SECTION 341 The Release of Vows on Shabbos (1-4)

סימן שמא הֶתֵּר נְדָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 Vows may be released on Shabbos1 when doing so is necessary for [one’s] Shabbos needs.2For example, a person vowed not to eat meat or drink wine,3 or he vowed not to wear a garment he needs for that day. Even if [the person] had the opportunity to have these vows released before Shabbos, he is permitted [to have them released on Shabbos]. By contrast, vows that are not necessary for Shabbos may not be released on Shabbos, even if it was not possible for the person to have them released before Shabbos. Nevertheless, a husband may nullify his wife’s vows on Shabbos [when they were made on that Shabbos day]4 even when they are not necessary for Shabbos. Similarly, a father [may nullify] his daughter’s5 [vows6 on Shabbos. The rationale for this license is that] if he does not nullify [the vows] on the day he hears them, he will not be able to nullify them afterwards.7

א מַתִּירִין נְדָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת1 אִם הֵם לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,א,2 כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּדַר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל בָּשָׂרב אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן,ג,3 אוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר מִמַּלְבּוּשׁ הַצָּרִיךְ לוֹ הַיּוֹם,ד וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה לוֹ פְּנַאי לְהַתִּירָם קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת – מֻתָּר.ה,1 אֲבָל נְדָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת – אֵין מַתִּירִים בְּשַׁבָּת,ו אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּירָם קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת.

אֲבָל הַבַּעַל יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר נִדְרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ4 אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָם לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,1 וְכֵן הָאָב לְבִתּוֹ,5 לְפִי שֶׁאִם לֹא יָפֵר לָהּ "בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ"6 – לֹא יוּכַל עוֹד לַהֲפִירָם:ז,7

2 When a person takes an oath to perform a particular task by a given time, the opportunity to perform it does not present itself until the last day of that period, which is Shabbos, andit is impossible for him to perform [the task] on Shabbos, [the vow]can be released for him even on Shabbos if he has grounds that would allow him to be released from his oath. [The rationale is that] if it is not released for him on this day, it will be impossible for him to have it released on the following day.8

ב מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה פְּלוֹנִית עַד זְמַן פְּלוֹנִי וְלֹא נִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ עַד יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ זְמַן, וְאוֹתוֹ יוֹם בָּא בְּשַׁבָּת וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ פְּתָחִים לְהַתִּיר נִדְרוֹ מִשְּׁבוּעָתוֹ – מַתִּירִין לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת,ח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִם לֹא יַתִּירוּ לוֹ הַיּוֹם – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּירוֹ לוֹ לְמָחָר:ט,8

3 The laws applying to the release of a ban of ostracism9 are the same as those applying to the release of vows, i.e., [the ban] may only be released if it is necessary to do so for [the sake of] the Shabbos. It has, however, become customary to release bans of ostracism imposed by the community, even if doing so is not necessary for [the sake of] the Shabbos. [The rationale is that usually the community] does not gather together except on Shabbos. Thus, if the ban is not released on Shabbos, the community may not gather together on another day, and the ban may never be released.

A ban of ostracism may not, however, be imposed on Shabbos except for something necessary for [the observance of] the Shabbos. Similarly, [such a ban is imposed on Shabbos] for a person who desecrated the Shabbos but not for someone who committed another transgression.

Nevertheless, [such a ban may be imposed on Shabbos] if doing so is for the benefit of the city; and if the ban is not imposed on Shabbos, people will not gather together on another day and the benefit will not be realized. Hence, it is permitted to impose a ban of ostracism just like it is permitted to release a vow or such a ban for this very reason.

Accordingly, there is no need for admonishment for the practice followed at commercial fairs that the synagogue attendant reads from a list, mentioning the individuals upon whom the court has imposed a ban of ostracism because of their [failure to pay] their debts. [The rationale is that] this announcement must be made on Shabbos when everyone gathers together, so that [the people in attendance] become aware [of the unpaid debt and] compel [the person] in his city to pay [his debts].10 Were this not done, debts would never be recovered and business transactions [would cease].

Similarly, it is permitted to ostracize a person who denigrated the honor of a sage to [protect the sage’s] honor. [This is permitted because] it also benefits the city, insuring that the legal system is upheld. Moreover, [doing so] is a mitzvah because [it safeguards] the honor of the Torah. Needless to say, it is permitted to impose a ban of ostracism on Shabbos for matters that affect the entire community, just as such a ban is imposed on Shabbos on those who occupy themselves with [the study of] books of natural science at all times.11

ג הַתָּרַת חֲרָמִים9 דִּינָהּ כְּהַתָּרַת נְדָרִים, וְאֵין מַתִּירִין אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת.י אֲבָל נָהֲגוּ לְהַתִּיר חֶרְמֵי הַקָּהָל אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָם לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,יא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִהְיוֹת כְּנוּפְיָא אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאִם לֹא יַתִּירוּהוּ בְּשַׁבָּת – לֹא יִתְאַסְּפוּ בְּיוֹם אַחֵר, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ הֶתֵּר לְעוֹלָם.יב

אֲבָל אֵין מַחֲרִימִין בְּשַׁבָּת כִּי אִם מִדָּבָר שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת,יג וְכֵן לְמִי שֶׁחִלֵּל שַׁבָּת,יד אֲבָל לֹא לְמִי שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה אַחֶרֶת.טו

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תִּקּוּן הַמְּדִינָה,טז וְאִם לֹא יַחֲרִימוּ בְּשַׁבָּת לֹא יִתְאַסְּפוּ בְּיוֹם אַחֵר וְיִגְרַע הַתִּקּוּן – אֲזַי מֻתָּר לְהַחֲרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַתִּיר הַנֶּדֶר אוֹ הַחֵרֶם מִטַּעַם זֶה.יז וְלָכֵן אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּמַה שֶּׁנָּהֲגוּ בִּירִידִים שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ קוֹרֵא מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּתָב מִי שֶׁהוּא מֻחְרָם עַל פִּי בֵּית דִּין מִשּׁוּם חוֹבוֹתָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַכְרִיז בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁמִּתְאַסְּפִים כֻּלָּם וְיוֹדְעִים לְכֻפּוֹ בְּעִירוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם,10 וְלוּלֵי זֶה הָיוּ נִפְסָדִין הַחוֹבוֹת וְכָל מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן.יח

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁבִּזָּה הֶחָכָם – יָכוֹל לְנַדּוֹתוֹ לִכְבוֹדוֹ,יט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן תִּקּוּן הַמְּדִינָה לְהַעֲמִיד הַמִּשְׁפָּט עַל תִּלּוֹ, וְגַם דְּבַר מִצְוָה הוּא מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה.כ

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַחֲרִים בְּשַׁבָּת בְּדָבָר הַנּוֹגֵעַ עַל הַכְּלָל,כא כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֶחֱרִימוּ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶת הָעוֹסְקִים בְּסִפְרֵי הַטֶּבַע כָּל יְמֵיהֶם:כב,11

4 When a person is ostracized in a dream, [that ban] may be released on Shabbos.

ד מִי שֶׁנִּדּוּהוּ בַּחֲלוֹם – מַתִּירִין לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת:כג