SECTION 346 The Laws Governing Eruvin According to Scriptural Law (1-13)

סימן שמו דִּינֵי עֵרוּבִין מִן הַתּוֹרָה וּבוֹ י"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 According to Scriptural Law,1 a person is liable [for transferring] an object only when: a) he takes the object [in his hands] and walks [with it]2 from a private domain3 [to a public domain4 and places it down there], b) he brings [the object] in from a public domain to a private domain [and places the object down there], or c) he stands in a private domain and throws or extends an object into a public domain [and it sets down there], or the opposite, [i.e., throwing or extending the object from a public domain to a private domain].

The Sages [however, broadened the scope of this prohibition, and] forbade taking out, bringing in, throwing, and extending [an object] from a karmelis5 to a public domain or to a private domain, and from these [domains] to a karmelis. It is, however, permitted to take out and to bring in [an object] from a makom p’tur6 to a private domain and to a public domain, and to [take out and to bring in an object] from these [domains] to [a makom p’tur, even according to Rabbinic Law]. Similarly, [objects] may be thrown and extended [to and from these domains to a makom p’tur and from a makom p’tur to them].7

If, however, one takes [an object] from a private domain to a public domain, or brings [an object] into a private domain from the public domain via a makom p’tur, for example, one takes [an object] from a store8 out to a public domain via a colonnade9 [that stands before the store], or [one does] the reverse, he is liable. [The rationale is that] the object did not come to rest in a makom p’tur.10 True, [the person] walked through the makom p’tur and he placed his feet down there with every step. Nevertheless, this is not considered as placing [the object] down,11 unless [the person] stopped [in the makom p’tur] to rest.12 If, however, [the person merely] stopped to adjust his burden, he is considered as having stood for the sake of [continuing] to walk and [the object] is not considered to have come to a rest. Needless to say, when one extends or throws [an object] from a private domain to the public domain or [from the public domain to a private domain] via a makom p’tur, he is liable for such a transfer.13

א 1 מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמּוֹצִיא חֵפֶץ בְּרַגְלָיוא,2 מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד3 אוֹ מַכְנִיסוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים4 לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אוֹ שֶׁעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְזוֹרְקוֹ אוֹ מוֹשִׁיטוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ. וַחֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ הַהוֹצָאָה וְהַהַכְנָסָה וְהַזְּרִיקָה וְהוֹשָׁטָה מִכַּרְמְלִית5 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אוֹ מֵהֶן לְכַרְמְלִית. אֲבָל מְקוֹם פְּטוּר6 – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִמֶּנּוּ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְלִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּמֵהֶן לְתוֹכוֹ, וְכֵן לִזְרוֹק וּלְהוֹשִׁיט.ב,7

אֲבָל הַמּוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ הַמַּכְנִיס מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, כְּגוֹן הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲנוּת8 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים דֶּרֶךְ אִסְטְוָנִיתג,9 אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ – חַיָּב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נָח הַחֵפֶץ בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר.ד,10 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וַהֲרֵי הִנִּיחַ רַגְלָיו שָׁם בְּכָל פְּסִיעָהה – אֵין זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָה11 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָמַד שָׁם לָפוּשׁ,ו,12 אֲבָל אִם עָמַד שָׁם לְתַקֵּן מַשָּׂאוֹ, הֲרֵי עֲמִידָה זוֹ צֹרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ וְאֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַנָּחָה.ז וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהַמּוֹשִׁיט אוֹ זוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב:ח,13

2 Similarly, when a person standing in a makom p’tur takes an object from a private domain or from the hand of a person standing in a private domain, and places it down in the public domain or in the hand of [a person] standing in the public domain, or [does the opposite] without his hand coming to rest at all in the makom p’tur when he passes [the object] through there, he is liable. If, however, [the person’s] hand rests briefly [in the makom p’tur], he is exempt.14

[Although in the latter instance, one is exempt,] it is forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law. [This restriction applies] even if [the transfer is performed] by two people,15 e.g., one person is standing in a private domain and takes an object from there and places it in a makom p’tur, and a person standing in the public domain takes [the object from there to the public domain. The rationale is that] they are making light of the Shabbos prohibitions, causing [objects] to be taken out initially from a private domain to a public domain or the opposite. [This is forbidden as] a decree, lest people come to take [objects] from a private domain to a public domain or the opposite without placing them in a makom p’tur in the interim.

ב וְכֵן הָעוֹמֵד בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר וְנוֹטֵל חֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אוֹ מִיַּד מִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְנוֹתְנוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ בְּיַד הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ, וְלֹא נָחָה יָדוֹ כְּלָל בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר כְּשֶׁהוֹלִיכָהּ דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם – חַיָּב. אֲבָל אִם נָחָה יָדוֹ שָׁם קְצָת – פָּטוּר.ט,14

אֲבָל אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,י,13 אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי שְׁנַיִם,15 כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֶחָד עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְנוֹטֵל מִשָּׁם חֵפֶץ וּמַנִּיחוֹ בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וְהָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים נוֹטְלוֹ,יא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּזַלְזֵל בְּאִסּוּרֵי שַׁבָּת לִגְרוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה הוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ, וּגְזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹאוּ לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםיב אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ בְּלֹא הַנָּחָה בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר בֵּינְתַיִם:יג

3 In which situations does the above apply? In domains defined by Scriptural Law, i.e., [areas defined as] a private domain or a public domain in a complete sense. [Different laws apply,] by contrast, to domains [and prohibitions] established by Rabbinic Law.16 For example, when there is a makom p’tur between two courtyards [whose inhabitants] did not establish a [common] eruv,17it is permitted to stand in [the makom p’tur] and take [an object] from one courtyard and place it down in the second [courtyard].18 Similar [laws apply] when there is a makom p’tur between a private domain and a karmelis, as will be explained in sec. 355[:3]. ([The rationale for this leniency] is that even in instances that involve domains defined by Scriptural Law, the prohibition [against this form of transfer] is merely a decree. Hence, when the domains are defined by Rabbinic Law, [issuing such a prohibition would be] a decree [issued to safeguard] a decree.)19

There are authorities who forbid [such transfers] even in domains defined by Rabbinic Law for the reason to be explained in sec. 352[:2].20 One should be stringent and follow their opinion.21

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֵן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה. אֲבָל בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם,יד,16 כְּגוֹן מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הָעוֹמֵד בֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ,טו,17 מֻתָּר לַעֲמוֹד עָלָיו וְלִטּוֹל מֵחָצֵר זוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחַ בְּחָצֵר זוֹ.18 וְכֵן בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר שֶׁבֵּין רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן (שנ"ו) [שנ"הטז] (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֵין אִסּוּר בְּזֶה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה, אִם כֵּן בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם הִיא גְזֵרָה לִגְזֵרָהיז).19

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםיח אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן (שנ"ג) [שנ"ביט],20 וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵיהֶם:כ,21

4 (All the above applies when [the person] is standing in a makom p’tur and [the object] comes to rest there, as explained, and similarly, when one is standing in a private domain and places an object down in a makom p’tur and then picks up [the object] from there and [transfers it] to a karmelis or to a courtyard that is not [joined to one’s domain] with an eruv. All authorities agree, however, that it is forbidden to extend or to throw [an object] over a makom p’tur without it coming to rest [in the makom p’tur] in the interim. [The rationale is that] were one to perform such an act in Scripturally defined domains, he would be liable for a sin-offering.22 Therefore, [if such an act is performed] in Rabbinically defined domains, it is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. [The prohibition against doing so] is not considered a decree safeguarding a decree.) There is an authority who permits even such an act, but his words should not be relied upon, as will be stated in sec. 353[:1].23

All authorities agree that it is forbidden to take out [an object] from a private domain to a makom p’tur [via another domain] even via a Rabbinically [established] domain like a karmelis or a courtyard that is not joined with an eruv.[This applies] even when [the object] is not placed down [in the other domain] in the interim.24 [To cite a parallel: Our Sages] prohibited [transferring an object] from one private domain to another private domain via a karmelis, as will be stated in sec. 347[:8].25 A similar [prohibition] applies [regarding transferring an object] from one karmelis to another karmelis via a private domain, as will be stated [in sec. 347:9].26 It is, however, permitted [to transfer an object] from one karmelis to another via a makom p’tur, provided [the object is carried only] within four cubits [of its original place].27

ד (וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁעוֹמֵד בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר וְנַעֲשֵׂית שָׁם הַנָּחָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. וְכֵן אִם עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּמַנִּיחַ חֵפֶץ בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וְחוֹזֵר וְעוֹקְרוֹ מִשָּׁם לְכַרְמְלִית אוֹ לְחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת. אֲבָל אִם מוֹשִׁיט אוֹ זוֹרֵק דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בְּלִי הַנָּחָה בֵּינְתַיִם – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר,כא שֶׁהֲרֵי כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה חַיָּב חַטָּאת,22 לָכֵן בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם וְאֵין כַּאן גְּזֵרָה לִגְזֵרָה19). וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּירכב גַּם בְּזֶה, וְאֵין לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ג.כג,23

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִמְקוֹם פְּטוּרכד אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ רְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן כַּרְמְלִית אוֹ חָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּלִי הַנָּחָה בֵּינְתַיִם,24 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁאָסְרוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ז,כה,25 וְהוּא הַדִּין מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.כו,26 אֲבָל מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, מֻתָּר תּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת:27

5 It is a halachah transmitted to Moshe at Sinai that one who transfers an object four cubits in the public domain is liable.28 Our Sages [extended this prohibition and] forbade transferring [an object] four cubits in a karmelis.29 It is, however, permitted to transfer [an object from place to place] in a makom p’tur [and even to carry it] throughout the entire [domain] despite it being 1000 cubits long.30 It is permitted to carry [an object] from one karmelis to another karmelis [provided the object is carried only] within four cubits [of its original place], e.g., from a lake to an unenclosed group of fields, or in other similar situations involving other karmelios.31

ה הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַיכז שֶׁהַמַּעֲבִיר חֵפֶץ ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חַיָּב.כח,28 וַחֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְהַעֲבִיר ד' אַמּוֹת בְּכַרְמְלִית.כט,29 אֲבָל מְקוֹם פְּטוּר – מֻתָּר לְהַעֲבִיר בּוֹ בְּכֻלּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אָרֹךְ אֶלֶף אַמָּה.ל,30 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִכַּרְמְלִית זוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית אַחֶרֶת תּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת, כְּגוֹן מִיָּם לְבִקְעָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן מִשְּׁאָר הַכַּרְמְלִיּוֹת:לא,31

6 [A similar leniency is granted] even regarding a place that is a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law, but our Sages forbade carrying within it except within four cubits like they forbade [carrying] in a domain that is a karmelis in a complete sense. An example would be a yard whose area is larger than the space necessary to sow two seah32 that was not enclosed for the purpose of [human] habitation,33 as will be explained in sec. 358[:1]. According to Scriptural Law, [such an area] is a private domain in a complete sense even if it is several mil34 long and wide, since it has walls [around it. Hence,] one who throws [an object] from [this domain] into the public domain is liable.35 [Nevertheless, because] people do not dwell in [this private domain, our Sages placed restrictions on carrying within it]. Even so, although [this area is essentially a private domain], it is permitted to move [an object] from it to a place that is a karmelis in a complete sense36[provided the object is moved only] within four cubits [of its original place], e.g., from [such a yard] to an unenclosed group of fields that pass in front of it.37 [Our Sages] did not enforce a decree in this instance as they did regarding moving [an object] from other private domains to a karmelis. [The rationale is that our Sages] feared that if it will be forbidden to move [an object] from [such a yard] to a karmelis, people may err in this instance and say that [such a yard] is not placed in the category of a karmelis at all,38 and they will come to permit moving [objects] more than four cubits inside it.

ו אֲפִלּוּ מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְטַלְטֵל בּוֹ אֶלָּא תּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָסְרוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָה, כְּגוֹן קַרְפֵּף יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם32 שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה,לב,33 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ח,לג שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה אֲפִלּוּ אָרֹךְ וְרָחָב כַּמָּה מִילִין,לד,34 כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מְחִצּוֹת, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּחֻסַּר דִּיּוּרִין, וְהַזּוֹרֵק מִתּוֹכוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חַיָּבלה,35 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָהלו,36 תּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת,לז כְּגוֹן לְבִקְעָה הָעוֹבֶרֶת לְפָנָיו.לח,37 וְלֹא גָזְרוּ כַּאן כְּמוֹ שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל טִלְטוּל מִשְּׁאָר רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית, לְפִי שֶׁחָשְׁשׁוּ כַּאן אִם יִהְיֶה אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית, יִטְעוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא אֵין לוֹ דִּין כַּרְמְלִית כְּלָל,38 וְיָבֹאוּ לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל בְּתוֹכוֹ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת:לט,28

7 Why were [our Sages] more concerned regarding the prohibition against carrying within [four cubits of such a yard] than the prohibition against carrying from it to [a domain that is] a karmelis in a complete sense? Because it is more common to carry [objects] within such a domain than from such a domain to [a domain that is] a karmelis39 in a complete sense.

Hence, [the Sages] nullified this [i.e., the prohibition of carrying from a private domain to a karmelis] in order to [keep in force] the other [i.e., the prohibition against carrying four cubits within a karmelis]. Since [both are Rabbinic prohibitions, the Sages] upheld one [of their prohibitions] and did not apply [the other].

ז וְלָמָּה חָשְׁשׁוּ יוֹתֵר לְאִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל בְּתוֹכוֹ מִלְּאִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָה?28 לְפִי שֶׁהַטִּלְטוּל בְּתוֹכוֹ מָצוּי יוֹתֵר מֵהַטִּלְטוּל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָה,מ,39 וְלָכֵן בִּטְּלוּ זֶה מִפְּנֵי זֶה, שֶׁהֵם אָמְרוּ וְהֵם אָמְרוּ:מא

8 Therefore, it is permitted to take a key from a karmelis that is in front of a garden to open and lock the garden or to hide the key in [the karmelis] and then to come and take [the key] from [its hiding place in the karmelis] when [the person] is standing outside [the garden. This ruling applies] even though the garden is a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, [the garden] is a karmelis according to Rabbinic Law if its area is larger than the space necessary to sow two seah.40

[There is, however, one condition:] There may not be a doorstep between [the karmelis in front of the garden and the garden] that constitutes a private domain, i.e., [a doorstep] that is ten handbreadths [or more] high and four handbreadths [or more] wide. [Indeed, this restriction also applies] even if [the doorway] does not have a raised [doorstep] at all, but it has partitions that are four handbreadths [or more] wide on its sides, i.e., the doorposts [that serve as partitions] on both sides. [See fig. 29.] If these [doorposts] are four [handbreadths] wide and there is also a lintel above them that is also four [handbreadths] wide and thus can be considered as a roof, the principle “the [outer] edge of the roof [is considered as having] descended and closed [the area]”41 is applied, as will be stated in sec. 361[:5-6] and sec. 365[:6]. Thus, [in this situation] it is as if there is a partition before the doorway. As a result, [the doorstep] is deemed a private domain,42 and it is forbidden to carry [an object] through it, because [by doing so,] one would be carrying from one karmelis to another via a private domain.43

ח וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִקַּח מַפְתֵּחַ מִכַּרְמְלִית שֶׁלִּפְנֵי גִנָּה לִפְתּוֹחַ וְלִנְעוֹל הַגִּנָּה, אוֹ לְהַטְמִינוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְלַחֲזוֹר וְלִטְּלוֹ מִמֶּנָּה כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ,מב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַגִּנָּה הִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא כְּכַרְמְלִית מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אִם הִיא יְתֵרָה עַל בֵּית סָאתַיִם.מג,40

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶן אִסְקֻפָּה שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָחִיד, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִיא גְבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה ד', אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ גְּבוֹהָה כְּלָל אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת (א) מִן הַצְּדָדִים הָרְחָבוֹת ד' טְפָחִים, דְּהַיְנוּ מְזוּזוֹת הַפֶּתַח מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן ד', וְגַם יֵשׁ עָלֶיהָ מַשְׁקוֹף מִלְמַעְלָה הָרָחָב ד',מד שֶׁיֵּשׁ תּוֹרַת תִּקְרָה עָלָיו וְאוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם",מה,41 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"אמו וְשס"ה,מז וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה מְחִצָּה לִפְנֵי הָאִסְקֻפָּה, וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן נַעֲשֵׂית רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,42 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל דֶּרֶךְ עָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד:מח,43


Fig. 29: A doorway leading from a karmelis to a garden. a) The karmelis; b) The roof of the doorway, at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; c) The doorway, at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; d) The garden
Fig. 29: A doorway leading from a karmelis to a garden. a) The karmelis; b) The roof of the doorway, at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; c) The doorway, at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; d) The garden

9 According to law, if this doorstep – which is deemed a private domain based on the principle “the [outer] edge of the roof [is considered as having] descended and closed [the area]” – is positioned before [an area that is] a private domain in a complete sense where one may carry, e.g., a house or courtyard,44 it should have been permitted to carry from the doorstep into [the private domain] and the reverse. [The rationale is that] one is carrying from one private domain into [another] private domain. Nevertheless, there is reason to forbid this, because not everyone is knowledgeable enough to check whether the lintel is four [handbreadths] wide [and thus the above principle is applied], for when [the lintel] is less than four [handbreadths wide], we do not apply the principle, “the [outer] edge of the roof [is considered as having] descended and closed [the area].” Thus, such a doorstep would have the status of a karmelis if it is not ten handbreadths high.45

[This ruling applies] even though [the doorstep] is not four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area, and a domain is not deemed a karmelis if its [area] is less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths]. The rationale is that all of our public domains are considered as karmelios46 and there is no concept of a makom p’tur in a karmelis. Instead, any [separate area] within [the karmelis], even if its [area] is less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths],47 is batel to [the karmelis] and is given its status, [for] as explained in sec. 345[:25, this approach] should be given primacy. Hence, this doorstep is batel to [the karmelis] and not to the private domain inside, since there is a door separating them.48 Even when the door is opened, the doorstep is not given the status of the inside [of the house], but rather that of [the karmelis] outside [the house,] since [the door] will be closed again.

ט וְאִם אִסְקֻפָּה זוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עַל יְדֵי "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם" הוּא לִפְנֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכָהּ, כְּגוֹן בַּיִת וְחָצֵרמט,44 – מִן הַדִּין הָיָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מֵהָאִסְקֻפָּה לִפְנִים אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּל בְּקִיאִים לְדַקְדֵּק אִם יֵשׁ בְּרֹחַב הַמַּשְׁקוֹף ד',נ שֶׁכְּשֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' אֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם", וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לְאִסְקֻפָּה זוֹ דִּין כַּרְמְלִית אִם אֵינָהּ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה.45

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְחָבָה ד', וְאֵין כַּרְמְלִית בְּפָחוֹת מִד' – הֲרֵי כָּל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁלָּנוּ הֵן כַּרְמְלִית,46 וְאֵין מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בְּכַרְמְלִית, אֶלָּא כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד'47 הוּא בָּטֵל אֶצְלָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂה כָּמוֹהָ,נא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"הנב שֶׁכֵּן עִקָּר. וְאַף אִסְקֻפָּה זוֹ בְּטֵלָה אֶצְלָהּ וְלֹא אֵצֶל רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁבִּפְנִים,נג הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ דֶּלֶת מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶן.48 וְאַף בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַפֶּתַח פָּתוּחַ אֵין הָאִסְקֻפָּה כְּלִפְנִים אֶלָּא כְּלַחוּץ, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא עָשׂוּי לַחֲזוֹר וְלִנָּעֵל:

10 Based on the above, when a house opens to a karmelis, one should be careful when carrying from the house to the outside to carry no further than the place in the lintel where the door closes, not even the slightest distance more. For it is possible that the lintel will not be four [handbreadths] wide, and thus [the doorstep] is deemed a karmelis from the place in the lintel where the door closes outward. [See fig. 30.]

Even though [such precautions are being taken], one may not carry from the karmelis until outside of the place in the lintel where the door closes, for it is possible that the lintel is four [handbreadths wide], in which instance, the entire expanse of the doorstep is deemed a private domain. [This includes] the area outside the place in the lintel where the door closes. Thus, because of the doubt, both the stringencies applying to the private domain and those applying to the karmelis are applied to the portion of the doorstep that is outside the place in the lintel where the door closes.

([The same rule] also applies to the empty space above [the lintel] until the height of ten handbreadths above the ground, but the space above ten handbreadths is a makom p’tur even in a karmelis), (as stated in sec. 345[:25]).

י וְלָכֵן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר בְּבַיִת שֶׁפִּתְחוֹ פָּתוּחַ לְכַרְמְלִית, שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטֵל מִן הַבַּיִת וְלַחוּץ רַק עַד מְקוֹם שְׁקִיפַת הַדֶּלֶתנד וְלֹא יוֹתֵר אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ,נה כִּי שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִהְיֶה בַּמַּשְׁקוֹף רֹחַב ד' וּמִשְּׁקִיפַת הַדֶּלֶת וְאֵילַךְ הוּא כַּרְמְלִית. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לְטַלְטֵל מֵהַכַּרְמְלִית עַד מְקוֹם שְׁקִיפַת הַדֶּלֶת מִבַּחוּץ,נו כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה בַּמַּשְׁקוֹף ד', וְאָז כָּל רֹחַב הָאִסְקֻפָּה הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אַף מִשְּׁקִיפַת הַדֶּלֶת וְאֵילַךְ. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁהָאִסְקֻפָּה מִשְּׁקִיפַת דֶּלֶת וְאֵילַךְ כְּלַפֵּי חוּץ, מַטִּילִין עָלֶיהָ מִסָּפֵק חֹמֶר רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְחֹמֶר כַּרְמְלִית.

(וְכֵן בְּחָלָל שֶׁעָלֶיהָ עַד גֹּבַהּ י' טְפָחִים מִן הָאָרֶץ. אֲבָל מִי' וּלְמַעְלָה הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר אַף בְּכַרְמְלִית) (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר סִמָּן שמ"הנז):


Fig. 30: A doorway that opens to a karmelis. a) The lintel; b) The point to which the door reaches; c) The karmelis
Fig. 30: A doorway that opens to a karmelis. a) The lintel; b) The point to which the door reaches; c) The karmelis

11 Therefore, [care should be taken] in those places where it is forbidden to carry because there is no eruv: If the entrance to the synagogue faces the street and there is no room before the entrance, [should] a non-Jew bring the key [to the synagogue], the Jewish synagogue-attendant should be warned not to take the key from [the non-Jew’s] hand until both he and [the non-Jew] are [standing] under the lintel that [hangs] over the [synagogue’s] entrance. [See fig. 31. The rationale is that] it is possible that the area under the lintel is a private domain. [Thus, if one takes the key when not standing under the lintel, when he brings the key under the lintel to open the door,] he is carrying from the karmelis in front of the synagogue to a private domain. Hence, [the synagogue attendant] should take the key from [the non-Jew] under the lintel and [then] open the lock. [The synagogue attendant] should not open the door until he removes the key. Only then should he open [the door. This stringency is necessary] because perhaps the space under the lintel is a karmelis,49 and thus by opening the door towards the inside [of the synagogue] with the key in [the lock, the synagogue attendant] would be bringing the key into a private domain from a karmelis. Therefore, [the synagogue attendant] should first remove [the key] and give it to the non-Jew, or hide [the key] between the doorpost and the lintel, or between the doorpost and [the portion of] the doorstep that is in front of the door’s lintel.

Nevertheless, inserting the key into the keyhole in the door to open it is not considered as bringing [an object] from a karmelis into a private domain, because this hole is not considered as being inside [the private domain], for it is impossible to use the keyhole from the inside; [rather, the keyhole can] only [be used] from the outside.50 Since the keyhole is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], it is deemed a makom p’tur.51

(According to the authorities who maintain that [when] a person’s hand is more than ten handbreadths above the ground [it] is deemed a makom p’tur, as will be explained in sec. 347[:6-7], one may stand on the doorstep and take the key from the non-Jew while he is standing in the karmelis, provided the non-Jew’s hand is [also] more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground]. Afterwards, there is no need to remove the key from the keyhole in the door before he opens it if this keyhole is more than ten [handbreadths] above the ground. [The rationale is that] the entire transfer of the key was performed more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground].

When, by contrast, a person leaves the synagogue and closes [the door], he is forbidden to take the key with him by carrying it more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground] into the space under the lintel and hide it there in a hole that is more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground. The rationale is that] the key briefly rests in [the person’s] hand [before he places it in the hole],52 and with regard to his own person, it is not significant that the transfer is being made more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground],53 as stated in that source.)

[Because of these concerns,] it is appropriate for such a community54 to make a small room before the entrance to the synagogue [and have the key hidden there]. Thus, these concerns will not arise at all.55

יא וְלָכֵן בְּאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאָסוּר הַטִּלְטוּל שָׁם מֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵין שָׁם עֵרוּב, וּפֶתַח בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת הוּא לְצַד הָרְחוֹב, וְאֵין שָׁם חֶדֶר לִפְנֵי הַפֶּתַח, וְהַנָּכְרִי מֵבִיא הַמַּפְתֵּחַ – יֵשׁ לְהַזְהִיר לַשַּׁמָּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִקַּח הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִיָּדוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עִמּוֹ תַּחַת הַמַּשְׁקוֹף שֶׁעַל הַפֶּתַח, כִּי שֶׁמָּא תַּחַת הַמַּשְׁקוֹף הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וִיטַלְטֵל מִכַּרְמְלִית שֶׁלִּפְנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. עַל כֵּן יִקַּח הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִמֶּנּוּ תַּחַת הַמַּשְׁקוֹף. אַחַר כָּךְ יִפְתַּח הַמַּנְעוּל, וְלֹא יִפְתַּח הַפֶּתַח עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר הַמַּפְתֵּחַ תְּחִלָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִפְתַּח הַפֶּתַח, כִּי שֶׁמָּא תַּחַת הַמַּשְׁקוֹף הוּא כַּרְמְלִית,49 וְנִמְצָא מַכְנִיס הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִכַּרְמְלִית לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד בִּפְתִיחַת הַפֶּתַח לִפְנִים עִם הַמַּפְתֵּחַ. עַל כֵּן יְסִירֶנּוּ תְּחִלָּה וְיִתְּנֶנּוּ לְהַנָּכְרִי, אוֹ יַטְמִינֵהוּ בֵּין הַמְּזוּזָה לְהַמַּשְׁקוֹף אוֹ בֵּין הַמְּזוּזָה לָאִסְקֻפָּה לִפְנֵי שְׁקִיפַת הַדֶּלֶת.נח

אֲבָל בְּמַה שֶּׁמַּכְנִיס הַמַּפְתֵּחַ לְחוֹר שֶׁבַּדֶּלֶת לְפָתְחָהּ בּוֹ – אֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מַכְנִיס מִכַּרְמְלִית לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, כִּי חוֹר זֶה אֵינוֹ כְּלִפְנִים,נט הוֹאִיל וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִבִּפְנִים אֶלָּא מִבַּחוּץ.50 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד', מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּא.ס,51

(וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁיַּד הָאָדָם שֶׁהִיא גְבוֹהָה לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים מִן הָאָרֶץ הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ז,סא יָכוֹל לַעֲמוֹד עַל הָאִסְקֻפָּה וְלִקַּח הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי בְּעוֹד שֶׁהוּא בְּכַרְמְלִית, אִם יַד הַנָּכְרִי הִיא גְבוֹהָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה.סב וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מֵחוֹרוֹ שֶׁבַּדֶּלֶת טֶרֶם יִפְתָּחֶנָּה אִם חוֹר זֶה הוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה מֵהָאָרֶץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל הַעֲבָרַת מַפְתֵּחַ הַכֹּל הוּא דֶּרֶךְ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה.

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְסוֹגְרוֹ – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא עִמּוֹ הַמַּפְתֵּחַ דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה לְתוֹךְ חָלָל שֶׁתַּחַת הַמַּשְׁקוֹף, וּלְהַטְמִינוֹ שָׁם בְּחוֹר שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִי', כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָחָה קְצָת בְּיָדוֹ,סג,52 לְפִי שֶׁלְּגַבֵּי עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל מַה שֶּׁמּוֹצִיא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה,53 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם).

וְרָאוּי לְאוֹתוֹ קָהָל 54 לַעֲשׂוֹת אֵיזֶה חֶדֶר קָטָן לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְשׁוּב לֹא יִהְיֶה חֲשָׁשׁ כְּלָל:סד,55


Fig. 31: An entrance to a synagogue that faces a public domain
Fig. 31: An entrance to a synagogue that faces a public domain

12 All the above applies under a lintel that has walls on its sides. [Different rules apply,] by contrast, when there is a roof that does not have walls on its sides, even if [the roof] is very wide. In such an instance, the principle “the [outer] edge of the roof [is considered as having] descended and closed [the area]” is not applied, as will be stated in sec. 361[:5]. Therefore, the open space under [the lintel] is placed in exactly the same category as the domain before it: (If [that domain] is a karmelis, [the space below the lintel] is a karmelis; if it is a public domain, [that space] is a public domain). [In this instance,] there is no place for doubt at all [whether] the space below [the lintel] is a private domain.56

Therefore, it is necessary to be vociferous in warning people at large who err with regard to our roofs that project beyond [the walls of] the homes and, [as a result,] carry from the homes to under [these roofs]. This is an absolute prohibition. Such deeds should not be performed in Israel! For there are no walls as required by law under that protrusion. True, there are pillars standing before the house and the roof is placed over them, thus creating “the frame of an entrance”57 (a tzuras hapesach), which is considered as a wall, as will be stated in sec. 362[:19].58 Nevertheless, on its sides,59 there are no walls at all. Therefore, one should erect a pole next to the wall of the house, opposite the pillar on either side. Thus the pole and the pillar opposite it will be considered a “frame of an entrance.” This will also apply on the other side. Thus, there will be a “frame of an entrance” on three sides60 and the wall of the house will be the fourth wall. [See fig. 32.]

True, according to law, only three walls are necessary, and the principle “the [outer] edge of the roof [is considered as having] descended and closed [the area]” should be applied with regard to the fourth wall, as will be stated in sec. 361[:5]. Nevertheless, it is desirable to be stringent and give weight to the words of the authority61 who maintains that some measure should also be taken with regard to the fourth wall.

If there are many homes standing next to each other, it is sufficient to erect one pole at the [outer] end of the house on the outer end, and one pole at the outer end of the house at the [other] outer end, and have all the homes establish an eruv [joining them] together. [See fig. 33.]

There is an authority who maintains that a “frame of an entrance” is not sufficient to permit carrying under this projection in front of the houses, since the open portion of this “wall” exceeds the standing portion. Nevertheless, fundamentally, the halachah follows the first [and more lenient] opinion, as will be explained in sec. 362[:19].

יב וְכָל זֶה בְּתַחַת מַשְׁקוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מְחִצּוֹת מִן הַצְּדָדִים. אֲבָל תִּקְרָה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת מִן הַצְּדָדִים, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא רְחָבָה הַרְבֵּהסה – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם",סו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"א,סז וְלָכֵן הֶחָלָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ דִּינוֹ לְגַמְרֵי כִּרְשׁוּת הַמְהַלֶּכֶת לְפָנָיו (אִם כַּרְמְלִית – כַּרְמְלִית, וְאִם רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםסח), וְאֵין לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בְּחָלָל שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּלָל בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.56

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר מְאֹד לָרַבִּים שֶׁנִּכְשָׁלִים בְּגַגִּין שֶׁלָּנוּ הַבּוֹלְטִים לִפְנֵי הַבָּתִּים, שֶׁמְּטַלְטְלִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶן מֵהַבָּתִּים, וְזֶהוּ אִסּוּר גָּמוּר – לֹא יֵעָשֶׂה כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי לִבְלִיטָה זוֹ אֵין לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת כְּהִלְכָתָן, שֶׁאַף שֶׁעַמּוּדִים תְּחוּבִים כְּנֶגֶד הַבַּיִת וְהַגַּג נָתוּן עֲלֵיהֶם, וַהֲרֵי זֶה צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח57 שֶׁהִיא כִּמְחִצָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"בסט,58 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִן הַצְּדָדִים59 אֵין שָׁם מְחִצָּה כְּלָל. וְלָכֵן יַעֲמִיד קָנֶה אֶחָד אֵצֶל כֹּתֶל הַבַּיִת מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה, וְקָנֶה אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה, מְכֻוָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד הָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁבַּקְּצָווֹת, וְיִהְיֶה הַקָּנֶה עִם הָעַמּוּד שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ מִצַּד זֶה נִדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח, וְכֵן בְּצַד הַשֵּׁנִי, וְיִהְיֶה צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח מִכָּל הַג' צְדָדִים,60 וְכֹתֶל הַבַּיִת הוּא מְחִצָּה רְבִיעִית.ע

וְאַף שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין אֵין צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא ג' מְחִצּוֹת, וּבָרְבִיעִית אוֹמְרִים "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"א,עא מִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב לְהַחֲמִירעב וְלָחוּשׁ לִדְבֵרי הָאוֹמֵרעג,61 שֶׁגַּם בָּרְבִיעִית צָרִיךְ אֵיזֶה תִּקּוּן.

וְאִם בָּתִּים רַבִּים עוֹמְדִים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה – דַּי לְהַעֲמִיד קָנֶה אֶחָד בִּקְצֵה הַבַּיִת הָעוֹמֵד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה וְקָנֶה אֶחָד בִּקְצֵה הַבַּיִת הָעוֹמֵד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה, וִיעָרְבוּ יַחַד כָּל הַבָּתִּים.עד

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר שֶׁאֵין צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח מוֹעֶלֶת לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל בִּבְלִיטָה זוֹ שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַבָּתִּים, הוֹאִיל וְהַפָּרוּץ שֶׁבָּהּ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד. אֲבָל הָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ב:עה,62


Fig. 32: A series of frames of entrances constructed under a roof
Fig. 32: A series of frames of entrances constructed under a roof

Fig. 33: A series of frames of entrances constructed under a roof that covers two homes. a) A roof that projects beyond the walls of the homes; b) A pole next to the wall of the homes; c) A pillar that supports the roof
Fig. 33: A series of frames of entrances constructed under a roof that covers two homes. a) A roof that projects beyond the walls of the homes; b) A pole next to the wall of the homes; c) A pillar that supports the roof

13 If projections jut out from the wall [creating something] like a pillar and reaches within three handbreadths of the ground, there is no need for a pole at all, as will be explained in sec. 363[:33.62 See fig. 34.]

יג אִם גִּפּוּפִים בּוֹלְטִים מִן קְצֵה הַכֹּתֶל כְּמִין עַמּוּד, עַד פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ – אֵין צָרִיךְ קָנֶה כְּלָל,עו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג:עז,


Fig. 34: A private domain created by a roof, its supporting pillars, and projections that jut out from its walls. a) The roof of the home; b) Projections that jut out from its side walls; c) The pillars that support the roof
Fig. 34: A private domain created by a roof, its supporting pillars, and projections that jut out from its walls. a) The roof of the home; b) Projections that jut out from its side walls; c) The pillars that support the roof