SECTION 345 The Laws Governing the Four Types of Shabbos Domains (1-27)

סימן שמה דִּין אַרְבַּע רְשֻׁיּוֹת לְשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 There are four types of Shabbos domains:1 a private domain, a public domain,2 a karmelis,3 and a makom p’tur.4

What defines a private domain? An area surrounded by walls5 that are ten handbreadths6 high and whose inner space7 is at least four handbreadths8 by four handbreadths.9 This is the [minimum] measure of a significant place that is fit to be used [for a specific purpose].10

Similarly, when a ditch is ten handbreadths deep, its inner space is thus surrounded by walls ten [handbreadths] high. Hence, if its [inner] area is four handbreadths by four handbreadths – this being the measure of a [significant] place – its inner space is considered a private domain in a complete sense even if [the ditch] is located in the public domain.11

Similarly, a pillar12 or a mound13 that is ten [handbreadths] high and whose area [measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] is considered as if it is surrounded by walls that are ten [handbreadths] high. [See fig. 11. The rationale is that] it is a halachah transmitted to Moshe at Mount Sinai14 that [we adopt the halachic construct] gud asik, “extend and elevate,” i.e., we view the four sides of the pillar as if they have been extended and elevated above its top,15 and [it is as if] they are standing as walls around the top [of the pillar]. Thus, the top [of the pillar] is [considered] to be surrounded on [all] four sides, and its interior space [comprises] an area of four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths].

א אַרְבַּע רְשֻׁיּוֹת לְשַׁבָּת:1 רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,2 כַּרְמְלִית3 וּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר. א,4

אֵיזוֹ הִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד? מָקוֹם הַמֻּקָּף מְחִצּוֹת5 גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, ב,6 וְיֵשׁ בַּחֲלָלוֹ ג,7 (א) ד' טְפָחִים8 עַל ד' טְפָחִים,9 שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁעוּר מָקוֹם חָשׁוּב ד הָרָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ. ה,10

וְכֵן חָרִיץ עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, שֶׁנִּמְצָא חֲלָלוֹ מֻקָּף בִּמְחִצּוֹת גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה, אִם רֹחַב חֲלָלוֹ הוּא ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים, שֶׁהוּא שִׁעוּר מָקוֹם – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה בְּתוֹכוֹ, ו אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.ז,11

וְכֵן עַמּוּדח,12 אוֹ תֵּלט,13 שֶׁהוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב ד' עַל ד' – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֻקָּף מְחִצּוֹת גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי י הִיא14 שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "גּוּד אַסֵּק",יא דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים אֶת ד' צְדָדֵי הָעַמּוּד הַגְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים כְּאִלּוּ נִמְשְׁכוּ וְהֻעֲלוּ לְמַעְלָה עַל רֹאשׁוֹיב,15 וְעוֹמְדִים כִּמְחִצּוֹת סָבִיב לוֹ, וְנִמְצָא רֹאשׁוֹ מֻקָּף מִד' צְדָדִים וַחֲלָלוֹ ד' עַל ד':יג


Fig. 11: Virtual walls extending above a pillar. a) A pillar 10 handsbreadths high and 4 by 4 handsbreadth wide; b) The virtual walls above the pillar
Fig. 11: Virtual walls extending above a pillar. a) A pillar 10 handsbreadths high and 4 by 4 handsbreadth wide; b) The virtual walls above the pillar

2 [The following laws apply when] there is a sloped mound that gradually increases in height:16 If [the mound] rises [to a height of] ten handbreadths within a length of four cubits17 and reaches this height on all sides, it is considered as if [the mound] rises vertically, and it is [therefore] deemed a private domain at its highest point. [This rule applies] even if it is located in the public domain, because [the mound] is difficult to ascend.18 If, however, [the mound] rises ten handbreadths within a length of five cubits, it is easy to ascend. Hence, [the mound] is considered as a public domain in a complete sense if it is located in the public domain or as a karmelis if it is located in a karmelis. [See figs. 12 and 13.]

ב תֵּל שֶׁהוּא מְשֻׁפָּע וְהוֹלֵךְ וּמִתְלַקֵּט בְּגָבְהוֹ מְעַט מְעַט,16 אִם הוּא מַגְבִּיהַּ י' טְפָחִים מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹתיד,17 – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ זָקוּף בְּיֹשֶׁר, וּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הוּא בִּמְקוֹם גָּבְהוֹ,טו אִם מַגְבִּיהַּ כֵּן מִכָּל רוּחוֹתָיו,טז אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לַהֲלוֹךְ בּוֹ.יז,18 אֲבָל אִם מִתְלַקֵּט גֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ה' אַמּוֹת, הֲרֵי הַהִלּוּךְ בּוֹ נוֹחַ וְקַל, וּלְפִיכָךְ הוּא כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָהיח אִם הוּא בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אוֹ כְּכַרְמְלִית אִם הוּא בְּכַרְמְלִית:


Fig. 12: A mound that rises to a height of 10 handbreadths over the course of 4 cubits
Fig. 12: A mound that rises to a height of 10 handbreadths over the course of 4 cubits

Fig. 13: A mound that rises to a height of 10 handbreadths over the course of 5 cubits
Fig. 13: A mound that rises to a height of 10 handbreadths over the course of 5 cubits

3 When the upper surface of a pillar is ten [handbreadths] high and four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] in area, but its size progressively diminishes as it descends so that [the pillar’s width is only] three handbreadths by three handbreadths19 when it reaches three handbreadths close to the ground, the top [of the pillar] is [nevertheless] considered a private domain.20 [The rationale is that] it is a halachah transmitted to Moshe at Mount Sinai that we adopt the halachic construct gud achis, “extend and draw it down,”21 i.e., [it is as if] the top of the pillar [is extended] on all its sides and is drawn down to the earth.22 Thus, it is as if [the pillar] is surrounded by walls on all sides until its top. Since [the area] at its top is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], that area is deemed a private domain in a complete sense.

Even if the area [of the pillar] is less than three handbreadths by three handbreadths when it reaches less than three handbreadths close to the ground, this is of no consequence. [The rationale is that] whenever something is within three handbreadths of the ground, it is considered as lavud, [i.e.,]one entity [with the ground]. Thus, it is as if [the extension of the top of the pillar actually] reached the ground [while comprising an area measuring three handbreadths by three handbreadths].

[Even though the top of the pillar measures four handbreadths by four handbreadths,] the area between the top of the pillar and the earth below it is not deemed a private domain despite being considered as if it is surrounded by [virtual] walls. [The rationale is that] it does not [truly] encompass a space of four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], which would enable the space to be used, because the pillar’s base takes up [some of the] space.

ג עַמּוּד גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ ד' עַל ד', וּמִתְקַצֵּר וְהוֹלֵךְ לְמַטָּה,יט וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ ג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ יֵשׁ בּוֹ ג' טְפָחִים עַל ג' טְפָחִיםכ,19 – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עַל רֹאשׁוֹ,כא,20 לְפִי שֶׁהֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי הִיאכב שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "גּוּד אַחֵת",21 דְּהַיְנוּ, מְשׁוֹךְ אֶת רֹאשׁ הָעַמּוּד מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וְהוֹרֵד לְמַטָּה עַד לָאָרֶץ,22 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ מְחִצּוֹת מַקִּיפוֹת אוֹתוֹכג מִכָּל צְדָדָיו עַד רֹאשׁוֹ; וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ יֵשׁ ד' עַל ד', הֲרֵי הוּא שָׁם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה.כד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְפָחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ אֵין בְּעָבְיוֹ ג' טְפָחִים עַל ג' טְפָחִים, אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁכָּל שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים לָאָרֶץ כְּלָבוּד הוּא, וּכְאִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ.כה

אֲבָל תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַד הָאָרֶץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ מְחִצּוֹת מַקִּיפוֹת שָׁם – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,כו לְפִי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רֶוַח ד' עַל ד' שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם,כז שֶׁהֲרֵי תַּחְתִּית הָעַמּוּד מַפְסִיק שָׁם:כח


Fig. 14: A pillar whose walls progressively decline in area. a) A pillar 10 handsbreadths high whose upper surface is 4 by 4 handsbreadths wide; b) The dimensions of the pillar 3 handbreadths above the ground, 3 handbreadths by 3 handbreadths; c) The virtual walls extending downward; d) The space, 4 handbreadths by four handbreadths, encompassed by the pillar’s virtual walls
Fig. 14: A pillar whose walls progressively decline in area. a) A pillar 10 handsbreadths high whose upper surface is 4 by 4 handsbreadths wide; b) The dimensions of the pillar 3 handbreadths above the ground, 3 handbreadths by 3 handbreadths; c) The virtual walls extending downward; d) The space, 4 handbreadths by four handbreadths, encompassed by the pillar’s virtual walls

4 When a pillar has an area of four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] over a span of ten handbreadths,23 its upper surface is considered a private domain even though afterwards [the thickness of the pillar is reduced. This ruling applies] even though [the pillar] does not have an area of three handbreadths [by three handbreadths] when it reaches [a height of] three handbreadths close to the ground. [Furthermore, this ruling] even [applies] when [the pillar’s] area reaches less than three handbreadths [by three handbreadths] far above [the height of] three handbreadths near the ground. [The rationale is that] we adopt the construct gud asik and consider [the pillar’s] sides to have risen to a height of ten handbreadths, as explained.24 [See fig. 15.]

Nevertheless, [the area] under the pillar’s slanted portion, below [its upper portion],25 is not a private domain. [The rationale is that the construct of] gud achis cannot be applied [to that area], because goat kids can pass [under the pillar].26 For any partition that does not reach within three handbreadths of the ground is not considered a [valid] partition that causes a domain to be set off as a distinct entity, because goat kids can pass under it.27 If, however, [the partition] reaches within three handbreadths of the ground so [goat kids] cannot pass under it, the principle of lavud is applied and it is considered as if the partition reached the ground. [Indeed, this rule applies] even if [a partition suspended less than three handbreadths above the ground] is only a little more than seven handbreadths high.28 [See fig. 16.]

ד עַמּוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּעָבְיוֹ ד' עַל ד' בְּמֶשֶׁךְ גֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה,23 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִתְמַעֵט וְהוֹלֵךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ אֵין בְּעָבְיוֹ ג' טְפָחִים, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּבָר אֵין בְּעָבְיוֹ ג' טְפָחִים לְמַעְלָה הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עַל גַּבָּהּ,כט מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "גּוּד אַסֵּק" גֹּבַהּ י' טְפָחִים שֶׁל צְדָדָיו לְמַעְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.ל,24

אֲבָל לְמַטָּה תַּחַת הַשִּׁפּוּעַ25 אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,לא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שָׁם "גּוּד אַחֵת", מֵחֲמַת בְּקִיעַת הַגְּדָיִים,לב,26 כִּי כָּל מְחִצָּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגַּעַת ג' טְפָחִים לָאָרֶץ אֵינוֹ מְחִצָּה לַחֲלוֹק רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁהַגְּדָיִים יְכוֹלִים לִבְקוֹעַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ.לג,27 אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים, שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לַעֲבוֹר שָׁם,לד אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא ז' טְפָחִים וּמַשֶּׁהוּ – אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים לָבוּד, וּכְאִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ:28


Fig. 15: A pillar whose area progressively decreases. The space beneath the pillar is not considered as a private domain. a) The virtual walls above the pillar; b) The upper surface of the pillar, 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; c) The upper portion of the pillar, at least 10 handbreadths; d) The lower portion of the pillar, more than 3 handbreadths high
Fig. 15: A pillar whose area progressively decreases. The space beneath the pillar is not considered as a private domain. a) The virtual walls above the pillar; b) The upper surface of the pillar, 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; c) The upper portion of the pillar, at least 10 handbreadths; d) The lower portion of the pillar, more than 3 handbreadths high

Fig. 16: The space beneath a pillar is considered as a private domain. a) The upper surface of the pillar, 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; b) The upper portion of the pillar, more than 7 handbreadths long; c) The lower portion of the pillar, less than 3 handbreadths high, less than 3 handbreadths wide; d) The virtual walls extending downward
Fig. 16: The space beneath a pillar is considered as a private domain. a) The upper surface of the pillar, 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; b) The upper portion of the pillar, more than 7 handbreadths long; c) The lower portion of the pillar, less than 3 handbreadths high, less than 3 handbreadths wide; d) The virtual walls extending downward

5 Every place that has four walls, even if [the walls] are not complete but rather [are] open in the middle, is considered a private domain according to Scriptural Law. [Indeed, the above ruling applies even if such a place] only has a wall that [measures one] cubit29 on one side and a [wall that measures one] cubit on the other side at each corner.30 For example, four wooden blocks are implanted in a public domain on the four corners [of a virtual] square, each block measuring one cubit by one cubit.31 [See fig. 17.] Thus, on every side, there is a wall one cubit wide at each corner. [In such an instance,] if there are 13⅓ cubits32 [or less] between [the blocks,33 the enclosure] is considered as a private domain according to Scriptural Law, and one who throws [an object] into it from the public domain is liable.34 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, these blocks are not considered as [sufficiently significant] partitions to allow one to carry within them35 even if they are located in a karmelis. [The rationale is that] the open portion of the sides exceeds the enclosed portion.36 [An exception to this stringency was granted only to] those who would ascend to [Jerusalem for] the pilgrimage festivals. [Our Sages] permitted [these travelers] to erect such structures around the wells in the public domain37 [along the pilgrimage routes] so that there would be water available to them on Shabbasos.

ה כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שָׁם ד' מְחִצּוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן שְׁלֵמוֹת אֶלָּא פְּרוּצוֹת בְּאֶמְצָעָן, וְאֵין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא אַמָּה29 לְכַאן וְאַמָּה לְכַאן בְּכָל זָוִית,לה,30 כְּגוֹן ד' קוֹרוֹת הַנְּעוּצִים בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְאַרְבַּע זָוִיּוֹת, וְכָל אַחַת עָבְיָהּ אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה,לו,31 שֶׁנִּמְצָא שֶׁלְּכָל רוּחַ יֵשׁ מְחִצָּה בְּרֹחַב אַמָּה מִזָּוִית זוֹ וּבְרֹחַב אַמָּה מִזָּוִית זוֹ, אִם אֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם33 אֶלָּא י"ג אַמּוֹת וּשְׁלִישׁ32 – הֲרֵי זֶה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְהַזּוֹרֵק לְתוֹכָהּ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חַיָּב.לז,34 אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםלח אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבוֹת מְחִצּוֹת לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל בְּתוֹכוֹ,35 אֲפִלּוּ הֵן בְּכַרְמְלִית, הוֹאִיללט וְהַפָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד,מ,36 אֶלָּא לְעוֹלֵי רְגָלִים בִּלְבָד הִתִּירוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן סָבִיב הַבֵּירָאוֹת שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,מא,37 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַיִם מְצוּיִים לָהֶם בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת:


Fig. 17: A virtual enclosure around a well. a ) A public domain; b) A block of wood 1 cubit by 1 cubit; c) 13.3 cubits of empty space; d) The well
Fig. 17: A virtual enclosure around a well. a ) A public domain; b) A block of wood 1 cubit by 1 cubit; c) 13.3 cubits of empty space; d) The well

6 Similarly, a place that is enclosed by three complete partitions, but is completely open on the fourth side,38 or even [if] it has only two partitions and a lechi [i.e., a pole]39 – for this lechi is considered as the third partition, as will be explained in sec. 363[:1; see fig. 18]40 – is considered a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law. One who throws [an object] into [such an enclosure] from the public domain is liable. Nevertheless, our Sages prohibited carrying [an object] more than four cubits in such a domain and transferring from such a domain both to a private domain or a public domain and vice versa, as is the law regarding a karmelis, as will be explained.41

When does the above apply? When this place opens to a karmelis. If, however, [this enclosure] opens to a public domain, one who throws [an article] into it is exempt because it is not a private domain according to Scriptural Law.42 [The rationale is that] at times, many people are forced into [this enclosure] when the public domain is very crowded.

ו וְכֵן מָקוֹם הַמֻּקָּף ג' מְחִצּוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁפָּרוּץ וּפָתוּחַ לְגַמְרֵי בְּרוּחַ רְבִיעִית,מב,38 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא ב' מְחִצּוֹת וְלֶחִי,מג,39 שֶׁלֶּחִי זֶה נִדּוֹן כִּמְחִצָּה ג', עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"גמד,40 – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְהַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְתוֹכוֹ חַיָּב. אֲבָל חֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְטַלְטֵל בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִתּוֹכוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְלֹא לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,מה כְּדִין הַכַּרְמְלִית שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.מו,41

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁמָּקוֹם זֶה הוּא פָּרוּץ וּפָתוּחַ לְכַרְמְלִית. אֲבָל אִם הוּא פָּתוּחַ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – הַזּוֹרֵק לְתוֹכוֹ פָּטוּר,מז שֶׁאֵינוֹ כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מִן הַתּוֹרָה,מח,42 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים נִדְחָקִים רַבִּים לְתוֹכוֹ, כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ דֹּחַק רַב בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:


Fig. 18: An Enclosure Made by Two Partitions and a Lechi. a) A complete partition; b) A lechi which serves as the third partition
Fig. 18: An Enclosure Made by Two Partitions and a Lechi. a) A complete partition; b) A lechi which serves as the third partition

7 The space on top of the walls surrounding a private domain is [also deemed] a private domain even though [these walls] are not four [handbreadths] wide.43 [Moreover,] even if the space between [the walls] does not [measure] four [handbreadths by four handbreadths], and thus [the enclosure] is not a private domain, nevertheless, if an area of four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] can be reached by combining [the space on top of the walls] with the space between them, [the space] on top of the walls is deemed a private domain.44 [See fig. 19. The above applies] even though there is not a space of four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] on each of the walls and thus the [space on top of the walls] is not fit to serve a purpose. Nevertheless, [the area on top of the walls] is [considered a private domain] since it is possible to place a board that is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] on top of [the walls] so that it will cover their measure and the space between them. [The space] above [the board can then] be used for a purpose.

ז כְּתָלִים הַמַּקִּיפִים אֶת רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – הֲרֵי עַל גַּבֵּיהֶם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן רְחָבִים ד'.מט,43 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם גַּם הֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם אֵין בּוֹ ד',נ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שָׁם,נא מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל גַּבֵּי הַכְּתָלִים לְמַעְלָה, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם ד' עַל ד' בְּהִצְטָרְפוּת כֻּלָּם עִם הֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שָׁם.44 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם עַל גַּבֵּי כְּתָלִים, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם רֹחַב ד' בְּכָל אֶחָד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם עַל גַּבֵּיהֶם דַּף הָרָחָב ד' עַל ד', כְּמִדָּתָם עִם הֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם, וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עָלָיו:נב,44


Fig. 19: A private domain above a space that is not a private domain. a) Walls that are 10 handbreadths high; b) A wall, a handbreadth wide; c) The space between the walls, 2 handbreadths wide; d) A board, 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths
Fig. 19: A private domain above a space that is not a private domain. a) Walls that are 10 handbreadths high; b) A wall, a handbreadth wide; c) The space between the walls, 2 handbreadths wide; d) A board, 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths

8 Apertures or cavities in the walls of a private domain that face the private domain are deemed a private domain.45 [This ruling applies] even if [the apertures] extend [through the wall] entirely [and also open] to the public domain, and they are within ten handbreadths [of the ground] – a space that is deemed as belonging to the public domain46 – and [the passersby in] the public domain make use of them. Nevertheless, since it is possible to make use of [the apertures] from the private domain, they are ancillary to [the private domain] and are considered to be part of it.47

If, by contrast, [the apertures] face the outside and do not extend to the inside, they are not considered [to be] ancillary to [the private domain]. Instead, [the laws pertaining to the apertures] are determined according to their height and width, as will be explained.48 [See fig. 20.]

ח חוֹרִים שֶׁבְּכָתְלֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁכְּלַפֵּי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, הֵם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.נג,45 וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם מְפֻלָּשִׁים כְּלַפֵּי חוּץ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,נד וְהֵם לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,46 וּבְנֵי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בָּהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – הֲרֵי הֵם בְּטֵלִים אֶצְלָהּ וְנֶחְשָׁבִים כָּמוֹהָ.נה,47 אֲבָל אִם הֵם כְּלַפֵּי חוּץ וְאֵינָם עוֹבְרִים כְּלַפֵּי פְּנִים, אֵינָם בְּטֵלִים אֶצְלָהּ, וַהֲרֵי הֵם נִדּוֹנִים לְפִי גָבְהָם וְרָחְבָּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:נו,48


Fig. 20: Apertures in the wall of a private domain that are less than 10 handbreadths high. a) An aperture that opens to both the private and the public domain; b) An aperture facing the public domain
Fig. 20: Apertures in the wall of a private domain that are less than 10 handbreadths high. a) An aperture that opens to both the private and the public domain; b) An aperture facing the public domain

9 The open space of a private domain is deemed a private domain until the very heavens.49 Therefore, if one implanted a reed – even one that is 100 cubits high – in a private domain, the space on top of [the reed] is deemed a private domain.50 Similarly, any object in a private domain, whether broad or narrow, whether high or low, is governed by the laws of a private domain, for it is common practice to build lofts, both large and small, in a private domain, one on top of the other.51

ט אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עַד לָרָקִיעַ.49 וְלָכֵן אִם נָעַץ קָנֶה בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֲפִלּוּ גָּבוֹהַּ מֵאָה אַמָּה,29 עַל גַּבָּיו רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.נז,50 וְכֵן כָּל מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, בֵּין רָחָב בֵּין קָצָרנח בֵּין גָּבוֹהַּ בֵּין נָמוּךְ, דִּינוֹ כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ לִבְנוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עֲלִיּוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ, קְטַנּוֹת וּגְדוֹלוֹת:נט,51

10 [Moreover, this law] even [applies] to a k’li52(utensil) located in the public domain. If [the k’li] is large enough to enclose a square four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], and it is ten handbreadths high like a chest, a beehive[-like container], or a set of drawers, its inner space and the space above it until the sky are deemed as private domains,53 because any object that is ten handbreadths high and four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area is set off as a distinct domain.

If, however, [the k’li] is not ten handbreadths high, even though it is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] wide, it is not set off as a distinct domain. Even though our Sages decreed that every entity that is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area but is less than ten handbreadths high is set off as a distinct domain, i.e., it is considered as a karmelis, as will be explained,54 nevertheless, [they ruled differently regarding] keilim. Since they are [useful] articles, the Sages did not want to issue a decree that they [be considered a karmelis, for that would in effect be] nullifying their designation as keilim and causing them to be deemed as a separate domain. [Instead,] they are [judged as keilim and] governed by the laws pertaining to a makom p’tur.55Other authorities maintain that [even if the keilim are four handbreadths by four handbreadths wide], they are governed by the laws pertaining to the public domain in which they are located. How much more so does this [principle] apply if [the keilim] are not four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area, and are less than ten handbreadths high.56

When keilim are attached to the ground, they are not categorized as keilim in this context. [In this instance,] a decree was issued concerning [these keilim], and they are categorized as a karmelis if they are four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area but not ten handbreadths high.

י וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי לְרַבֵּעַ ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים וְהוּא גָבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים, כְּגוֹן תֵּבָה אוֹ כַּוֶּרֶת אוֹ מִגְדָּל, הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִידס בְּתוֹכוֹסא וְעַל גַּבּוֹ עַד לָרָקִיעַ,סב,52 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁהוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב ד' הוּא חוֹלֵק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ.סג

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָחָב ד', אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ.סד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחֲכָמִים גָּזְרוּ עַל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁרָחָב ד' וְאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ כַּרְמְלִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,סה,53 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּכֵלִים54 לֹא רָצוּ חֲכָמִים לִגְזוֹר לְבַטְּלָם מִתּוֹרַת כְּלִי לַעֲשׂוֹתָם רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם, הוֹאִיל וְהֵן כֵּלִים,סו וְדִינָם כִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר.סז,55 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסח שֶׁדִּינָם כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁהֵם עוֹמְדִים עָלֶיהָ, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד' וְהוּא לְמַטָּה מִי'.56

וְכֵלִים הַמְּחֻבָּרִים לַקַּרְקַע אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי לְעִנְיָן זֶה, וְגָזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹתָם כַּרְמְלִית אִם רְחָבִים ד' וְאֵינָם גְּבוֹהִים י':סט

11 What constitutes a public domain? Roads and marketplaces57 [within a town or city] that are sixteen cubits by sixteen cubits in area, for these were the dimensions of the road [that passed through] the camp of the Levites in the desert.58

[The above applies] provided [the roads and marketplaces] are not roofed59 and they are not surrounded by a wall, or even if they are surrounded by a wall but [the road] runs from gate to gate. Implied is that when the gates are [constructed] one opposite the other, all the laws of a public domain apply to a road that runs [straight] from the gate [at one end of the town] to the gate60 [at the town’s opposite end] if it is sixteen cubits wide. [It is classified as a public domain] for it has only two walls, [one on each of] its two sides (provided these walls are not separated more than a cubit from the open space of the gate)61 and provided the gates are not closed at night, as will be explained in sec. 364[:4].62

Similarly, thoroughfares that run from town to town that are sixteen cubits wide63 and also lanes that are sixteen cubits wide that run from one road to another or from roads to thoroughfares that are sixteen cubits wide are deemed public domains64 in a complete sense.

There are authorities who maintain that any [place] where 600,000 people do not pass through every day,65 as was the [situation in the] encampment in the desert,66 is not considered a public domain, but [is] rather [considered] a karmelis.

Based on their words, the custom has spread throughout these countries to rule leniently and to say that, in the present era, there is no concept of a public domain in a complete sense.67 [Those who accept this leniency] should not be admonished since they have an authority on whom to rely. (Nevertheless, every G‑d-fearing person should be stringent [with regard to his own conduct].)68

יא אֵיזוֹ הִיא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים? רְחוֹבוֹת וּשְׁוָקִיםע,57 הָרְחָבִים ט"ז אַמָּהעא עַל ט"ז אַמָּה,עב שֶׁכֵּן הָיָה רֹחַב הַדֶּרֶךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה לְוִיִּים שֶׁבַּמִּדְבָּר.עג,58

וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינָם מְקֹרִיםעד,59 וְאֵין לָהֶם חוֹמָה סָבִיב. וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהֶם חוֹמָה אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵם מְפֻלָּשִׁים מִשַּׁעַר לְשַׁעַר,עה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁעָרִים מְכֻוָּנִים זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה,עו הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לְאוֹתוֹ דֶרֶךְעז הַמְּכֻוָּן מִשַּׁעַר לְשַׁעַר60 כָּל דִּין רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אִם הוּא רָחָב ט"ז אַמָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ב' מְחִצּוֹת מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדָיו בִּלְבָדעח (אִם מְחִצּוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵינָן רְחוֹקוֹת אַמָּה בְּרֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִכְּנֶגֶד חֲלַל הַשַּׁעַרעט).61 וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין הַדְּלָתוֹת נִנְעָלוֹת בַּלַּיְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ד.פ,62

וְכֵן דְּרָכִים שֶׁעוֹבְרִים בָּהֶן מֵעִיר לְעִיר וּרְחָבִים ט"ז אַמָּה,פא,63 וְכֵן מְבוֹאוֹת רְחָבִים ט"ז אַמָּה הַמְּפֻלָּשִׁים מֵרְחוֹב לִרְחוֹב אוֹ מֵרְחוֹבוֹת לִדְרָכִים הָרְחָבִים ט"ז אַמָּה, הֵן רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים64 גְּמוּרָה.פב

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפג שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁאֵין שִׁשִּׁים רִבּוֹא עוֹבְרִים בּוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם65 כְּדִגְלֵי מִדְבָּר,66 אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית.

וְעַל פִּי דִבְרֵיהֶם נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהָקֵלפד וְלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ עַכְשָׁו רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה,פה,67 וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם עַל מִי שֶׁיִּסְמְכוּ (וְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹפו)68:

12 [When the majority of a] lane is sixteen cubits wide even though it narrows at its ends and is not sixteen cubits wide there, [the lane] is deemed a public domain because it is impossible for a public domain “to be trimmed with a plane and shears.”69 Therefore, when lanes open up to the public domain at both ends and their length runs in the same direction as that of the public domain, they are deemed as a public domain in a complete sense even though they are not sixteen cubits wide. Since their length runs in the same direction as that of the public domain, they resemble a long public domain that became short at its end. If, however, the length [of the lanes] perpendicularly intersects the public domain, they are not deemed a public domain. [See figs. 21 and 22.]

There are other authorities who maintain that [even when such lanes run in the same direction as the public domain], they are not deemed as public domains unless they are 13⅓ cubits wide.70 (In that instance,71 [the lanes] are deemed as public domains even if they [only] intersect the public domain perpendicularly). It was already explained72 that at present there are authorities who maintain that the concept of a public domain no longer exists in any instance.

יב מְבוֹאוֹת הָרְחָבִים ט"ז אַמָּה, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁמִּתְקַצְּרִים בִּקְצָתָן וְאֵין בָּהֶם ט"ז אַמָּה – הֲרֵי הֵן רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,פז לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְהִתְלַקֵּט בִּמְלַקֵּט וּרְהִיטְנִי.פח,69 לְפִיכָךְ מְבוֹאוֹת הַמְּפֻלָּשִׁים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִב' רָאשֵׁיהֶם, וְאָרְכָּן לְאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּרָחְבָּן ט"ז אַמָּה – הֲרֵי הֵם רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֲרֻכָּה שֶׁנִּתְקַצְּרָה בִּקְצָתָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָרְכָּן לְאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל אִם אָרְכָּן מְפֻלָּשׁ לְרֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֵינָן רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.פט וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצ שֶׁאֵינָן רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רְחָבִים י"ג אַמָּה וּשְׁלִישׁצא,70 (וְאָז71 הֵם רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֲפִלּוּ הֵם מְפֻלָּשִׁים לְרֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםצב), וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שֶׁעַכְשָׁו יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּכָל עִנְיָן:72


Fig. 21: A lane that runs in the same direction as the public domain.
Fig. 22: A lane that runs perpendicular to the public domain.
a) A lane; b) A public domain; c) A block of houses and courtyards
Fig. 21: A lane that runs in the same direction as the public domain. Fig. 22: A lane that runs perpendicular to the public domain. a) A lane; b) A public domain; c) A block of houses and courtyards

13 Any entity (– even a k’li –) in the public domain that is not three handbreadths73 high even if [that entity consists of] thorns or filth74 that people will not tread on, is considered like the ground, and as [such, is part of] the public domain.75 [See C.]

[The following rules apply] if the entity is three handbreadths [or more] high: If [the entity] is between three and nine handbreadths [high], but [is] less than nine handbreadths high, and it is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] in area, [the entity] is considered a karmelis provided it is not a k’li.76 If [the entity] is [that height, but is] not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area], it is deemed a makom p’tur. [See B and D in fig. 23.] ([The laws that apply] if it is a k’li were explained above.)

If [the entity] is exactly nine handbreadths high – in which instance, it is fit to use to load burdens, for it is neither [too] high nor [too] low – and many [actually] use it to load burdens, [the entity] is considered as a public domain in a complete sense even if it is not four handbreadths wide.77 Since [the entity] is necessary for the people at large, it is deemed [part of] the public domain whether it is wide or narrow. If, however, many [people] do not use [this entity] to load burdens, it is not considered [part of] the public domain, even though [this entity] is fit to [be] used to load burdens. If [the entity] is less than nine [handbreadths high] even if it is used for loading burdens, that is not significant, because [the entity] is not fit to be used for loading. There are authorities who maintain that if [the entity] is between nine and ten handbreadths high, it is fit to be used for loading and it is deemed [part of] the public domain if people [actually] use it for loading, even if it is not four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area.

When, however, [an entity] is ten handbreadths or more high, even though it is fit to be used for loading and [many use it] for that purpose, its status changes. If it is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] wide, [the entity] is deemed a private domain, and if [the entity] is not four [handbreadths by four handbreadths wide], it is deemed a makom p’tur, (even if it is a k’li). [See A and E in fig. 23 on the preceding page. Indeed,] even if there is a possibility of hollowing [the entity] out to increase its size to four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], e.g., [making] an aperture ten [handbreadths] high in a wall that faces the public domain, if [the wall] is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in its present state], it is deemed a makom p’tur.78We do not say that we consider it as if a space four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] was hollowed out from the wall.

יג כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אִם אֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ ג' טְפָחִים,73 אֲפִלּוּ הֵם קוֹצִים אוֹ צוֹאָהצג,74 שֶׁאֵין רַבִּים דּוֹרְסִים עֲלֵיהֶם – חֲשׁוּבִים כַּקַּרְקַע, וַהֲרֵי הֵם רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםצד (וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם כֵּלִים).75

וְאִם הוּא גָבוֹהַּ ג' וּמִג' וְעַד ט' וְלֹא ט' בִּכְלָל, אִם הוּא רָחָב ד' עַל ד' – חָלַק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וְהוּא כְּכַרְמְלִית,צה וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי.76 וְאִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד' עַל ד', הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּרצו (וְאִם הוּא כְּלִי, נִתְבָּאֵר לְעֵילצז, 76).

וְאִם הוּא גָבוֹהַּ ט' טְפָחִים מְצֻמְצָמִים, שֶׁרָאוּי לְכַתֵּף עָלָיו, שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא גָבוֹהַּ וְלֹא נָמוּךְ, וְרַבִּים מְכַתְּפִים עָלָיו – הֲרֵי הוּא כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָהצח אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רֹחַב ד',צט,77 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לָרַבִּים, רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוּא, בֵּין רָחָב בֵּין קָצָר.ק אֲבָל אִם אֵין רַבִּים מְכַתְּפִים עָלָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאוּי הוּא לְכַתֵּף עָלָיו – אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.קא וּפָחוֹת מִט', אֲפִלּוּ אִם מְכַתְּפִים עָלָיו אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְכִתּוּף.קב וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקג שֶׁמִט' וְעַד עֲשָׂרָה רָאוּי הוּא לְכִתּוּף, וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוּא אִם מְכַתְּפִים עָלָיו, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רֹחַב ד'.

אֲבָל מֵעֲשָׂרָה וּלְמַעְלָה, אַף אִם רָאוּי הוּא לְכִתּוּףקד וּמְכַתְּפִים עָלָיו – הֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּנָּה לִרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת, שֶׁאִם הוּא רָחָב ד' עַל ד' הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְאִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד' הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּרקה (אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי). וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ מָקוֹם כְּדֵי לָחֹק לְהַשְׁלִימוֹ לְד',קו כְּגוֹן חוֹר שֶׁבַּכֹּתֶל כְּלַפֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה, וְאֵין בְּתוֹכוֹ ד' עַל ד', הֲרֵי הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,קז,78 וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ נֶחְקַק מִן הַכֹּתֶל בִּמְקוֹמוֹ כְּשִׁעוּר ד' עַל ד':קח


Fig. 23: The size of objects in the public domain in relation to an ordinary person. a) An object 10 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; b) An object 3 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; c) An object less than 3 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; d) An object between 3 and 9 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; e) An object 10 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area
Fig. 23: The size of objects in the public domain in relation to an ordinary person. a) An object 10 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; b) An object 3 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; c) An object less than 3 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; d) An object between 3 and 9 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; e) An object 10 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area

14 A pit in the public domain that is not three handbreadths deep is deemed [part of] the public domain. If [the pit] is between three and ten [handbreadths deep] and is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] wide, it is deemed a karmelis. If [the pit] is not [that large], it is deemed a makom p’tur. [This applies] even if [the pit] is ten handbreadths or more deep, and even if at times people leave their articles there until they return. [The rationale is that even though people make use of the pit,] nonetheless, this is considered as being used only with difficulty and it is not considered as [sufficiently common] usage to cause [the pit] to be considered as [part of] the public domain.79 If [the pit] is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] in area, it is deemed a private domain, for it has its “walls” inside of it.80 [The above applies] provided [the pit] reaches its depth of ten [handbreadths] within a space of four cubits.81

יד גּוּמָא בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אִם אֵינָהּ עֲמֻקָּה ג' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה וְעַד עֲשָׂרָה – אִם רְחָבָה ד' עַל ד' הֲרֵי הוּא כַּרְמְלִית, וְאִם לָאו הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,קט,77 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְיוֹתֵר.קי וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לִפְעָמִים מַנִּיחִים בָּהּ רַבִּים חֶפְצֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיָּשׁוּבוּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם תַּשְׁמִישׁ עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק הוּא, וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב תַּשְׁמִישׁ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ.קיא,79 וְאִם הִיא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה אַרְבָּעָה – הֲרֵי זוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ.קיב,80 וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא הָעֹמֶק עֲשָׂרָה מִתְלַקֵּט מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת:קיג,81

15 If the pit is filled with water, the water does not nullify its “walls.”82 The same rule applies [if the pit is filled] with other entities that are clear, so that when a person looks into [the pit], he is able to see the “walls.” If, by contrast, [the pit] is filled with produce, it is not considered as a private domain, because the produce nullifies the “walls” according to Scriptural Law.83 [This ruling applies] even if the person intends to remove [the produce] that day, since at present the walls are not visible.

{84Even if a pit is filled with water or even if it is empty, it is not deemed a private domain unless it reaches the depth of ten [handbreadths] within the space of four cubits, as explained above.85

[The above reflects the Scriptural Law.] (According to Rabbinic Law,) (even if [a pit filled with water] reaches the depth of ten [handbreadths] within the space of four cubits,) it is not considered a private domain, but rather a karmelis, like seas and rivers. [The latter] are not deemed private domains according to Rabbinic Law even if they reach the depth of ten [handbreadths] within the space of four cubits, since people pass through them, as will be explained.}86

This same [ruling] applies to a shallow body of water in a karmelis.87

(Needless to say, [a pit or a body of water is deemed a karmelis] if it reaches the depth of ten [handbreadths] in the space of more than four cubits, in which instance, it is not a private domain according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, [a body of water] is not a public domain even though many people walk through it, because whenever water is ten cubits deep, it is not comfortable to walk through it at all.)88

טו הָיְתָה הַגּוּמָא מְלֵאָה מַיִם – אֵין הַמַּיִם מְבַטְּלִים הַמְּחִצּוֹת,קיד,82 וְהוּא הַדִּין שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים צְלוּלִים שֶׁאָדָם מִסְתַּכֵּל בָּהֶם וְרוֹאֶה בְּתוֹכָם וְנִרְאִים הַמְּחִצּוֹת.קטו אֲבָל מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת אֵינָהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, שֶׁהַפֵּרוֹת מְבַטְּלִים הַמְּחִצּוֹתקטז מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קיז,83 אֲפִלּוּ דַּעְתּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָם הַיּוֹם, הוֹאִיל וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין הַמְּחִצּוֹת נִכָּרוֹת.קיח

(84וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּמְלֵאָה מַיִם, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֵיקָנִית, אֵינָהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָעֹמֶק עֲשָׂרָה הוּא מִתְלַקֵּט מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת,קיט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קכ,85

(וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת), אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד (מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים) אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית,קכא כְּמוֹ הַיַּמִּים וְהַנְּחָלִיםקכב שֶׁאֵינָן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֲפִלּוּ עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת, הוֹאִיל וְעוֹבְרִים עֲלֵיהֶם,קכג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרקכד,86).

וְהוּא הַדִּין לִרְקָק שֶׁבְּכַרְמְלִית.קכה,87

(וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הוּא עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת, שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרַבִּים מְהַלְּכִים בּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַיִם שֶׁהֵן עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה אֵין נוֹחַ לַהֲלוֹךְ בָּהֶן כְּלָלקכו):88

16 A shallow body of water in the public domain that is not ten handbreadths deep is batel89to the public domain if many people are accustomed to walk through it, even though they walk through it [only] with difficulty. [Moreover,] even if [the body of water] is not four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area, in which case, people do not walk through it, but jump over it instead, it is still [part of] the public domain.90 [The rationale is that] many people either walk through or pass over [the body of water]. They do not go around it like they go around a cistern in the public domain.Similarly, a plank of wood placed over a shallow body of water (or a cistern) is [part of] the public domain since many people walk over it. When, however, many people do not walk through a shallow body of water, it is not [part of] the public domain, even though it is not ten [handbreadths] deep. Instead, [the body of water] is a karmelis if it is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area, even if it is nine [handbreadths] deep.91

טז רְקַק מַיִם שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה, בָּטֵל89 הוּא לְגַבֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםקכז אִם רְגִילִים הָרַבִּים לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא הִלּוּךְ שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד', שֶׁאֵין מְהַלְּכִים בְּתוֹכוֹ אֶלָּא מְדַלְּגִים עָלָיו – הֲרֵי הוּא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,90 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָרַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בּוֹ וְעוֹבְרִים עָלָיו, וְאֵין מַקִּיפִים אוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמַּקִּיפִים אֶת הַבּוֹר שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.קכח,90 וְכֵן דַּף הַמֻּנָּח עַל גַּבֵּי הָרְקָק (אוֹ עַל הַבּוֹר) הוּא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בּוֹ.קכט אֲבָל רְקָק שֶׁאֵין רַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בּוֹ אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה, אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית הוּא אִם הוּא רָחָב ד', וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא עָמֹק ט':קלא,91

17 The empty space above the public domain is only considered as [part of] the public domain for [up to] ten handbreadths.92 With regard to the space above ten handbreadths: An entity that is not specific, e.g., the surface of a wall in the public domain where an object became stuck or the open space [of a public domain ten handbreadths above the ground] where an object was caught, is [considered to be] a makom p’tur.93 It is permitted to take an article from there into a private domain.

With regard to a specific entity, for example, an aperture in the wall94 or the top of a pillar: If [the entity measures] less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], even [if it is] lower than ten handbreadths,95 it is deemed a makom p’tur.96If [the entity measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], it is not [deemed] a makom p’tur even if it is higher than ten [handbreadths]. Instead, it is a private domain in a complete sense.97

יז אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶלָּא עַד עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים.92 אֲבָל לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּאקלב לְעִנְיַן דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְסֻיָּם,קלג כְּגוֹן פְּנֵי כֹּתֶל שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אִם אֵיזֶה דָבָר נִדְבַּק שָׁםקלד אוֹ קוֹלֵט מִן הָאֲוִיר93 – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מִשָּׁם לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.קלה אֲבָל דָּבָר מְסֻיָּם, כְּגוֹן חוֹר שֶׁבַּכֹּתֶלקלו,94 אוֹ רֹאשׁ עַמּוּד,קלז אִם אֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' – אֲפִלּוּ לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה95 מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּא,קלח,96 וְאִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' – גַּם לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה אֵינוֹ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, אֶלָּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה הוּא:קלט,97

18 [The following laws apply with regard to] apertures in walls that face the public domain98 and do not extend [through the wall and do not open] to the inside [of an enclosure]:99 If the [apertures] are three handbreadths (high), they are not considered as [part of] the public domain.100 Instead, their status depends on their size. If the [apertures measure] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] and are less than ten handbreadths high, they are considered as a karmelis. If the [apertures measure four handbreadths by four handbreadths, and] are positioned above ten handbreadths [from the ground], they are deemed a private domain. If the [apertures] are not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], they are deemed a makom p’tur whether they are positioned above ten [handbreadths] or below ten [handbreadths. See fig. 24.]

יח חוֹרִים שֶׁבַּכְּתָלִים כְּלַפֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםקמ,98 וְאֵינָם מְפֻלָּשִׁים לִפְנִים,קמא,99 אִם הֵם (רחבים) [גְּבוֹהִים] ג' טְפָחִיםקמב אֵינָם כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,100 אֶלָּא נִדּוֹנִים לְפִי מִדּוֹתֵיהֶם: אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם ד' עַל ד' וְהֵם לְמַטָּה מי' טְפָחִים – הֵם כַּרְמְלִית, וְאִם הֵם לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים – הֵם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְאִם אֵין בָּהֶם ד' עַל ד' – הֵם מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, בֵּין שֶׁהֵם לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה בֵּין שֶׁהֵם לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה:קמג


Fig. 24: Apertures that face the public domain and do not extend inward. a) An aperture less than three handbreaths high; b) An aperture between 3 and 10 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; c) An aperture between 3 and 10 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; d) An aperture 10 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; e) An aperture 10 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths
Fig. 24: Apertures that face the public domain and do not extend inward. a) An aperture less than three handbreaths high; b) An aperture between 3 and 10 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths in area; c) An aperture between 3 and 10 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; d) An aperture 10 handbreadths high and 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; e) An aperture 10 handbreadths high and less than 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths

19 What defines a karmelis? A place that is not accessed by many people, but is also not surrounded by partitions as the law would require [for the area to be classified as a private domain].101 This is the implication of the term karmelis, [which is Aramaic for] “like a widow,” i.e., [like a woman] who is neither a maiden nor married. So too, such a domain is neither surrounded by partitions, as is a private domain, nor is it accessed by many people, as is a public domain.

[A karmelis] is a makom p’tur according to Scriptural Law, i.e., one may bring in or take out articles from [a karmelis] to [both] a private domain and a public domain and from [a private or public domain] to [a karmelis] because [a karmelis] is considered as batelto both of [these domains].102 This applies whether [the karmelis]is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area or [is] not [of that size]. Nevertheless, our Sages made a distinction, [stating] that when [a karmelis] is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], it [remains] a makom p’tur. When, however, [a karmelis] is [of the above size], it is considered as a significant domain and, [hence,] is not batel to [the other domains. Our Sages therefore] deemed it a domain of its own and named it karmelis.

Examples [of such a domain are]: an area that is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] but [is] surrounded by partitions that are less than ten handbreadths high,103 a mound or a pillar that is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area] but [is] less than ten handbreadths high, or a groove that is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths wide] but is less than ten handbreadths deep.

Similarly, seas and rivers [are placed in this category].104 Even though they are ten [handbreadths] deep and the water does not nullify [the presence of] its partitions,105 nevertheless, [the seabeds and riverbeds] do not reach the depth of ten [handbreadths] within [a space of] four cubits.106 Nor are [seas and rivers considered] public domains even though many [people] traverse them on ships, because traveling [across a sea or river] is not comfortable like [walking on] dry land. Thus, [seas and rivers] do not resemble [the Jews’] encampment in the desert.107

When [a sea or a river] has a pit that reaches a depth of ten handbreadths within four cubits, [the pit] is deemed a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law. Hence, one who throws [an article] into [such a pit] from the public domain is liable.108 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, [such a pit] is not deemed a private domain, but rather a karmelis.109 ([The rationale is that] people pass over the partitions [surrounding the pit] as if they were entirely non-existent.)

יט אֵיזוֹ הִיא כַּרְמְלִית?קמד מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ הִלּוּךְ לָרַבִּיםקמה וְגַם אֵינוֹ מֻקָּף מְחִצּוֹת כְּהִלְכָתָן.קמו,101 וְזֶהוּ "כְּאַרְמְלִית", כְּלוֹמַר כְּאַלְמָנָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לֹא בְתוּלָה וְלֹא נְשׂוּאָה, כָּךְ זֶה אֵינוֹ מֻקָּף מְחִצּוֹת כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְאֵינוֹ הִלּוּךְ לְרַבִּים כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.קמז

וּמָקוֹם זֶה הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִתּוֹכוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְלִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּמֵהֶם לְתוֹכוֹ,קמח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל89 אֵצֶל כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן,קמט,102 בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ. אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים חִלְּקוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וּכְשֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ – הוּא מָקוֹם חָשׁוּבקנ וְאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל אֶצְלָן, וַעֲשָׂאוּהוּ רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וּקְרָאוּהוּ כַּרְמְלִית.

כְּגוֹן מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' הַמֻּקָּף מְחִצּוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן גְּבוֹהוֹת י' טְפָחִים,קנא,103 וְכֵן תֵּל אוֹ עַמּוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' וְאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה, וְכֵן חָרִיץ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' וְאֵינוֹ עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה.קנב

וְכֵן הַיַּמִּיםקנג וְהַנְּחָלִים,קנד,104 שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵם עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה וְהַמַּיִם אֵינָם מְבַטְּלִים הַמְּחִצּוֹת,קנה,105 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין הָעֹמֶק עֲשָׂרָה מִתְלַקֵּט מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת,106 וְגַם אֵינָן רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַבִּים מְהַלְּכִים בָּהֶם בִּסְפִינוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹחַ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֲלִיכָתָן כְּמוֹ בַּיַּבָּשָׁה,קנו וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְדִגְלֵי מִדְבָּר.קנז,107

וְאַף אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם גּוּמָא שֶׁעָמְקָהּ מִתְלַקֵּט י' טְפָחִים מִתּוֹךְ הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת, שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְהַזּוֹרֵק לְתוֹכָהּ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חַיָּב,קנח,108 מִכָּל מָקוֹם (ב) מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵינָהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִיתקנט,109 (הוֹאִיל וְעוֹבְרִים עַל מְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ מִלְמַעְלָה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא הָיוּ שָׁם מְחִצּוֹת כְּלָל):

20 Similarly, [all of the following] are placed in the category of a karmelis: a) a bikah, i.e., a group of fields [that] were sown or harvested that are not surrounded by a fence ten handbreadths high,110 b) an area at the edge of a public domain,111 e.g., lanes with three walls but lacking a lechi112or a beam113 at the fourth side that opens up to the public domain, and c) a public domain that is roofed.114 [The rationale is that these] do not resemble [the Jews’] encampment in the desert.

כ וְכֵן הַבִּקְעָה,קס דְּהַיְנוּ שָׂדוֹת זְרוּעוֹת אוֹ קְצוּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מֻקָּפוֹת גָּדֵר גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים,קסא,110 וְכֵן קֶרֶן זָוִית הַסְּמוּכָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קסב,111 כְּגוֹן מְבוֹאוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם ג' מְחִצּוֹת וְאֵין לָהֶם לֶחִי112 אוֹ קוֹרָה113 בְּרוּחַ רְבִיעִית הַפְּתוּחָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קסג וְכֵן רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁהִיא מְקֹרָה114, שֶׁאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לְדִגְלֵי מִדְבָּר107 – הֵן כַּרְמְלִית:קסד

21 The same applies to a colonnade, i.e., the open space before stores where merchants sit on benches.115 This place is not made for people at large to walk through, and it is deemed a karmelis. [See fig. 25.]

Similarly, with regard to the pillars in the public domain where the merchants hang their wares, and the benches arranged [in front of these pillars] where the merchants sit: the benches are deemed a karmelis116 if they are four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] wide and between three and ten handbreadths high, as explained above117 with regard to a mound or a pillar in the public domain.

Nevertheless, the open space between the pillars is a public domain because many people pass through there. [This is so] even though [this area] does not [contain] a space of sixteen cubits [as is necessary to classify an area as a] public domain. [Indeed, this is] even [true] if the [area between the pillars] is not [even] 13⅓ cubits wide, which is the measure of a lane that opens to the public domain.118 Even so, since many people pass through [this space], it is ancillary to the public domain, which is sixteen cubits wide. In contrast, a lane is a significant entity in its own right and is not ancillary and batel to the public domain.

כא וְכֵן הָאִסְטְוָנִית,קסה דְּהַיְנוּ מָקוֹם פָּנוּי שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַחֲנוּיוֹת שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִים שָׁם הַסּוֹחֲרִיםקסו עַל אִצְטְבָאוֹת,115 וּמָקוֹם זֶה אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְהִלּוּךְ רַבִּים, וְכַרְמְלִית הוּא.קסז וְכֵן הָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁבָּהֶם תּוֹלִים הַתַּגָּרִים פְּרַקְמַטְיָא, וְגַם אִצְטְבָאוֹת סְדוּרוֹת לִפְנֵיהֶם לֵישֵׁב שָׁם הַתַּגָּרִים,קסח הֲרֵי אִצְטְבָאוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן כַּרְמְלִיתקסט,116 אִם הֵן רְחָבוֹת ד' עַל ד' וּגְבוֹהוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה וְעַד עֲשָׂרָה,קע כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵילקעא,117 בְּתֵל וְעַמּוּד שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.

אֲבָל מָקוֹם פָּנוּי שֶׁבֵּין הָעַמּוּדִים הוּא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קעב,116 כֵּיוָן שֶׁרַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים שָׁם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבֵּין עַמּוּד לְעַמּוּד אֵין שָׁם רֹחַב ט"ז אַמָּה כְּשִׁעוּר רֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קעג וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ י"ג אַמָּה וּשְׁלִישׁ כְּשִׁעוּר מָבוּי הַמְּפֻלָּשׁ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קעד,118 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁרַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בָּהֶם – הֵם טְפֵלִים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הָרְחָבָה ט"ז אַמָּה. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּמָבוֹי, שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם חָשׁוּב בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ טָפֵל וּבָטֵל89 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:קעה


Fig. 25: A colonade at the side of the public domain. a) The public domain; b) The benches in the public domain; c) Wares hung at the side of the colonade; d) The colonade; e) Benches in front of stores; f) A store
Fig. 25: A colonade at the side of the public domain. a) The public domain; b) The benches in the public domain; c) Wares hung at the side of the colonade; d) The colonade; e) Benches in front of stores; f) A store

22 If a low building whose inner space is not ten handbreadths high, but its ceiling brings it to the height of ten handbreadths, has an area of four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths, the space] on [the building’s] roof is a private domain119 like the space on top of a pillar that is ten handbreadths high and four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area, due to [the principle of] gud asik.120 Its inner space, however, is a karmelis since it does not have walls that are ten [handbreadths] high.121

If one hews out a space [in the floor measuring] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths],122 even [if he hews it out] in the midst [of the floor at a distance] three handbreadths or more from the wall, the entire [building] is [thereby] transformed into a private domain because in regard to the place that is hewed out itself, which is ten [handbreadths] high, this place is a private domain in a complete sense. [See fig. 26.] The remainder [of the inner space of the building]123 is considered as apertures leading to a private domain that are themselves considered a private domain.124 [This ruling applies] despite the fact that the edge of the hewed-out area is being joined with the [outer] walls of the [remainder of the area] to comprise walls that are ten handbreadths high, even though [the hewed out space] is three handbreadths or more distant from [the outer walls].125 Nevertheless, since the outer side of the wall is ten [handbreadths] high, this hewed-out area is considered a private domain since it has an empty space that is ten handbreadths high. It is not significant that the walls are three handbreadths or more removed from the hewed-out space, because with regard to Shabbos,126 all that is necessary is that the domain be protected by walls.127 [When that is so,] even if [the walls] are far removed from [the hewed-out space, that space] is deemed a private domain, and the rest [of the area] is considered as apertures of a private domain that are [also] private domains.

If, however, [the person] did not hew out a portion, the inner space is not deemed a private domain because of the outer side of the walls, because [no sufficient portion of] inner space is ten handbreadths high.

If even the outer sides of the walls are not ten [handbreadths] high, the hewed-out portion is not deemed a private domain128 unless it is closer than three handbreadths to the walls. In such an instance, its edge is combined with the height of the walls to reach a combined height of ten [handbreadths]. Even though the outer sides of the walls are not ten [handbreadths] high, they are nevertheless considered as joined together [with the walls of the hewed-out area].129

כב בַּיִת נָמוּךְ, שֶׁאֵין תּוֹכוֹ י' טְפָחִים בְּגֹבַהּ וְקֵרוּיוֹ מַשְׁלִימוֹ לַעֲשָׂרָה,קעו אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד'קעז – הֲרֵי עַל גַּבָּיו רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,119 כְּמוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי עַמּוּד הַגָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב ד', מִשּׁוּם "גּוּד אַסֵּק".קעח,120 אֲבָל תּוֹכוֹ הוּא כַּרְמְלִית, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מְחִצּוֹת גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה.קעט,121

וְאִם חוֹקֵק בָּהֶם ד' עַל ד',קפ,122 אֲפִלּוּ בָּאֶמְצַע, רָחוֹק מִן הַכְּתָלִים ג' טְפָחִים אוֹ יוֹתֵרקפא – נַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,119 לְפִי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם הַחֲקָק עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה, שָׁם הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה; וְהַשְּׁאָר123 נַעֲשָׂה כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁהֵם כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.קפב,124

וְאַף עַל פִּיקפג שֶׁשְּׂפַת הַחֲקָק מִצְטָרֵף עִם הַכְּתָלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ לְהַשְׁלִימָם לַעֲשָׂרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָחוֹק מֵהֶם ג' טְפָחִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר,125 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל יְדֵי צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּתָלִים, שֶׁשָּׁם הֵם גְּבוֹהִים י', נַעֲשָׂה חֲקָק זֶה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ חָלָל גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים.קפד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכְּתָלִים רְחוֹקִים מֵחֲלָלוֹ ג' טְפָחִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר, אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁלְּעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת126 אֵין צָרִיךְ רַק שֶׁתְּהֵא הָרְשׁוּת מִשְׁתַּמֶּרֶת עַל יְדֵי הַמְּחִצּוֹת,127 וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן רְחוֹקוֹת מִמֶּנָּה הַרְבֵּה נִקְרֵאת רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,קפה וְהַשְּׁאָר נַעֲשָׂה כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁהֵם כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁלֹּא חָקַק בּוֹ, אֵין תּוֹכוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עַל יְדֵי צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּתָלִים, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בְּתוֹכוֹ חָלָל גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים.קפו

וְאִם אֵין הַכְּתָלִים גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּצַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁלָּהֶם, אֵין הַחֲקָק נַעֲשֶׂה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,128 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא סָמוּךְ לַכְּתָלִים פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים,קפז שֶׁאָז מִצְטָרֵף שְׂפָתוֹ לְגֹבַהּ הַכְּתָלִים לְהַשְׁלִימָם לַעֲשָׂרָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַכְּתָלִים גְּבוֹהִים י' אֲפִלּוּ בְּצַד הַחִיצוֹן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִצְטָרְפִים:קפח,129


Fig. 26: Hewing out a space in a building less than 10 handbreadths high. a) The inner space of the building, less than ten handbreadths high; b) The outer wall of the building, at least ten handbreadths high; c) A hewn out space in the floor, 4 handbdreadths by 4 handbreadths and deep enough so that the inner space of the building is ten handbreadths; d) The upper surface of the building, at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths
Fig. 26: Hewing out a space in a building less than 10 handbreadths high. a) The inner space of the building, less than ten handbreadths high; b) The outer wall of the building, at least ten handbreadths high; c) A hewn out space in the floor, 4 handbdreadths by 4 handbreadths and deep enough so that the inner space of the building is ten handbreadths; d) The upper surface of the building, at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths

23 When a roof protrudes over the walls of a house in a manner that the walls are not apparent and visible to the people standing on the roof when they look beneath their feet, as is true with regard to our roofs, the principle of gud asik does not apply.130 Therefore, even if its height and area are very large,131 the area on top of the roof is not deemed a private domain, but rather a karmelis. If, [however,] an aperture opens up to [the roof] from the home,132 the entire [roof] is considered as an aperture that opens to a private domain and it is deemed a private domain.133 [See fig. 27.]

Similarly, projections that jut forth from the wall [of a building] that [measure] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths]134 are deemed a karmelis unless an aperture from the building opens up to them.135 [See fig. 27. The rationale is that] even though [the projections] are more than ten [handbreadths] high, we do not apply the principle gud achis [so that it is considered as if the wall] extends downward [from them] until the earth, because goat kids can pass under them, as explained above.136

There is an authority who maintains that a roof that juts out is not considered a karmelis unless it juts out four handbreadths into a public domain or a karmelis. Such an extension is then considered as a karmelis, like projections that jut out. [That distinction is also conveyed on] the remainder of the roof, [since it] opens up entirely to this extension. The principle of gud asik is not applied [to the walls of the home, and] they are not considered as interrupting between this extension and the remainder of the roof, since they are not apparent to a person standing on the roof. If, however, the [portion of the roof that] extends out does not project four handbreadths, it is not deemed a karmelis, but rather a makom p’tur. With regard to the remainder of the roof: True, its only walls are the walls of the house [beneath it] and the principle of gud asik is not applied to them. Nevertheless, since the house below [the roof] is a private domain, [this lower domain extends without limits, since the space of] a private domain extends upward until the very heavens.137 It is only necessary to apply the principle of gud asik regarding a space where the area below [the space] is not a private domain in the complete sense, i.e., [when it is not] surrounded by walls, for example, a pillar in the public domain, or the like.138 (Nevertheless, since the remainder of the roof is open in its entirety to the [part of the roof that extends out], which is a makom p’tur, [the remainder of the roof] is also considered a makom p’tur139 if the [extended portion of the roof] is a makom p’tur from both sides of the roof, i.e., a public domain or a karmelis is present on both sides of the house.140 [See fig. 28. In such an instance,] this roof is no different than a house that is open entirely on two of its sides that is not deemed a private domain but rather is placed in the same category as the domain into which it opens.) One may rely on [this authority’s] words and rule leniently [since the matter concerns a point of] Rabbinic Law.

כג גַּג הַבּוֹלֵט עַל מְחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין מְחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת נִכָּרִים וְנִרְאִים לָעוֹמְדִים עַל הַגַּגקפט כְּשֶׁמִּסְתַּכְּלִין תַּחַת רַגְלֵיהֶם,קצ כְּגוֹן גַּגִּין שֶׁלָּנוּקצא – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בִּמְחִצּוֹת אֵלּוּ "גּוּד אַסֵּק",קצב,130 וְלָכֵן עַל גַּבֵּי הַגַּג אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָבוֹהַּ וְרָחָב הַרְבֵּה,131 אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית הוּא. וְאִם חַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ לוֹ מִן הַבַּיִת,132 נַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הוּאקצג.133

וְכֵן זִיזִין הַבּוֹלְטִים מִן הַכֹּתֶל וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם ד' עַל ד',134 הֵם כַּרְמְלִית,קצד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חַלּוֹן הַבַּיִת פָּתוּחַ לָהֶם,קצה,135 לְפִי שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵם גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה, אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶם "גּוּד אַחֵת מְחִצָּה לְמַטָּה עַד לָאָרֶץ", הוֹאִיל וְהַגְּדָיִים יְכוֹלִים לִבְקוֹעַ תַּחְתֵּיהֶם,קצו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קצז,136

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרקצח שֶׁגַּג הַבּוֹלֵט אֵינוֹ כְּכַרְמְלִית, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בּוֹלֵט ד' טְפָחִים לְתוֹךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ כַּרְמְלִית, שֶׁאָז בְּלִיטָה זוֹ הִיא כַּרְמְלִית כְּמוֹ זִיזִים הַבּוֹלְטִים, וּשְׁאָר הַגַּג הוּא פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לִבְלִיטָה זוֹ, שֶׁמְּחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶם "גּוּד אַסֵּק" לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין בְּלִיטָה זוֹ לִשְׁאָר הַגַּג, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן נִכָּרוֹת לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל הַגַּג. אֲבָל אִם אֵין בַּבְלִיטָה ד' טְפָחִים, אֵינָהּ כְּכַרְמְלִית אֶלָּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וּשְׁאָר הַגַּג, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא מְחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶם "גּוּד אַסֵּק",קצט מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַבַּיִת שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, הֲרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עוֹלָה עַד לָרָקִיעַ,ר,137 וְלֹא הֻצְרְכוּ לוֹמַר "גּוּד אַסֵּק" אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה בְּהֶקֵּף מְחִצּוֹת סְבִיבָהּ, כְּגוֹן עַמּוּד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּרא,138 (אֶלָּא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁאָר הַגַּג פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לַבְּלִיטָה שֶׁהִיא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, אַף הוּא נַעֲשָׂה מְקוֹם פְּטוּר139 אִם הַבְּלִיטָה הִיא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר מִב' רוּחוֹת הַגַּג, כְּגוֹן שֶׁרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ כַּרְמְלִית מְהַלֶּכֶת מִב' רוּחוֹת הַבַּיִת,140 שֶׁגַּג זֶה לֹא עָדִיף מִבַּיִת שֶׁנִּפְרַץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ מִב' רוּחוֹתָיו, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֶלָּא כָּרְשׁוּת שֶׁנִּפְרַץ לוֹרב). וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:


Fig. 27: A roof that projects over the walls of a building and a projection that juts out from a building. a) A roof that projects over the walls of a building; b) An aperture that opens up to it; c) A window opening up to a projection; d) A projection at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths
Fig. 27: A roof that projects over the walls of a building and a projection that juts out from a building. a) A roof that projects over the walls of a building; b) An aperture that opens up to it; c) A window opening up to a projection; d) A projection at least 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths

Fig. 28: A roof that extends less than 4 handbreadths beyond the walls of both sides of a building
Fig. 28: A roof that extends less than 4 handbreadths beyond the walls of both sides of a building

24 (Apertures in walls that open up to a karmelis141 are not considered as a karmelis142 if they are more than three handbreadths [above the ground],143 unless they are four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area] and less than ten handbreadths [above the ground,] as explained [above]144 with regard to apertures [in a wall] in a public domain.)

כד (חוֹרִים שֶׁבַּכְּתָלִים (ג) כְּלַפֵּי כַּרְמְלִית,141 אֵינָם כְּכַרְמְלִיתרג,142 אִם הֵם לְמַעְלָה מִג' טְפָחִים,רד,143 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בָּהֶם ד' עַל ד'רה וְהֵם לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר144 בְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםרו):

25 Both [types of] leniencies, [i.e., the leniencies] that apply with regard to a private domain and [also] those that apply to a public domain, were applied [by our Sages] with regard to a karmelis. Among the leniencies [derived from those] applying to a private domain is that [an area] is not [deemed] a karmelis if it is less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area].145 And among the leniencies [derived from those] applying to a public domain is that a karmelis does not extend above ten [handbreadths]. Instead, that space is a makom p’tur146 with regard to a non-specific entity, as explained with regard to the public domain.147 [Different laws apply,] by contrast, to a specific entity, for example, the top of a pillar located in a karmelis: If it is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], it is a private domain. If it is less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] in area, even when it is less than ten [handbreadths high], it is not a karmelis, but rather a makom p’tur.148

There are authorities who maintain that no area is designated as a makom p’tur in a karmelis; [that classification applies] only in a public domain. In a karmelis, by contrast, we say “an entity finds another entity of its type and [its identity] is aroused,”149 i.e., the makom p’tur finds a karmelis, which according to Scriptural Law is also a makom p’tur, and [its identity] is aroused and strengthened by [being joined to] an entity of the same type. [The makom p’tur] is [thus merged with the karmelis and] is placed in the same category. Therefore, any entity that is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] and thus does not constitute a domain in its own right is considered as batel to the karmelis and is placed in that category if it is within ten handbreadths [of the ground]. If, by contrast, it is more than ten handbreadths [above the ground], it is a makom p’tur because a karmelis does not apply to a space ten handbreadths above the ground.

[Different laws apply to] a cistern located in a karmelis. Even if it is 100 cubits deep, [the cistern] is deemed a karmelis unless it is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths wide],150 for a karmelis encompasses [the space below it] until the very depths. There is no concept of a makom p’tur [in such a situation]. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this approach.

All authorities agree that there is no concept of a makom p’tur in a private domain. Instead, every entity in a private domain is deemed [to be part of] the private domain.

כה כַּרְמְלִית – הֵקֵלּוּ בָהּ מִקֻּלֵּי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּמִקֻּלֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. מִקֻּלֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – שֶׁאֵין כַּרְמְלִית בְּפָחוֹת מִד' עַל ד',145 וּמִקֻּלֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםרז – שֶׁאֵין כַּרְמְלִית לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, אֶלָּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּארח,146 לְעִנְיַן דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְסֻיָּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵררט בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.147 אֲבָל דָּבָר מְסֻיָּם, כְּגוֹן רֹאשׁ עַמּוּד הָעוֹמֵד בְּכַרְמְלִית, אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' – רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הוּא, וְאִם אֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' – אַף לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה אֵינוֹ כַּרְמְלִית, אֶלָּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר.רי,148

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםריא שֶׁאֵין מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בְּכַרְמְלִית אֶלָּא בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲבָל בְּכַרְמְלִית אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "מָצָא מִין אֶת מִינוֹ וְנֵעוֹר",ריב,149 דְּהַיְנוּ, הַמְּקוֹם פְּטוּר מָצָא אֶת הַכַּרְמְלִית שֶׁהִיא מִינוֹ, שֶׁהִיא גַם כֵּן מְקוֹם פְּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְנֵעוֹר וְנִתְחַזֵּק עַל יְדֵי מִינוֹריג לְהִצְטָרֵף עִמּוֹ וְלִהְיוֹת כָּמוֹהוּ. וְלָכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד', שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ, בָּטֵל הוּא אֵצֶל הַכַּרְמְלִית וְנַעֲשָׂה כָּמוֹהָ אִם הוּא לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, אֲבָל אִם הוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּא, שֶׁאֵין כַּרְמְלִית תּוֹפֶסֶת לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה. אֲבָל בּוֹר הָעוֹמֵד בְּכַרְמְלִית, אֲפִלּוּ עָמֹק מֵאָה אַמָּה הוּא כַּרְמְלִית, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד',ריד,150 שֶׁהַכַּרְמְלִית תּוֹפֶסֶת עַד הַתְּהוֹם וְאֵין מְקוֹם פְּטוּר נוֹהֵג שָׁם.רטו וְכֵן עִקָּר.רטז

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֶלָּא כָּל מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד:ריז

26 In seas and rivers, the ten handbreadths [of open space encompassed by] a karmelis is measured from the surface of the water and not from the ground,151 for the water is considered as the ground itself.152 Therefore, all of the water and the ten handbreadths above the water are a karmelis. [The space] more than ten [handbreadths] above the water is a makom p’tur.

כו בַּיַּמִּים וּנְחָלִים מוֹדְדִים אֵלּוּ הָעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים שֶׁל כַּרְמְלִית מֵעַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וְלֹא מִן הַקַּרְקַע,ריח,151 לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם נֶחְשָׁבִים כָּאָרֶץ עַצְמָהּ.ריט,152 וְלָכֵן כָּל הַמַּיִם וְי' טְפָחִים לְמַעְלָה עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם הֵם כַּרְמְלִית, לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה הוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר:

27 What is meant by a makom p’tur? Any elevated place in the public domain that is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area], that is three [handbreadths]153 or more high154 until the very sky, or a groove [in the public domain] that is less than four [handbreadths] wide and is more than three [handbreadths] deep until the very depths. [This rule applies] even if [the groove] is 1000 cubits long.155 Similarly, when there are walls that are more than three handbreadths high – and [from three handbreadths] to the very heavens – but the space between them is less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths],156 [that space] between the walls is a makom p’tur if [the walls] are located in the public domain. [This rule does not apply in a karmelis, because] there is absolutely no concept of a makom p’tur in a karmelis157 except for [the empty space] ten handbreadths above [the ground]. How much more so is this true with regard to a private domain, as explained.158

כז אֵיזֶהוּ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר? כָּל מָקוֹם גָּבוֹהַּ שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' וְהוּא גָבוֹהַּ מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה153 וּלְמַעְלָהרכ,154 עַד לָרָקִיעַ,רכא אוֹ חָרִיץ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' טְפָחִים רֹחַב וְעָמֹק מִשְּׁלֹשָׁהרכב וְעַד הַתְּהוֹם,רכג אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אָרֹךְ אֶלֶף אַמָּה.רכד,155 וְכֵן מְחִצּוֹת הַגְּבוֹהוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה וְעַד לָרָקִיעַ וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶםרכה ד' עַל ד'156 – הֲרֵי בֵּינֵיהֶם מְקוֹם פְּטוּררכו אִם הֵם בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל בְּכַרְמְלִית אֵין שָׁם מְקוֹם פְּטוּר כְּלָלרכז,157 אֶלָּא לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:רכח,158