SECTION 343 Laws Applying to a Minor on Shabbos (1-11)

סימן שמג דִּין קָטָן בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 When a minor1 violates the Torah’s commandments for his own satisfaction, e.g., he eats meat from an animal that was not slaughtered in a kosher manner or desecrates the Shabbos for his own needs, the court is not obligated to restrain him.2 If, however, [the minor] acts on behalf of an adult, according to Rabbinic Law, he must be admonished,3 as stated in sec. 334[:26].4 [Moreover,] if the matter is something that will become known to people at large, and they will err and think that the act is permitted, [the minor] must be admonished even though he acts on his own initiative, e.g., he sounds a shofar on Rosh HaShanah when it falls on Shabbos. [Since] the sound is heard by many people and [some may] err and think that [the shofar] may be sounded even when [Rosh HaShanah] falls on Shabbos, [the minor must be admonished not to do so].5

א קָטָן1 הָעוֹבֵר עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה לַהֲנָאָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת, אוֹ שֶׁמְּחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת לְצָרְכּוֹ – אֵין בֵּית דִּין מְצֻוִּין לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ.א,2

אֲבָל אִם עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִילב גָּדוֹלג – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹד מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ה,3 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ד.ו,4

וְאִם הוּא דָבָר הַמִּתְפַּרְסֵם לָרַבִּים וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיִּטְעוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים לוֹמַר שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה מֻתָּר הוּא – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לְדַעַת עַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁתּוֹקֵעַ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהַקּוֹל נִשְׁמָע לָרַבִּים וְיָבֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת וְלוֹמַר שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין גַּם כְּשֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת:ז,5

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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2 All the above applies to the [court and the] general populace, but [not to the child's] father, [who is obligated to admonish him]. Since [the child's father] is obligated by Rabbinic Law to educate his son and his daughter even in the observance of positive commandments6 once they reach an educable age,7 he is surely Rabbinically obligated to rebuke them and prevent them from violating prohibitions, even Rabbinic prohibitions.8 If [a father] does not prevent [his children] from violating Scriptural Commandments, the Rabbinic Court must admonish him. If, however, [a father] does not prevent [his children] from violating Rabbinic commandments, he need not be admonished.

ב וְכָל זֶה בַּאֲחֵרִים,ח אֲבָל אָבִיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְחַנֵּךְ אֶת בְּנוֹט אוֹ בִּתּוֹי אֲפִלּוּ בְּמִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂהיא,6 מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ7 – כָּל שֶׁכֵּןיב שֶׁמְּחֻיָּב מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםיג לִגְעוֹר בָּהֶם וּלְהַפְרִישָׁםיד מִלַּעֲבוֹר עַל לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה,טו וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.טז,8

וְאִם אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִישָׁם מֵאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה – צְרִיכִים הַבֵּית דִּין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַפְרִישָׁם מֵאִסּוּר דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵין צְרִיכִים לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ:יז

3 The age at which a child must [begin to] be trained in the observance of the positive commandments varies, each child according to his intellectual acumen and his knowledge of each matter and its substance.9 For example, [a child] who knows about Shabbos is obligated to listen to Kiddush and Havdalah.10One who knows how to wrap himself [in a tallis in the manner] required by law is obligated to wear tzitzis,11 as stated in sec. 17[:4].12 Similar principles apply in all analogous situations regarding positive commandments, be they Scriptural or Rabbinic in origin.13

By contrast, the obligation to train [a child in the observance of] prohibitive commandments, whether Scriptural or Rabbinic in origin, applies with regard to every child who is capable of understanding, i.e., he understands when told that this-and-this act is forbidden to be performed or [that this-and-this food] is forbidden to be eaten.14 However, when a child is not at all capable of understanding, his father is not obligated to forcefully prevent the child from eating non-kosher food15 or desecrating the Shabbos even when a Scriptural commandment is involved, since the child does not understand at all the matter he is being prevented and restrained from [doing]. Similarly, if [the child] is a kohen, [his father] is not obligated to take him out of a house in which a source of ritual impurity16 is located, unless the child is capable of understanding [why he is being taken out of the house]. If [the child] is [capable of understanding], his father is obligated to take him out [of the house].

ג וְשִׁעוּר הַחִנּוּךְ בְּמִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה הוּא, בְּכָל תִּינוֹק לְפִי חֲרִיפוּתוֹיח וִידִיעָתוֹ בְּכָל דָּבָר לְפִי עִנְיָנָיו,9 כְּגוֹן הַיּוֹדֵעַ מֵעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת – חַיָּב לִשְׁמוֹעַ קִדּוּשׁיט וְהַבְדָּלָה,כ,10 הַיּוֹדֵעַ לְהִתְעַטֵּף כַּהֲלָכָה – חַיָּב בְּצִיצִית,כא,11 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן י"ז,כב,12 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה,כג בֵּין בְּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין בְּשֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.כד,13

אֲבָל הַחִנּוּךְ בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, בֵּין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם, הוּא בְּכָל תִּינוֹק שֶׁהוּא בַּר הֲבָנָהכה שֶׁמֵּבִין כְּשֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ שֶׁזֶּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל.14 אֲבָל תִּינוֹק שֶׁאֵינוֹ בַּר הֲבָנָה כְּלָל – אֵין אָבִיו מְצֻוֶּה לְמָנְעוֹ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ מִלֶּאֱכוֹל מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת,כו,15 אוֹ מִלְּחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין כְּלָל הָעִנְיָן מַה שֶּׁמּוֹנְעוֹ וּמַפְרִישׁוֹ.

וְכֵן אִם הוּא כֹּהֵן – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִבַּיִת שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ,16 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בַּר הֲבָנָה – אֲזַי אָבִיו מְצֻוֶּה לְהוֹצִיאוֹ:כז

4 [A child’s] mother, by contrast, is not obligated to train him [in observance] at all, neither for positive commandments nor for prohibitive commandments.17

ד אֲבָל אִמּוֹ אֵין מְצֻוָּה עָלָיוכח כְּלָל, בֵּין בְּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה בֵּין בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה:כט,17

5 All the above applies with regard to preventing [the child from violating] a prohibition [on his own]. It is, however, forbidden according to Scriptural Law for any person18 to hand [a child] forbidden food,19 even if the child is [so young that he] has no understanding at all.20 This is indicated by the verse,21 “You shall not eat them,” which our Sages interpreted to [also] mean, “Do not feed them to minors.”22 Even foods that are forbidden [only] by Rabbinic decree are forbidden to be fed to [a child]23 – even if he requires them and even if he is ill – as long as his [illness] is not life-threatening, just as an adult is forbidden [to partake of such foods]. Similarly, it is forbidden to habituate [a child] to desecrate the Shabbos and the festivals,24 even when he would only be violating prohibitions forbidden as a shvus.25

When a non-Jew feeds forbidden food to a child who is [so young that he] has no understanding, [the child’s] father is not required to admonish [the non-Jew].26 It is, however, forbidden for any person to instruct a non-Jew to feed [the child forbidden food], because it is forbidden to instruct a non-Jew to perform any Scriptural prohibition [on behalf of a Jew].27 How much more so is it forbidden to tell the child himself [to eat the forbidden food]!

If the child requires [the forbidden food], e.g., he is slightly ill,28 it is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to feed him. [The rationale is that] the needs of a child are equivalent to those of a person who is not dangerously ill, in which instance license was even given to instruct a non-Jew to violate Scriptural prohibitions, as stated in sec. 328[:19, 22].29 Similarly, if the child needs to drink wine and there is no Jewish wine [available] – only wine belonging to non-Jews30 – and that wine is not strong enough that it can be made fit [for the child’s needs] after diluting it with water in a 6:1 ratio,31 as will be stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 134,32 it is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to give [the undiluted non-Jewish wine] to the child to drink.

ה וְכָל זֶה לְעִנְיַן לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ מֵאִסּוּר, אֲבָל לִסְפּוֹת לוֹ אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם – אָסוּרל לְכָל אָדָםלא,18 מִן הַתּוֹרָהלב,19 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בַּר הֲבָנָהלג כְּלָל,20 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרלד,21 "לֹא תֹאכְלוּם", וּפֵרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִיםלה,19 "לֹא תַאֲכִילוּם" לִקְטַנִּים.22

וַאֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אָסוּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ,לו,23 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ,לז וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא חוֹלֶה, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר בְּגָדוֹל.לח וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַרְגִּילוֹ בְּחִלּוּל שַׁבָּת וּמוֹעֵד24 אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת.לט,25

וְנָכְרִי הַמַּאֲכִיל אִסּוּר לְתִינוֹקמ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בַּר הֲבָנָהמא – אֵין אָבִיו צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ.26 אֲבָל אָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיַּאֲכִילֶנּוּ,מב שֶׁהָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי אֲסוּרָה בְּכָל הָאִסּוּרִים שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה,מג,27 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹמַר כֵּן לְהַתִּינוֹק.

וְאִם הַתִּינוֹק צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא קְצָת חוֹלֶה28 – מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהַאֲכִילוֹ,מד שֶׁצָּרְכֵי קָטָן דִּינָם כְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בּוֹ אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּרֵי תוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ח.מה,29

וְכֵן אִם צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתִיַּת יַיִן, וְאֵין שָׁם יֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא סְתָם יֵינָם שֶׁל נָכְרִים,30 וְאֵין הַיַּיִן חָזָק כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיַּכְשִׁירֶנּוּ עַל יְדֵי מְזִיגַת שִׁשָּׁה חֲלָקִים מַיִם וְאֶחָד יַיִן31 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קל"דמו,32 – מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ לוֹ:מז

6 There are authorities who maintain that our Sages did not impose any prohibitive decrees on any matters that are necessities for a child, like eating or drinking, and that it is permitted to feed [a child] any food that is prohibited only by Rabbinic decree if he requires it, even if the child has already reached an educable age. If, however, the child does not require it, it is forbidden to feed him [forbidden food], even if [the child] is [so young that he] has no understanding at all. (Moreover, if [the child eats the forbidden food on his own], his father must admonish him if he possesses a modicum of understanding.)33 [This applies] even to Rabbinic prohibitions, as [evident from the fact that] it is forbidden to let [a child] nurse from his mother after [he is] 24 months [old, if he has already been weaned],34 even though the prohibition against [nursing from] a woman’s milk is only Rabbinic in origin.35 [The rationale is that the child] does not need [mother's milk] after [the age of] 24 months. One may rely on their words and rule leniently with regard to a Rabbinic commandment if [the child] requires [forbidden food] and there is no non-Jew to feed him.

If [there is a] matter [that] is not a necessity for the child, but an adult requires that a child perform an act that is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, according to this approach, there is no prohibition against allowing [the child] to perform this task for him, unless [the adult] has [the child] do so on a regular basis. [That is forbidden] out of concern that the child will become habituated and accustomed to performing this task and [will] continue to do so even after he comes of age.36 If, however, [the adult] has [the child] perform this task only on random occasions, there is no concern regarding the above, provided there is no prohibition in acting in this manner, e.g., it is being performed for the sake of a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 334[:26].37

Accordingly, it is permitted to have a child who has reached an educable age taste the cup of wine over which Kiddush38is recited in the synagogue even though the child does not need to taste the wine at all39 and can wait to taste [food] until he hears Kiddush in the place where he will eat his meal – at home, where his father is training him to [observe] the [practice of listening to Kiddush before eating]. Nevertheless, since the prohibition against tasting [food] before Kiddush is of Rabbinic origin and there is a necessity for [the wine to be] tasted, the only reason to prohibit [doing so] is that perhaps the child will become accustomed to this. There is no concern for this with regard to the recitation of Kiddush in the synagogue, because the [Kiddush] wine is not given to children on an ongoing basis every Shabbos. For at times, there are guests residing and eating in the [side] rooms of the synagogue. They hear Kiddush from there, and in such an instance, it is not at all necessary to have a child taste [the wine], as explained in sec. 269[:3].40

ו וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמח שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁהוּא לְצָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל תִּינוֹק, כְּגוֹן אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה – לֹא גָזְרוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים כְּלָל, וּמֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ בְּיָדַיִם כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אִם צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ – אָסוּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בַּר הֲבָנָה (וְאָבִיו צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ אִם הוּא בַּר הֲבָנָהמט)33 אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּר דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,נ שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לַהֲנִיקוֹ חֲלֵב אִמּוֹ אַחַר כ"ד חֹדֶשׁ,נא,34 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר חֲלֵב אִשָּׁה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,35 הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ אַחַר כ"ד.נב וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אִם הוּא צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ וְאֵין שָׁם נָכְרִי לְהַאֲכִילוֹ עַל יָדוֹ.נג

וְאַף אִם אֵין הַתִּינוֹק צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַגָּדוֹל צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ תִּינוֹק אֵיזֶה דָבָר הָאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵין אִסּוּר לְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ לוֹ,נד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ בִּקְבִיעוּת תָּדִיר,נה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְרַגֵּל הַתִּינוֹק וְיִסָּרֵךְ בַּעֲשִׂיַּת דָּבָר זֶה וְיָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אַף כְּשֶׁיַּגְדִּיל,נו,36 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא – אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְכָךְ,נז רַק שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר מַה שֶּׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ד,נח כְּגוֹן לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.נט,37

לְפִיכָךְ,ס מֻתָּר לְהַטְעִים לְתִינוֹק שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ מִכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ38 שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לִטְעִימָה זוֹ39 וְיָכוֹל הוּא לְהַמְתִּין מִלִּטְעוֹם עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע הַקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה בְּבֵית אָבִיו הַמְחַנְּכוֹ לְזֶה, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר הַטְּעִימָה קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וְיֵשׁ לָנוּ צֹרֶךְ בִּטְעִימָה זוֹ,38 וְאֵין לְאָסְרָהּ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִסָּרֵךְ בָּהּ הַתִּינוֹק, וְזֶה אֵין לָחוּשׁ בְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, שֶׁאֵין מַטְעִימִים לְהַתִּינוֹקוֹת בִּקְבִיעוּת בְּכָל שַׁבָּת וְשַׁבָּת, שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים יֵשׁ אוֹרְחִים הַשּׁוֹבְתִים וְאוֹכְלִים בְּחַדְרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְשׁוֹמְעִים הַקִּדּוּשׁ מִשָּׁם, וְאָז אֵין צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לְהַטְעִים לְתִינוֹקוֹת,סא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ט:סב,40

7 All the above applies when forbidden [food] is given to a child for the purposes [of adults]41 or when he is told to perform a prohibition, even a Rabbinic prohibition, for the sake [of others]. However, whenever something is done for the child’s own need and benefit, [our Sages] were not concerned that he would become accustomed to doing so and [continue to] do so when he comes of age, because he knows that he is being permitted [to do so to satisfy] his own needs, since he is [still] a child. This will not cause him to err and do the same when he comes of age.42

For this reason, it is permitted to feed [a child] before Kiddush if he wants to eat and similarly [to enable him] to drink.43 It is forbidden to cause [a child] aggravation [by depriving him for this reason]. Similar principles apply in analogous situations regarding all other Rabbinic prohibitions.

ז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמַּאֲכִילִים אִסּוּר לְתִינוֹק לְצָרְכֵּנוּ,41 וְכֵן אִם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָנוּ אֵיזֶה דָבָר הָאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. אֲבָל כֹּל שֶׁהוּא צָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל תִּינוֹק וְתַקָּנָתוֹ – לֹא חָשְׁשׁוּ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יִסָּרֵךְ בְּכָךְ וְיַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן לִכְשֶׁיִּגְדַּל, לְפִי שֶׁיָּדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁבְּשְׁבִיל שֶׁהוּא קָטָן מַתִּירִין לוֹ צְרָכָיו, וְלֹא יִטְעֶה מִזֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן כְּשֶׁיִּגְדַּל.סג,42 וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁסד אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל, וְכֵן לִשְׁתּוֹת,43 וְאָסוּר לְעַנּוֹתוֹ,סה וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה בִּשְׁאָר כָּל אִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

8 In every instance where [a child] is being trained to perform a mitzvah, it is permitted to hand him forbidden [food], for example, to feed a child who has reached an educable age [meat] from the Paschal sacrifice,44 even though he was not registered [to partake] of it [beforehand.45 True,] the Paschal sacrifice may only be eaten by those registered to partake of it. Nevertheless, since [the child’s father] intends to train [the child] in the observance of the mitzvos,46 it is permitted [to allow the child to partake of the sacrifice].

[Such leniency is not granted,] however, when [a prohibition is being violated to enable] a mitzvah [to be performed] and the rationale of training a child in observance is not relevant, i.e., the child will [in any case] not be able to perform [this mitzvah] when he comes of age – [such observance] being the primary objective of his being trained. To give an example: having a child taste the cup [of wine over which the blessings for] a circumcision are recited [when a circumcision is held] on Yom Kippur, so that the blessings will not appear to have been recited in vain. Even though [drinking] this [wine] is necessary for the circumcision [ceremony], nevertheless, since it will be forbidden for the child to partake of such wine when he comes of age, it is forbidden for him [to taste it even in his childhood] lest he become accustomed to doing so and partake of it even after he comes of age, as will be explained in sec. 621[:4].47

Therefore, any [prohibited activities that are in the category of] shvus that are permitted to be performed by a non-Jew for the sake of a mitzvah are forbidden to be performed by a child, lest [the child] become accustomed to [performing these activities for the sake of a mitzvah], unless this is merely a random occurrence, as explained above.48

ח כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם חִנּוּךְ מִצְוָה – מֻתָּר לִסְפּוֹת לוֹ אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם,סו כְּגוֹן לְהַאֲכִיל פֶּסַח לְקָטָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ,44 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִמְנָה עָלָיו,45 וְאֵין הַפֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא לִמְנוּיָיו, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְחַנְּכוֹ בְּמִצְוֹת46 – מֻתָּר.סז

אֲבָל מִצְוָה שֶׁלֹּא שַׁיָּךְ בָּהּ חִנּוּךְ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ כְּשֶׁיִּגְדַּל, שֶׁזֶּהוּ עִקַּר טַעַם הַחִנּוּךְ,סח כְּגוֹן לְהַטְעִימוֹ מִכּוֹס שֶׁל מִילָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא הַבְּרָכָה נִרְאֵית לְבַטָּלָה,סט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּהוּ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּגְדַּל יֶאֱסוֹר לוֹ – לָכֵן גַּם עַכְשָׁו אָסוּר, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִסָּרֵךְ בְּכָךְ וְיִטְעוֹם מִמֶּנּוּ גַּם כְּשֶׁיִּגְדַּל,ע כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תרכ"א.עא,47

וְלָכֵן כָּל שְׁבוּת25 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָהעב – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי קָטָן, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִסָּרֵךְ בְּכָךְ, אִם לֹא בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:עג,48

9 It is forbidden to give a child a live, non-kosher49 locust to play with lest it die and he eat it.50 Thus [the adult] will have given [the child] forbidden food directly, since he gave him the forbidden object. How much more so does the above apply with regard to a forbidden object that is fit to eat in its present state. Even an object that is forbidden to be eaten only because of the prohibition,51 “Do not make yourselves loathsome” is forbidden to be given to [a child] if there is a suspicion that he will eat it. One may, by contrast, give a child a [live] non-kosher fowl to play with, because even if it dies, it is not fit to be eaten in its present state.52

ט אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְתִינוֹק חָגָב חַי טָמֵא49 לִשְׂחוֹק בּוֹ, שֶׁמָּא יָמוּת וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ,עד,50 וְנִמְצָא מַאֲכִילוֹ אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם,עה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא נָתַן לוֹ הָאִסּוּר, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן דָּבָר הָאָסוּר הָרָאוּי לְאָכְלוֹ כָּךְ.עו

וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם51 "בַּל תְּשַׁקְּצוּ"עז – אָסוּר לִתֵּן לוֹ אִם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיֹּאכְלֶנּוּ.עח,50

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹ עוֹף טָמֵא לִשְׂחוֹק בּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַף כְּשֶׁיָּמוּת אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כָּךְ:עט,52

10 (All the above applies to forbidden foods, even if the prohibition is dependent on time.)53 It is, however, permitted on Shabbos to give a child articles with which he can perform a forbidden labor for his own sake,54 even if [the person] knows that the child will perform [that forbidden labor] with them,55 e.g., giving a child a cake that has letters written on it, which is forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 340[:4]. Even though [the person] knows that the child will certainly eat [the cake], since [the child] has his own benefit in mind, it is not necessary to prevent him [from doing so],56 as stated above.57 [The adult] must, however, be careful not to put [the cake] directly into the child’s mouth.

י (וְכָל זֶה בְּאִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא אִסּוּר שֶׁהַזְּמַן גּוֹרֵםפ),53 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לְתִינוֹק בְּשַׁבָּת חֲפָצִים שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה לְעַצְמוֹ,54 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בָּהֶם,פא,55 כְּגוֹן לִתֵּן לְתִינוֹק עוּגָה שֶׁכְּתוּבִים עָלֶיהָ אוֹתִיּוֹתפב שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"מ,פג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק יֹאכְלֶנָּה בְּוַדַּאי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן הוּא לַהֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ,פד,56 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.פה,57 רַק שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן גָּדוֹל לְתוֹךְ פִּיו שֶׁל תִּינוֹק:פו

11 Even though a child who struck his father58 or violated other prohibitions during his childhood is not obligated to repent when he comes of age,59 it is nevertheless desirable for him to accept upon himself some form of repentance and atonement60 even though he transgressed before he reached an age when he was punishable [for this]. With regard to financial matters,61 [the laws are] explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 359.62

יא קָטָן שֶׁהִכָּה אָבִיו,58 אוֹ עָבַר שְׁאָר עֲבֵרוֹת בְּקַטְנוּתוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ תְּשׁוּבָה כְּשֶׁיִּגְדַּל,60 מִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב לוֹ שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עַל עַצְמוֹ אֵיזֶה דָבָר לִתְשׁוּבָה וּלְכַפָּרָה,פז,60 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר קֹדֶם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בַּר עֹנָשִׁין.פח

וּלְעִנְיַן דָּבָר שֶׁבְּמָמוֹןפט,61 – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִמָּן שנ"ט:צ,62