in the other’s hand] is liable because he performed both the akirah and the hanachah. The other person is exempt.19 With regard to the prohibitions of Shabbos, [the recipient’s conduct] is permitted. Nevertheless, it is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, even in a karmelis, because he is assisting transgressors.

ה כְּשֶׁפָּשַׁט יָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ, וְהִנִּיחַ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ הָעוֹמֵד שָׁם – הוּא חַיָּב, שֶׁעָשָׂה עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה, וַחֲבֵרוֹ פָּטוּרכח,19 וּמֻתָּר מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר שַׁבָּת, וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםכט אֲפִלּוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ לְעוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה:

6 If [one person] was standing in a private domain and another person was [standing] in the public domain, and [the first person] placed an object in the hand of the second [person] while [the first person’s] hand was more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground], i.e., in a makom p’tur, both are exempt.20 [The rationale is that a distinction is made between the person standing in in the public domain himself and his relationship with the other person:] True, with regard to [the person in the public domain], his hand is not considered as a makom p’tur, because it is placed in the same category as his body which is standing on the ground in the public domain, as explained.21 Nevertheless, with regard to the other person [who is standing in a private domain, and who places an object in the hand of the person standing in the public domain], even [part of] the [recipient’s] body is deemed a makom p’tur [when it is] ten [handbreadths] above [the ground].22

Even so, according to Rabbinic Law, they are forbidden to carry out this [transfer] unless the recipient takes the object [from the person standing in the private domain], passes it while holding it ten [handbreadths] above [the ground], and places it down in a makom p’tur ten [handbreadths] above [the ground]. If, however, [the recipient] places [the object] down on the ground, [the transfer] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, [because] a transfer was made from a private domain to a public domain via a makom p’tur through [the actions of] these two people. Indeed, [it is] even [forbidden to transfer an object in this manner from a private domain] into a karmelis, as will be stated in sec. 346[:2-3].

Even if [the person standing in the private domain] would place [the object] in a makom p’tur that is [located] less than ten handbreadths from the ground [this, too, would be forbidden, since] between [the actions of] the two of them, [the object] would have been transported from a private domain to a makom p’tur via the [space] of a public domain. It is possible that this also involves [the violation of] a Rabbinic prohibition, as does transporting [an object] from a private domain to another private domain via the [space] of a public domain, as will be explained.23

Were the person to carry [the object from a public domain] to a private domain while holding it ten [handbreadths above the ground], he would be liable according to Scriptural Law. [The rationale is that] with regard to his own self, the person’s hand is not considered as a makom p’tur because it is placed in the same category as his body.24 [Thus,] when he [lifts up] his body to walk [i.e., performing an akirah], he also [lifts up] the object from the public domain. Afterwards, he placed [the object] down in a private domain, [thus completing a Scripturally forbidden transfer].

There are authorities who maintain that even with regard to others, neither a person’s hand nor other parts of his body are considered as a makom p’tur, just as they are not considered as a makom p’tur with regard to the person himself. Similarly, other living beings are not considered a makom p’tur even though [the location where the object comes to rest] is more than ten handbreadths above [the ground]. Instead, [all living beings] are considered as the ground of the public domain on which they are standing. By the same token, if [the people or animals] are standing on an entity that is a karmelis in the public domain25 or [they are standing] in an actual karmelis,26 they are categorized as a karmelis, even if they are very high.27 If, however, [the people or animals] are standing on a makom p’tur, all authorities agree that they are categorized as a makom p’tur.

ו וְאִם הוּא עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וַחֲבֵרוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְהִנִּיחַ הַחֵפֶץ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ, וְהִיא גְבוֹהָה לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר – שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִים,ל,20 שֶׁאַף שֶׁלְּגַבֵּי חֲבֵרוֹ עַצְמוֹ אֵין יָד שֶׁלּוֹ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, לְפִי שֶׁנִּגְרֶרֶת אַחַר גּוּפוֹ הָעוֹמֵד עַל קַרְקַע רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,לא,21 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְגַבֵּי אָדָם אַחֵר גַּם גּוּפוֹ הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה.לב,22

אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֲסוּרִים לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חֲבֵרוֹ מוֹלִיךְ הַחֵפֶץ דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, וּמַנִּיחוֹ בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר הַגָּבוֹהַּ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה. אֲבָל אִם מַנִּיחוֹ בָּאָרֶץ – הֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית עַל יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם הוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וְיֵשׁ בְּזֶה אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו.לג

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַנִּיחוֹ בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר שֶׁהוּא לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה – הֲרֵי נַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם טִלְטוּל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִמְקוֹם פְּטוּר דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּזֶה גַּם כֵּן אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם,לד כְּמוֹ בִּמְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.לה,23

וְאִם מוֹלִיכִים דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה לְאֵיזוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְגַבֵּי עַצְמוֹ אֵין יָדוֹ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, שֶׁהִיא נִגְרֶרֶת אַחַר גּוּפוֹ,24 וּכְשֶׁעָקַר גּוּפוֹ לָלֶכֶת, הֲרֵי עָקַר הַחֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִנִּיחוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.לו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלז שֶׁגַּם לְגַבֵּי אֲחֵרִים אֵין יָדוֹ אוֹ שְׁאָר גּוּפוֹ נֶחְשָׁבִים מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין נֶחְשָׁבִים לְגַבֵּי עַצְמוֹ, וְכֵן שְׁאָר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּיםלח אֵינָם מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם גְּבוֹהִים מֵעֲשָׂרָה, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵם כְּקַרְקַע רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁהֵם עוֹמְדִים עָלֶיהָ. וְכֵן אִם עוֹמְדִים עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר שֶׁהוּא כַּרְמְלִית בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,25 אוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית מַמָּשׁ26 – הֲרֵי הֵם כַּרְמְלִית, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם גְּבוֹהִים הַרְבֵּה.27 אֲבָל אִם עוֹמְדִים עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר – הֵם מְקוֹם פְּטוּרלט לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:

7 When a person is standing inside [a private domain] and he extends a hand or another one of his limbs outside [of that domain], all [of the above] authorities28 agree that [his hand] is categorized as a makom p’tur29even when [the limb] is less than ten handbreadths above the ground, and even with regard to the person himself. [Hence,] it is permissible for [the person] to take into his hand an object that was resting in the public domain.30 [The rationale is that the person’s] hand is not placed in the same category as his body and hence [is not] deemed a private domain,31 since [his hand and his body] are located in separate domains. Nor is his hand placed in the same category as the public domain in which it is located, since it is connected to his body which is standing in a private domain.32 Hence, [his hand] is a makom p’tur.

(The fact that it is forbidden for him – and even for another person – to place an object from the public domain in his hand so that he can bring it into the private domain33 even though [it is permitted for him to] bring an object from a makom p’tur to a private domain34 [does not represent a contradiction to the above statement]. For this prohibition is a decree, [imposed] lest the person come to lift up [an object] from the public domain and place it in a private domain, since according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to bring about the entry [of an object] from the public domain to a private domain even via a makom p’tur, as explained in sec. 346[:2].)

If, however, one removed an object by hand from a private domain, even if his hand first came to rest in [the open space] of the public domain,35 [the object] is not considered to have been placed down in a makom p’tur. If, afterwards, [the person] placed down the object in the public domain, he is liable. [The rationale is that the fact that an object] comes to rest in [a person’s] hand is considered as a hanachah only when the object is placed [in] his hand from another place. [This rule does not apply,] however, [when a person who was holding] an object in his hand in one domain extends that hand into another domain. Since extending that hand is not considered as bringing the hand itself to rest – for the hand is extended in the air – it is [also] not considered as bringing the object [he holds in his hand] to rest. [The fundamental concept is that] extending one’s hand is not comparable to bringing one’s body to a standstill. When one stands to rest, his standing is also considered as a hanachah for an object on his body36 or in his hand,37 because his body is itself standing and resting on the ground. In contrast, when one merely extends his hand, it is extended and resting in midair.38

There are authorities who [differ and] maintain that when [a person’s] hand is extended into another domain, it is governed entirely by the rules of that domain,39 whether it be a private domain or a public domain. The same law applies to any of [a person’s] other limbs despite the fact that they are connected to his body and [his body] is located in a different domain.

{Note: According to these authorities, the reason] a person who extends his hand from one domain to another while holding an object is not liable until he places the object on the ground or in the hand of another person, while if another person takes the object from him, [both] he [and that other person] are exempt, is because, [in the first instance,] the object is not considered to have come to rest in the [second] domain. Even though the object that is held in his hand is considered [according to these authorities] as being in the [second] domain entirely, and thus, [by extending his hand into the second domain while holding the object, seemingly,] he took it out from one domain to another, [nevertheless, a hanachah has yet to be performed]. For holding an object at rest in one’s hand is not considered as a hanachah,since the object was in his hand beforehand, as explained above.}

Therefore, [a different ruling applies] if one lowered his hand [to] within three handbreadths of the ground in the domain into which he brought [the object], whether it is a private domain or a public domain. [According to these authorities the person] is liable even if he did not place the object on the ground. [The rationale is that the space] within three [handbreadths] of the ground is considered as the ground itself. Thus, [when one lowers his hand within three handbreadths of the ground,] it is as if his hand came to rest on the ground itself, and his hand is considered entirely as part of that [other] domain.

(All authorities agree that if [a person’s] hand is extended from a private domain to [the open space] more than ten [handbreadths] above the public domain, his hand is deemed a makom p’tur.)40

Therefore,41 [when a] circumcision [is to be performed] on Shabbos, it is permitted to transfer the infant from a private domain to a karmelis [in the following manner]:42 Two women should stand inside [the house]. One [of the women] should extend her hands outside, more than ten [handbreadths above the ground, a place] that all authorities deem a makom p’tur. [While standing inside the house,] the other [woman] should take the infant from inside [the house], pass him outside and place him on the hands of the other woman [who is standing inside but whose hands] are stretched outside [the house] more than ten handbreadths above [the ground].43 This is considered as placing [the infant] down in a makom p’tur, since the infant was placed on [the woman’s] hands from another place.44 Afterwards, even [the woman who received] the infant45 may place him in the hands of another woman who is standing outside, [whose hands] are also more than ten [handbreadths above the ground. The baby should be brought out of the house in this manner] for there are authorities who maintain that [the woman’s] hands are considered as a makom p’tur with regard to another person, as explained above.46

Their words can be relied on to enable leniency in this situation47 in a karmelis, where the prohibition [against transferring from another domain] is Rabbinic in origin, for one may rely on the more lenient opinion in questions of Rabbinic Law. Furthermore, there are authorities who grant total license to carry from a private domain to a karmelis via a makom p’tur, as stated in sec. 346[:3].

(The woman standing outside, however, may not take [the infant] from the [second] woman standing inside,48 for with regard to her own self,49 her hands are not considered as a makom p’tur.50 [Therefore,] were she to have taken the infant [from the hands of the woman standing inside], it [would be] as if he was placed on the ground [outside], as stated above.51 Thus, these three women would have brought about the transfer [of the infant] from a private domain to a karmelis via a makom p’tur. There are authorities who forbid this, and one should conduct himself stringently, in accordance with their words, as stated in that source.52 [No leniency may be granted because the observance of a mitzvah is involved,] for the violation of even a minor prohibition by a Jew may not be permitted for the sake of a mitzvah, as explained in sec. 331[:7-8].)53

Afterwards, the woman standing outside should place [the infant] on the arms of another woman [whose hands are at least ten handbreadths above the ground], and she should pass him to the arms of another woman. [The infant should be passed] less than four cubits at one time54 while [being held] more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground] at all times.55 [Passing the infant in this manner] is not forbidden as a decree, lest one [woman] rest while holding the infant in her hands, which would be considered as [if] she [had] placed the child down on the ground, as explained above. For even if [a woman] would [rest while holding the infant], all that would have been brought about would be a transfer from a private domain to a karmelis via a makom p’tur. A decree [safeguarding against] such a transfer should not be issued, since there are authorities who permit it entirely.56

When [the women] reach [an area] before the courtyard of the synagogue,57 which is a private domain, one woman should stand inside [the courtyard] and extend her hand outside [of it], more than ten [handbreadths above the ground]. The woman standing outside [the synagogue courtyard holding the infant in her hands] should place him on [the extended] arms [of the woman standing inside], which are a makom p’tur according to all opinions. Thus, the infant will have been transferred from one private domain58 to another private domain59 via a makom p’tur60that is more than ten [handbreadths above the ground. Such a transfer] is permitted even for one’s personal matters61 provided both domains belong to one person, in which instance, there is no need for an eruv at all.

If, however, the domains belong to two people, and it is impossible to establish an eruv [between them, such a transfer] is forbidden, as will be stated in sec. 353[:3].62 Therefore, in the instance at hand, it is permitted to make the transfer in the manner described above if there is no one dwelling in the courtyard of the synagogue.63 If, however, a person lives there, it is forbidden to bring anything there from another courtyard for which an eruv has not been established.64 The eruv [used] for the synagogue itself is not effective [in allowing a transfer] when it is forbidden to carry in the lane outside it, as will be stated in sec. 366[:6]. Therefore, [in such an instance,] there is absolutely no license to have Jews bring [the infant] into the synagogue even when one person performs the akirah and the other the hanachah, as stated in sec. 331[:8]. Indeed, concerning a [similar] prohibition – [bringing an object] into a courtyard for which an eruv was not established – [our Sages] said65 that the Sages upheld the safeguard they instituted even though [a mitzvah for which one is] punished by kareis [for failing to observe] is involved.66 [For our Sages ruled that] if it is not possible to have the knife67 [to be used for the circumcision] brought by a non-Jew,68 the circumcision should be postponed until the following day. [The rationale is that] there is no way [to permit] a Jew to bring [the knife] without an eruv, in a place where an eruv is required.69 [This ruling] does not follow [the reasoning of] the authority who grants leniency in this situation because [one is acting] for the sake of a mitzvah.

ז הָעוֹמֵד בִּפְנִים וּפָשַׁט יָדָיו אוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר אֵיבָרָיו לַחוּץ, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה – הֵן מְקוֹם פְּטוּרמ,29 לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלמא,28 אֲפִלּוּ לְגַבֵּי אוֹתוֹ הָאָדָם עַצְמוֹ, לְעִנְיָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לְהַכְנִיס לְתוֹךְ יָדוֹ חֵפֶץ הַמֻּנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,מב,30 שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ נִגְרֶרֶת אַחַר גּוּפוֹ לִהְיוֹת רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד כָּמוֹהוּ,מג,31 הוֹאִיל וְהֵן בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת מֻחְלָקוֹת, וְגַם אֵינוֹ כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹכָהּ,מד,31 הוֹאִיל וַאֲגוּדָה בְּגוּפוֹ הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.מה,32 לְפִיכָךְ הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר.

(וּמַה שֶּׁאָסוּר לוֹ,מו וַאֲפִלּוּ לְאַחֵר, לִתֵּן חֵפֶץ לְיָדוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֶנּוּ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,33 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּכְנִיס מִמְּקוֹם פְּטוּר לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד34 – אִסּוּר זֶה הוּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ עֲקִירָה מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהַנָּחָה בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,מז שֶׁאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לִגְרוֹם הַכְנָסָה מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ומח).

אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא חֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֲפִלּוּ אִם נָחָה יָדוֹ תְּחִלָּה בַּאֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים35 – אֵין זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָה בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וְאִם אַחַר כָּךְ הִנִּיחַ הַחֵפֶץ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – חַיָּב, לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּחָה עַל הַיָּד אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָה אֶלָּא לְחֵפֶץ שֶׁהֻנַּח עָלֶיהָ מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר,מט אֲבָל חֵפֶץ שֶׁהָיָה עָלֶיהָ בַּתְּחִלָּה בִּרְשׁוּת זוֹ וְהוֹשִׁיטָהּ לִרְשׁוּת ב', כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הוֹשָׁטָה זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה כַּאן הַנָּחָה לַיָּד עַצְמָהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא תְּלוּיָה כַּאן בַּאֲוִיר – הוּא הַדִּין שֶׁאֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָה לְהַחֵפֶץ שֶׁבָּהּ. שֶׁהוֹשָׁטַת הַיָּד אֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לַעֲמִידַת גּוּפוֹ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁעוֹמֵד לָפוּשׁ – עֲמִידָה זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָהנ גַּם לְהַחֵפֶץ שֶׁעַל גּוּפוֹנא,36 אוֹ שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ,נב,37 לְפִי שֶׁהַגּוּף עַצְמוֹ עוֹמֵד וְנָח עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּהוֹשָׁטַת יָדוֹ לְבַדָּהּ, שֶׁהִיא תְּלוּיָה וְנָחָה בָּאֲוִיר.נג,38

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנד שֶׁיָּדוֹ הַפְּשׁוּטָה לִרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת הֲרֵי הִיא לְגַמְרֵי כְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת,39 אִם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אִם רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְאֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר אֵבָרָיו,נה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲגוּדִים בַּגּוּף הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת.

[הַגָּהָ"ה: וּמַה שֶּׁהַפּוֹשֵׁט יָדוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת וְחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ הוּא הַחֵפֶץ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, אוֹ לְיַד חֲבֵרוֹ הָעוֹמֵד שָׁם, אֲבָל אִם חֲבֵרוֹ נְטָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ – אַף הוּא פָּטוּר,נו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֵפֶץ מֻנָּח בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה כְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת לְגַמְרֵי, וַהֲרֵי הוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת – זֶהוּ לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה עֲדַיִן הַנָּחָה לְחֵפֶץ זֶה בְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת,נז שֶׁהַנָּחַת הַחֵפֶץ בַּיָּד אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָה, הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה בָּה מִתְּחִלָּה,נח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר37].

לְפִיכָךְ40 אִם שִׁלְשֵׁל יָדוֹ לְמַטָּה מִג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ בְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת שֶׁהִכְנִיסָהּ לְשָׁם, בֵּין שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד בֵּין שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – חַיָּב,נט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ הַחֵפֶץ בָּאָרֶץ, שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִג' סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ הוּא כָּאָרֶץ,ס וּכְאִלּוּ נָחָה יָדוֹ בָּאָרֶץ עַצְמָהּ,סא וְיָדוֹ הִיא כְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת לְגַמְרֵי.

(וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אִם יָדוֹ פְּשׁוּטָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, הִיא מְקוֹם פְּטוּרסב).40

וְלָכֵן41 יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בְּמִילָה בְּשַׁבָּת לְהוֹצִיא הַתִּינוֹקסג מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִיתסד, 42 עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים בִּפְנִים, וְאַחַת מֵהֶן תּוֹשִׁיט יָדֶיהָ לַחוּץ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהֵן מְקוֹם פְּטוּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה תִּטּוֹל הַתִּינוֹק מִבִּפְנִים וְתוֹשִׁיטֶנּוּ לַחוּץ, וְתַנִּיחֶנּוּ עַל יְדֵי הָאִשָּׁה הַפְּשׁוּטוֹת לַחוּץ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה,43 וַהֲרֵי זוֹ הַנָּחָה בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק הֻנַּח עַל יָדֶיהָ מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר,44 וְאַחַר כָּךְ תַּנִּיחַ אֲפִלּוּ הִיא עַצְמָהּ אֶת הַתִּינוֹק עַל יְדֵי אִשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת45 הָעוֹמֶדֶת בַּחוּץ, שֶׁהֵן גַּם כֵּן לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהֵן מְקוֹם פְּטוּר לְגַבֵּי אָדָם אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,סה, 46 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּעִנְיָן זֶה47 בְּכַרְמְלִית שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, שֶׁבְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל, וְעוֹד כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין לְגַמְרֵי לְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו.סו

(אֲבָל הָעוֹמֶדֶת בַּחוּץ לֹא תִטּוֹל מֵעַל יְדֵי הָעוֹמֶדֶת בִּפְנִים,48 שֶׁהֲרֵי לְגַבֵּי עַצְמָהּ49 אֵין יָדֶיהָ חֲשׁוּבוֹת מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,50 וּכְשֶׁנּוֹטֶלֶת הַתִּינוֹק בְּיָדֶיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הִנִּיחַתּוּ בָּאָרֶץ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,סז,51 וַהֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית כַּאן עַל יְדֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן הוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,סח וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִים בְּזֶה וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.52 וּמִשּׁוּם צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה אֵין מַתִּירִין שׁוּם אִסּוּר קַל עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"אסט).53

וְאַחַר כָּךְ תַּחֲזוֹר הָעוֹמֶדֶת בַּחוּץ וְתַנִּיחֶנּוּ עַל יְדֵי חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, וַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ עַל יְדֵי חֲבֶרְתָּהּ בְּפָחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת,54 וְהַכֹּל לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה.55 וְאֵין לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא תַּעֲמוֹד אַחַת לָפוּשׁ בְּעוֹד הַתִּינוֹק עַל יָדֶיהָ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הִנִּיחַתּוּ בָּאָרֶץ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה, לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם תַּעֲשֶׂה כֵּן לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית כַּאן אֶלָּא הוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וְאֵין לָנוּ לִגְזוֹר כָּל כָּךְ בְּהוֹצָאָה זוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִים אוֹתָהּ לְגַמְרֵי.56

וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ לִפְנֵי חֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת,57 שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, תַּחֲזוֹר אִשָּׁה אַחַת וְתַעֲמוֹד בִּפְנִים, וְתוֹשִׁיט יָדֶיהָ לַחוּץ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, וְהָעוֹמֶדֶת בַּחוּץ תַּנִּיחֶנּוּ עַל יָדֶיהָ, שֶׁהֵן מְקוֹם פְּטוּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל. וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוּ הַתִּינוֹק מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד58 לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד59 דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר60 לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת61 אִם שְׁתֵּי הָרְשֻׁיּוֹת הֵם שֶׁל אָדָם אֶחָד, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ עֵרוּב כְּלָל.

אֲבָל אִם הֵן שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְעָרֵב – אָסוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ג.ע,62 וְלָכֵן אַף כַּאן, אִם אֵין שׁוּם אָדָם דָּר בַּחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – מֻתָּר עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,63 אֲבָל אִם אָדָם דָּר שָׁם – הֲרֵי אָסוּר לְהָבִיא לְשָׁם שׁוּם דָּבָר מֵחָצֵר אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת,64 וְהָעֵרוּב שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם כְּשֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל בַּמָּבוֹי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ו.עא לְפִיכָךְ אֵין שׁוּם הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם לְהָבִיא הַתִּינוֹק לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּזֶה עוֹקֵר וְזֶה מַנִּיחַ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"א.עב וְעַל אִסּוּר זֶה שֶׁל חָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת אָמְרוּעג,65 שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּ חֲכָמִים דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם כָּרֵת66 לִדְחוֹת הַמִּילָה לְמָחָר אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהָבִיא הַסַּכִּין67 עַל יְדֵי הַנָּכְרִי,68 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם תַּקָּנָה לַהֲבִיאוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּלִי עֵרוּב בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְעָרֵב, וְלֹא כְּיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּיר בְּזֶהעד מִשּׁוּם צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה:

8 A person who throws [an object] from one private domain to another when there is a public domain between them is exempt,70 since [the object] did not come to rest in the public domain. According to Rabbinic decree, however, [doing so] is forbidden because of a decree, [imposed] lest [the object] land in the public domain.71 Indeed, it is even forbidden [to throw an object over] a karmelis.72

When does the above apply? When one throws [or passes the object] through a space less than ten [handbreadths above the ground]. It is, by contrast, permitted even initially, to throw [an object from one private domain to another] through a space more than ten [handbreadths above the ground], which is deemed a makom p’tur,73 as will be explained in sec. 353[:1].74

ח הַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע – פָּטוּר,עה,70 כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה הַנָּחָה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,עו גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת הַנָּחָה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.עז,71 וַאֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית אָסוּר.עח,72 בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּזוֹרֵק דֶּרֶךְ מַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, אֲבָל דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר – מֻתָּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה,עט,73 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ג:פ,74

9 When does the above apply? When one throws [the object]. It is, by contrast, forbidden by Rabbinic Law to pass [an object] from one private domain to another via the public domain even if [it is held] more than ten handbreadths [above the ground. Our Sages instituted this prohibition] lest one stand to rest in the public domain and thus be liable even though the burden is more than ten handbreadths [above the ground], as explained above.75 [Indeed,] it is even forbidden [to pass an object] via a karmelis.76 Similarly, it is forbidden by Rabbinic Law to pass or throw [an object] from one karmelis to another via a private domain.77

ט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּזוֹרֵק, אֲבָל הַמַּעֲבִיר מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲפִלּוּ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים – אָסוּרפא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,73 שֶׁמָּא יַעֲמוֹד לָפוּשׁ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםפב וְיִתְחַיֵּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּשּׂוֹי לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.פג,75 וַאֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית אָסוּר.פד,76 וְכֵן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהַעֲבִיר אוֹ לִזְרוֹק מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד:פה,77

10 ll the above78 applies when one throws [an object] (or carries it while walking). [Different laws apply,] however, when one stands in one private domain and passes [an object] from this private domain to another private domain [located] at its side and [a portion of] the length of a public domain79 intervenes between them. For example, there is a projection jutting forth from a wall into the public domain that is ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide, and thus is deemed a private domain. A similar projection juts out from the wall at its side,80 and [a portion of] the length of the public domain intervenes between them. Even though that space is more than ten [handbreadths above the ground] and thus deemed a makom p’tur, it is still forbidden to extend [an object] from one [of these private domains] to the other, and one is liable if he in fact does so. [See fig. 35. The rationale is that] this resembles the service of the Levites in the Sanctuary. [At that time,] there were two wagons positioned in the public domain, one behind the other, and [a portion of] the length of the public domain intervened between them. [The Levites] would pass the boards [of the Sanctuary] from one [wagon] to another. [The Levites] would not throw [the boards], because of their weight. The wagons were private domains, for they were ten [handbreadths] high and four [handbreadths] wide.81

[Different rules apply,] however, if the width of the public domain intervenes between [the two private domains], i.e., [the private domains] are not standing next to each other in one row, but rather [they are standing] opposite each other. [See fig. 36.] One [projection] juts out from the wall on one side of the public domain, and the other juts out from the wall of the opposite side, and the width of the public domain intervenes between them. One who extends [an object] from one [private domain] to the other is exempt, because objects were not extended in this manner in the Sanctuary.82 [Indeed,] one is even permitted [to extend an object] in this manner initially,83 as will be explained in sec. 353[:1].84 [This leniency is granted] since [the person] is extending [the object] more than ten handbreadths [above the ground and that space is deemed] a makom p’tur.

י וְכָל זֶה78 בְּזוֹרֵק (וּמַעֲבִיר בְּרַגְלָיו). אֲבָל הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּמוֹשִׁיט מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד זוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אַחֶרֶת שֶׁבְּצִדָּהּ, וְאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים79 מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶן – כְּגוֹן זִיז הַבּוֹלֵט מֵהַכֹּתֶל לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב ד', שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְזִיז אַחֵר כָּמוֹהוּ בּוֹלֵט בְּצִדּוֹ,80 וְאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם – אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה וּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּא, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְהוֹשִׁיט מִזֶּה לְזֶה, וְאִם הוֹשִׁיט – חַיָּב, שֶׁכָּךְ הָיְתָה עֲבוֹדַת הַלְוִיִּם בַּמִּשְׁכָּן: שְׁתֵּי עֲגָלוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְהָיוּ מוֹשִׁיטִים הַקְּרָשִׁים מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ – אֲבָל לֹא הָיוּ זוֹרְקִין אוֹתָן, מִפְּנֵי כָבְדָּן – וְהָעֲגָלוֹת הָיוּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, שֶׁהָיוּ גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבוֹת ד'.81

אֲבָל אִם רֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵינָם זֶה בְּצַד זֶה בִּדְיוּטָא אַחַת אֶלָּא זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה, שֶׁאֶחָד יוֹצֵא מִכֹּתֶל שֶׁבְּצַד זֶה שֶׁל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהַשֵּׁנִי מִכֹּתֶל שֶׁבְּצַד שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ, וְרֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּינֵיהֶם – הַמּוֹשִׁיט מִזֶּה לָזֶה פָּטוּר, שֶׁהוֹשָׁטָה זוֹ לֹא הָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן.פו,82 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר,פז,83 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ג,פח,84 כֵּיוָן שֶׁמּוֹשִׁיט דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר:


Fig. 35: The transfer of an object from a projection jutting out over the public domain to an adjoining projection. a) A projection jutting out of the wall, 10 handbreadths high and 4x4 handbreaths wide; b) A similar projection with the length of the public domain intervening between them; c) The path of an object thrown from one projection to the other
Fig. 35: The transfer of an object from a projection jutting out over the public domain to an adjoining projection. a) A projection jutting out of the wall, 10 handbreadths high and 4x4 handbreaths wide; b) A similar projection with the length of the public domain intervening between them; c) The path of an object thrown from one projection to the other

Fig. 36: The transfer of objects from a projection on one side of the public domain to a second projection on the opposite side. a) A projection jutting out of the wall, 10 handbreadths high and 4x4 handbreaths wide; b) A similar projection on the opposite side of the public domain; c)The path of an object thrown from one projection to the other
Fig. 36: The transfer of objects from a projection on one side of the public domain to a second projection on the opposite side. a) A projection jutting out of the wall, 10 handbreadths high and 4x4 handbreaths wide; b) A similar projection on the opposite side of the public domain; c)The path of an object thrown from one projection to the other