SECTION 340 Several Laws Regarding Matters Prohibited on Shabbos since They Resemble Derivatives of Primary Categories [of Forbidden Labor] (1-18)

סימן שמ כַּמָּה דִינִים מִדְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת כְּעֵין תּוֹלָדוֹת מֵאָבוֹת וּבוֹ י"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 One who shears an animal – whether alive1 or dead,2 whether domesticated or non-domesticated3 – is liable. [Indeed, this] applies even when one shears a hide that has already been skinned from an animal. This is one of the primary categories of forbidden labor,4 for in [the construction of] the Sanctuary, they would shear the hides of the tachashim5and the rams.

By contrast, one who tears wool off an animal or its hide by hand is exempt because this is not the ordinary manner of shearing.6 Similarly, one who removes his own hair or nails by hand or with his teeth is exempt.7 According to Rabbinic Law, however, it is forbidden to remove [hair or nails] by hand;8 [indeed,] even removing another person’s [hair or nails by hand] is forbidden, though one cannot skillfully manipulate his hands to skillfully remove another person’s [hair or nails] without an implement.9

If, however, one cut off [nails or hair] with an implement, he is liable even if he cuts off only two hairs.10 If [the person] cuts off one [hair], he is exempt [from punishment]. Nevertheless, it is Scripturally forbidden to do so, as is [the case with regard to performing any] half measure [of forbidden labor].11

A man who pulls out gray hairs from [between] dark ones so that he will not appear old is liable even if he pulls out only one [hair.12 Indeed,] such an act is forbidden even during the week, because of the prohibition,13 “A man should not wear the garment of a woman.” As indicated by the Targum, [the meaning of the command is that] a man should not adorn himself [in the same manner] as a woman adorns herself.14

א הַגּוֹזֵז,א בֵּין מִן הַחַי1 בֵּין מִן הַמֵּת,ב,2 בֵּין מִן בְּהֵמָהג וְחַיָּה,3 אֲפִלּוּ מִן הָעוֹר הַמֻּפְשָׁטד – חַיָּב. וְהוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,ה,4 שֶׁכֵּן בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ גוֹזְזִין עוֹרוֹת הַתְּחָשִׁים5 וְאֵילִים.ו

אֲבָל הַתּוֹלֵשׁ צֶמֶר בְּיָדוֹ מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ מֵהָעוֹר – פָּטוּר, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ גְּזִיזָה בְּכָךְ.ז,6 וְכֵן הַנּוֹטֵל שְׂעָרוֹ וְצִפָּרְנָיו בְּיָדָיו אוֹ בְּשִׁנָּיו – פָּטוּר.ח,7 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםט לִטּוֹל בְּיָד,8 אֲפִלּוּ לַאֲחֵרִים,י אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְאַמֵּן יָדָיו לִטּוֹל יָפֶה בְּלֹא כְלִייא לַאֲחֵרִים.9

אֲבָל אִם חֲתָכָן בִּכְלִי – חַיָּביב,7 אֲפִלּוּ עַל ב' שְׂעָרוֹת בִּלְבָד,יג,10 וְעַל אַחַת פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה כִּשְׁאָר חֲצִי שִׁעוּר.יד,11

וּמְלַקֵּט לְבָנוֹת מִתּוֹךְ שְׁחוֹרוֹתטו שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה זָקֵןטז – אֲפִלּוּ בְּאַחַת חַיָּב.12 וְדָבָר זֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל אָסוּר,יז מִשּׁוּם13 "לֹא יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה",יח שֶׁתַּרְגּוּמוֹ "לֹא יִתְתַּקֵּן גְּבַר בְּתִקּוּנֵי אִתְּתָא":יט,14

2 A person who shears [an animal] or one who cuts his nails with a utensil is only liable when he has a need for the wool, hair, or nails that he cuts off. If he does not need them, his act is a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah, a forbidden labor which a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed.15

Accordingly, when a woman forgets to trim her nails on Friday and Friday night is the night for her to immerse [in the mikveh],16 there is an authority who permits her to instruct a non-Jewish woman to cut them for her. [The rationale is that] any activity that is only forbidden by Rabbinic Law17 is permitted to be performed by a non-Jew for the sake of a mitzvah,18 as stated in sec. 307[:12] and sec. 325[:4].

Other authorities maintain, however, that one is liable even if he does not need the wool, hair, or nails, (for the primary focus of the forbidden labor is removal of the hair and the wool from the skin, the nails from the fingers, and the person needs this removal.19 Furthermore,) in the Sanctuary as well, they would shear the hides of the tachashim even though they did not require their hair. Therefore, license should not be granted to instruct a non-Jewish woman to cut [the woman’s nails], for doing so is a shvus20in a complete sense. Such an activity is not permitted even for the sake of a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 276[:8]. Instead, one should tell [the non-Jewish woman] to remove [the Jewish woman’s nails] with her hands or her teeth, because that would be a shvus d’shvus.21

Even though [the woman] leans her fingers toward the non-Jewish woman and thus assists her somewhat, this is not significant, because [merely] helping [a person perform a forbidden labor] is not of consequence. (It is entirely permitted according to Scriptural Law; even according to Rabbinic Law, it is only forbidden to help a person perform a forbidden labor in the complete sense or to perform an activity forbidden as a shvus when a mitzvah is not involved. When, by contrast, a mitzvah is involved, [our Sages] did not impose a prohibitive decree against helping [a non-Jew perform a forbidden act],22 just like they did not impose a prohibitive decree against instructing a non-Jew to do so. [The rationale is that: just like one who instructs a non-Jew in reality] does nothing, so too, by helping, one does not do anything, because helping is not considered as a truly significant act. It is only that the Sages imposed a prohibitive decree against [helping a non-Jew perform a prohibition] lest doing so lead the person to perform that forbidden activity himself.23 It is, by contrast, forbidden for a Jew to perform a forbidden act even if it is a shvus d’shvus and a mitzvah is involved, as stated in sec. 331[:8-9].24)

ב אֵין הַגּוֹזֵז וְהַחוֹתֵךְ צִפָּרְנַיִם בִּכְלִי חַיָּב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן צָרִיךְ לַצֶּמֶר אוֹ לַשֵּׂעָר אוֹ לַצִּפָּרְנַיִם שֶׁחָתַךְ, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לָהֶם – הֲרֵי זוֹ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ.כ,15

וּלְפִיכָךְ, אִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁכְחָה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לִטּוֹל הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם וּבְשַׁבָּת הוּא לֵיל טְבִילָתָהּ16 – יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּיר לָהּ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִית לְחַתְּכָן לָהּ, שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים17 – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,כא,18 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"זכב וְשכ"ה.כג

אֲבָל יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכד שֶׁאַף אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַצֶּמֶר וְשֵׂעָר וְצִפָּרְנַיִם – חַיָּב (שֶׁעִקַּר הַמְּלָאכָה הִיא הַעֲבָרַת הַשֵּׂעָר וְהַצֶּמֶר מֵהָעוֹר, וְהַצִּפָּרְנַיִם מֵהָאֶצְבָּעוֹת,כה וַהֲרֵי הוּא צָרִיךְ לְגוּף הַעֲבָרָה זוֹ,19 וְעוֹד) שֶׁגַּם בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ גוֹזְזִים עוֹרוֹת הַתְּחָשִׁים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לִשְׂעָרָן.כו וְלָכֵן אֵין לְהַתִּיר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִית לְחַתְּכָן, שֶׁזֶּהוּ שְׁבוּת20 גָּמוּר, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ו,כז אֶלָּא תֹּאמַר לָהּ לִטְּלָן בְּיָד אוֹ בְּשִׁנַּיִם, שֶׁזֶּהוּ שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת.כח,21

וְאַף שֶׁהִיא מַטָּה אֶצְבְּעוֹתֶיהָ אֵלֶיהָ וּמְסַיְּעָה עִמָּהּכט קְצָתל – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁלא (וּמֻתָּר גָּמוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה.לב

וְאַף מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין אִסּוּר לְסַיֵּעַ אֶלָּא לְעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה אוֹ לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר, מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה, אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל הַסִּיּוּעַ,22 כְּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ עַל הָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי,לג לְפִי שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם, וְאַף בְּסִיּוּעַ אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מְאוּמָה, שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ בֶּאֱמֶת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחֲכָמִים גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ,23 אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"אלה,24):

3 It is forbidden to cut off a wart, whether it contains moisture or is dry, from either one’s own or another person’s body, whether by hand or with an implement. If one cuts off a wart that contains moisture with an implement, he is liable for shearing according to the authorities who maintain that one is liable for shearing even when he has no need for the entity that he shears.25

ג אָסוּר לַחְתּוֹךְ יַבֶּלֶת מִגּוּפוֹ, בֵּין בְּיָד בֵּין בִּכְלִי, בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִים,לו בֵּין יַבֶּלֶת לַחָה בֵּין יְבֵשָׁה,לז וְאִם חָתַךְ יַבֶּלֶת לַחָה בִּכְלִי – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם גּוֹזֵזלח לְהַמְחַיְּבִים מִשּׁוּם גְּזִיזָה אַף אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְמַה שֶּׁגָּזַז:לט,25

4 Writing and erasing with the intent to write in the space of the erasure, are [two] categories of forbidden labor,26 for they would write on the boards of the Sanctuary so that they would have a sign [by which] to know which [board was to be] paired with it. At times, an error was made, and then what was written [previously] was erased and a [new sign was] written in its place. Erasing without the intent to write [in that place], by contrast, did not take place in [the construction of] the Sanctuary and is not at all similar to a forbidden labor.27

Since one is liable for erasing [only] when he does so in order to write [in that place] again, i.e., he is [liable for] preparing a surface on which to write, even if [the person] did not erase letters but merely rubbed out ink, he is liable. [This ruling also applies when one rubs out] wax that fell on a tablet. [In the Talmudic era, they had tablets] covered with wax, and one wrote by engraving [within the wax] with an iron stylus.28 If other wax fell on the tablet, and one rubbed it out and removed it in order to engrave letters on the [original layer of] wax that was under it, he was liable.

[The above applies when] the space [where the person rubbed out the ink or the wax] was large enough to write or engrave two letters on it. Similarly, one who writes or erases letters is only liable when [he writes or erases] two letters.29 [One who writes or erases only] one letter is exempt. It is, however, forbidden [to do so] according to Scriptural Law, as is [any act that involves the performance of] half the measure [of a forbidden labor].30 Similar laws apply with regard to one who rubs out or removes wax from parchment in order to write in that place.

Similar laws [also] apply to one who removes wax that dripped on letters. [The rationale:] What difference is there between preparing a place to write or rectifying letters that have already been written? On the contrary, in the latter instance, one is making a greater improvement. Nevertheless, there are [authorities who rule] leniently in this regard.

According to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to erase even when one does not have the intent to write [in that space]. Therefore, it is forbidden to break a cake that has figures resembling letters on it.31 [This restriction applies even if] the person’s intent is merely to eat. Nevertheless, [in actual fact,] he is [thereby] erasing [letters].32 It is, however, permitted to give [such a cake] to a child. [The rationale is that when a child performs] a transgression for his own benefit, there is no need to rebuke him, as will be stated in sec. 343[:1, 10].

There are authorities who forbid opening books [on Shabbos] that have letters written33 across the edges of the [tops, sides, and/or bottoms of] pages [see fig. 7], because of [the prohibition against] erasing34 and [so, too, do they prohibit] closing them, because of [the prohibition against] writing.35 True, [the person] does not intend to do this, but it is inevitable that it will occur.36

There are authorities who permit closing the book. [Their rationale is that] since the letters are already written and all that is lacking is bringing them together, this is not considered as writing. [They reason that] since it is possible to bring [the letters] together easily, without performing a new act, it is as if they have already been brought together and one is not doing anything by actually bringing them together. Similarly, it is permitted to open them for this reason. [The person] is not considered to have erased the letters since the writing still exists and the letters can easily be brought together. Hence, they are considered as if they have already been brought together.37 This is the prevailing custom.

ד הַכּוֹתֵבמ וְהַמּוֹחֵק עַל מְנָת לִכְתּוֹבמא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמָּחַקמב – מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת הֵן,26 שֶׁכֵּן הָיוּ כּוֹתְבִין עַל קַרְשֵׁי הַמִּשְׁכָּן לְסִמָּן, לֵידַע אֵיזֶה בֶּן זוּגוֹ, וּפְעָמִים שֶׁטָּעָה וְהָיָה מוֹחֵק מַה שֶּׁכָּתַבמג וְחוֹזֵר וְכוֹתֵב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ,מד אֲבָל לִמְחוֹק שֶׁלֹּא עַל מְנָת לִכְתּוֹב לֹא הָיָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן,מה וְאֵין זוֹ מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה כְּלָל.מו,27

וְהוֹאִיל וְחִיּוּב הַמּוֹחֵק הוּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה כֵּן עַל מְנָת לִכְתּוֹב, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּתַקֵּן מָקוֹם לִכְתִיבָה,מז לְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא מָחַק אוֹתִיּוֹת אֶלָּא טִשְׁטוּשׁ דְּיוֹ בִּלְבָד, אוֹ שַׁעֲוָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה עַל הַפִּנְקָס,מח דְּהַיְנוּ לוּחוֹת חֲקוּקִין וְטוּחִין בְּשַׁעֲוָהמט וְחוֹקְקִים עֲלֵיהֶם בְּעֵטנ בַּרְזֶל,28 וְנָפְלָה עָלֶיהָ שַׁעֲוָה אַחֶרֶת וּמְחָקָהּ וֶהֱסִירָהּ מִשָּׁם כְּדֵי לַחֲקוֹק בִּמְקוֹמָהּ עַל הַשַּׁעֲוָה שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ הַטּוּחָה בַּלּוּחַ – חַיָּב.

וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא בִּמְקוֹמוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתּוֹב אוֹ לַחֲקוֹק ב' אוֹתִיּוֹת,נא וְכֵן הַכּוֹתֵב אוֹ הַמּוֹחֵק אוֹתִיּוֹת – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל ב' אוֹתִיּוֹת,נב,29 אֲבָל עַל אוֹת אַחַת – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה כִּשְׁאָר חֲצִי שִׁעוּר.נג,30 וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּמוֹחֵק וּמֵסִיר שַׁעֲוָה מִן הַקְּלַף כְּדֵי לִכְתּוֹב בִּמְקוֹמָהּ.נד

וְהוּא הַדִּין הַמֵּסִיר שַׁעֲוָה שֶׁנָּטְפָה עַל הָאוֹתִיּוֹת,נה דְּמַה לִּי מְתַקֵּן מָקוֹם לִכְתִיבָה וּמַה לִּי מְתַקֵּן אוֹתִיּוֹת הַכְּתוּבוֹת,נו וְאַדְּרַבָּה זֶהוּ תִּקּוּן יוֹתֵר. וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין בְּזֶה.נז

וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לִמְחוֹק שֶׁלֹּא עַל מְנָת לִכְתּוֹב,נח וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִשְׁבּוֹר עוּגָה שֶׁעָשׂוּ עָלֶיהָ כְּמִין אוֹתִיּוֹת,31 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן רַק לַאֲכִילָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹחֵק.נט,32 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתְּנָהּ לְתִינוֹק,ס לְפִי שֶׁקָּטָן הָעוֹשֶׂה לַהֲנָאָתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ,סא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ג.סב

וְאוֹתָן סְפָרִים שֶׁכָּתוּב עֲלֵיהֶם אוֹתִיּוֹת33 בְּרָאשֵׁי חֻדֵּי הַדַּפִּים – יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןסג לְפָתְחָן בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם מוֹחֵק,34 וְכֵן לְנָעֳלָן, מִשּׁוּם כּוֹתֵב.35 וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת"36 הוּא.סד וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןסה לְנָעֳלָן, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהָאוֹתִיּוֹת הֵן כְּתוּבוֹת כְּבָר אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּחֻסָּרִין קְרִיבָה בְּעָלְמָא – אֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם כּוֹתֵב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַקְרִיבָן בְּקַל בְּלִי עֲשִׂיַּת מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ – הֲרֵי הֵן כִּמְקֹרָבִים וְעוֹמְדִים, וְאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם בִּקְרִיבָה זוֹ. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְפָתְחָן מִטַּעַם זֶה, וְאֵינוֹ כְּמוֹחֲקָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּתִיבָתָן קַיֶּמֶת וְאֶפְשָׁר לְהַקְרִיבָן בְּקַל, וַהֲרֵי הֵן כִּמְקֹרָבִין.37 וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין:סו


Fig. 7: Letters written on the side of a book
Fig. 7: Letters written on the side of a book

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

5 One who corrects the calligraphy of a letter, e.g., he removes the connecting bridge on top of a ches, thus transforming it into two zayinin, is liable.38

(One who corrects the calligraphy of another letter, e.g., he removes the corner of the upper line of a dalet, making it a reish, is exempt [from punishment].39 It is, however, [nevertheless] forbidden to do so according to Scriptural Law.)40 [See figs. 8 and 9.]

ה הַמַּגִּיהַּ אוֹת אַחַת,סז כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּטַל לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל חֵי"ת וְנַעֲשׂוּ שְׁנֵי זַיְנִי"ן – חַיָּב.סח,38

(וְהַמַּגִּיהַּ אוֹת אַחַת אַחֶרֶת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּטַל לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל ד' וַעֲשָׂאוֹ ר' – פָּטוּר,סט,39 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָהע):40


Fig. 8: A ches that can be transformed into two zayyinim. A = The connecting bridge
Fig. 8: A ches that can be transformed into two zayyinim. A = The connecting bridge

Fig. 9: A dalet that can be transformed into a reish. A = The corner of the dalet
Fig. 9: A dalet that can be transformed into a reish. A = The corner of the dalet

6 One is liable [for writing] only when he writes with a substance that will endure on an article that will endure.41 According to Rabbinic Law, however, it is forbidden to write even when writing with a substance that does not endure on an article that does not endure, e.g., writing with liquids or fruit juices42 on vegetable leaves or the like. For this reason, one must take care not to trace letters within liquids [that spill] on a tabletop,43 or to inscribe letters in ash, hardened fat, or honey.

It is, however, permitted to trace the likeness of the form of letters in the air, because one is not making a visible imprint at all. Similarly, [one may trace the form of letters] on a tabletop when there are no liquids present, because in this instance as well, he is not making a visible imprint at all. True, by doing so, he is training his hand to write [properly. Nevertheless,] this is not of consequence. Similarly, it is permitted to watch a [non-Jewish] professional perform his craft on Shabbos even though one is learning [the profession by observation].44

ו אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁכּוֹתֵב בְּדָבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם עַל גַּבֵּי דָּבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם,עא,41 אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם,עב כְּגוֹן לִכְתּוֹב בְּמַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵרוֹתעג,42 עַל גַּבֵּי עֲלֵי יְרָקוֹתעד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן. וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִכְתּוֹב בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּמַשְׁקִין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,43 אוֹ לַחֲקוֹק בְּאֵפֶרעה אוֹ בְּשׁוּמָן קָרוּשׁ אוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ.עו

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִרְשׁוֹם בַּאֲוִיר כְּמִין אוֹתִיּוֹת,עז כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין רִשּׁוּמָן נִכָּר כְּלָל.עח וְהוּא הַדִּין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁלֹּא בְּמַשְׁקִין, שֶׁגַּם בְּזֶה אֵין רִשּׁוּמָן נִכָּר כְּלָל.עט וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָךְ מְלַמֵּד וּמְאַמֵּן יָדוֹ לִכְתִיבָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִרְאוֹת אוּמָנוּת בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלּוֹמְדָהּ:פ,44

7 One who cuts the form of letters into a hide is liable,45 since engraving is included in the forbidden labor of writing.46 However, one who makes an impression of the form of letters on a hide is exempt because the impression will not endure. It is, nevertheless, forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law as a safeguard lest [one make an impression] that will endure. If, however, one does not form a lettered image, but only makes an impression as a sign, he is permitted to do so, even initially. Therefore, it is permitted to make an impression on a text with one’s fingernail as a sign in the place where there is an error.

When does the above apply? With regard to parchment, which is firm and an impression made on it will not endure. It is, by contrast, forbidden to make an impression on paper, because an impression made on it will endure for a long time. [Therefore,] even if [the impression] is not an image of letters, [making it] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. [This is] a decree [imposed lest one make] an image of writing for which one is liable when it endures.

There are authorities who forbid [making an impression] even on parchment. They maintain that one is liable for making an impression, even if it is a mere sign and not an image of letters,47 if it will endure, because they would make marks on the boards of the Sanctuary to know which [boards] were paired. Therefore, one is liable if he makes one scratch on two boards or two scratches on one board as a sign, as was made for the boards of the Sanctuary. If, however, he makes only one scratch on one board, he is exempt, but it is forbidden to do so according to Scriptural Law,48 because [the scratch was made on] an entity on which it will endure. Making an impression on parchment that will not endure is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. [This is] a decree [imposed lest one make an impression that] endures. A G‑d-fearing person should be stringent regarding his own conduct and follow the ruling of these authorities.

ז הַקּוֹרֵעַ עַל הָעוֹר כְּתַבְנִית כְּתָב – חַיָּב,פא,45 שֶׁהֲרֵי חֲקִיקָה הִיא בִּכְלַל כְּתִיבָה.פב,46 אֲבָל הָרוֹשֵׁם עַל הָעוֹר כְּתַבְנִית כְּתָב – פָּטוּר,פג שֶׁאֵין זֶה דָּבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם.פד אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,פה גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם דָּבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם.

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ תַּבְנִית כְּתָב, וְאֵינוֹ רוֹשֵׁם אֶלָּא לְסִמָּן בְּעָלְמָא וְלֹא כְּמִין אוֹתִיּוֹת – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה.פו וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִרְשׁוֹם בְּצִפֹּרֶן עַל הַסֵּפֶר כְּמוֹ שֶׁרוֹשְׁמִין לְסִמָּןפז בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ טָעוּת.פח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּקְלַף, שֶׁהוּא קָשֶׁה, וְהָרֹשֶׁם שֶׁבּוֹ אֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם, אֲבָל בִּנְיָר אָסוּר לִרְשׁוֹם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָרֹשֶׁם שֶׁבּוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה.פט וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ תַּבְנִית כְּתָב – אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם תַּבְנִית כְּתָב, שֶׁחַיָּבִים עָלָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא מִתְקַיֵּם.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםצ אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְלַף, לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹבְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הָרוֹשֵׁם לְסִמָּן בְּעָלְמָא וְלֹא כְּתַבְנִית כְּתָב – חַיָּבצא,47 אִם הוּא דָבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם, שֶׁכֵּן הָיוּ רוֹשְׁמִין עַל קַרְשֵׁי הַמִּשְׁכָּן לֵידַע אֵיזֶה בֶּן זוּגוֹ.צב,47 וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׂרַט שְׂרִיטָה אַחַת עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁנֵי נְסָרִים, אוֹ ב' שְׂרִיטוֹת עַל נֶסֶר אֶחָד לְסִמָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשׂוּ בְּקַרְשֵׁי הַמִּשְׁכָּן – חַיָּב. וּבִשְׂרִיטָה אַחַת עַל נֶסֶר אֶחָד – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּרצג מִן הַתּוֹרָה,צד,48 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. וְהָרוֹשֵׁם עַל הַקְּלַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם – אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,צה גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. וִירֵא שָׁמַיִם יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ כְּדִבְרֵיהֶם:צו

8 All the above [applies when one makes an impression] that is not an image of letters at all. If, however, it is an image of any type of writing, even if it is not letters in the Ashuri script,49 and even if [the marks] are not known letters, but marks commonly made for signs, like the signs that are commonly made [as a substitute] for numbers, it is considered as an image of letters and one is liable for making [such a mark] if he made it with an entity which will endure. [And if the person made the mark] with an entity which will not endure, it is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, according to all authorities.

When one writes in the Ashuri script, and omits the taggim50from the letters שעטנ"ז ג"ץ, he is exempt because he has not completed the task [of writing these letters]. Similarly, whenever one writes [in the script of] any [language], but does not finish forming the letters in the prescribed fashion, he is exempt. Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. For this reason, there are authorities who maintain that one who writes with a thin script called meshita51is exempt because it was derived from the Ashuri script. Thus, it is comparable to letters written in the Ashuri script that were not completed in the prescribed fashion, as will be explained in sec. 545.52

ח וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ תַּבְנִית כְּתָב כְּלָל, אֲבָל כֹּל שֶׁהוּא תַּבְנִית אֵיזֶה כְּתָב,צז אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ אַשּׁוּרִי,49 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן אוֹתִיּוֹת יְדוּעוֹת, אֶלָּא שֶׁרְגִילִין לְסִמָּן בְּעָלְמָא,צח כְּגוֹן הַסִּמָּנִים שֶׁרְגִילִין לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהֶם הַמִּסְפָּרצט – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא תַּבְנִית כְּתָב, וְחַיָּב עָלָיו אִם עֲשָׂאוֹ בְּדָבָר הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. וּבְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם – אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.ק

וְהַכּוֹתֵב אַשּׁוּרִית49 וְחִסֵּר הַזִּיּוּנִין50 מִשַּׁעַטְנֵ"ז גֵּ"ץ – פָּטוּר עֲלֵיהֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן.קא וְכֵן כָּל כְּתָב מֵאֵיזוֹ אֻמָּה שֶׁלֹּא גָמַר אוֹתִיּוֹתָיו כְּתִקּוּנָן – פָּטוּר עָלָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְלָכֵן הַכּוֹתֵב כְּתִיבָה דַקָּה שֶׁקּוֹרִין מְשִׁיטָ"א51 – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקב שֶׁפָּטוּר עָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּלְקְחָה מִכְּתָב אַשּׁוּרִי, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּכְתָב אַשּׁוּרִי שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר כְּתִקּוּנוֹ,קג וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקמ"ה:קד,52


Fig. 10: Letters with taggim. a) a tag
Fig. 10: Letters with taggim. a) a tag

9 Inserting silver letters into a garment53 is considered as writing and it is forbidden to make [such insertions] on Shabbos.

ט אִם תּוֹחֵב אוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף בְּבֶגֶד53 – נִקְרָא כְּתָב, וְאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת:קה

10 One who sketches drawings and designs in a document or the like in the manner that artists draw is liable for [performing] a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of writing. The same [applies when one] erases [such drawings or designs].54

י הָרוֹשֵׁם רְשָׁמִים וְצוּרוֹת בִּשְׁטָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםקו כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַצַּיָּרִים רוֹשְׁמִים – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֶדֶת כּוֹתֵב, וְכֵן הַמּוֹחֲקָהּ:קז,54

11 Before leatherworkers cut a hide, they usually engrave lines on the hide indicating how long, how wide, or how short they desire to make the cut. Afterwards, [the leatherworkers] pass the knife along those lines. They [also] did this when they cut the hides for the Sanctuary. Therefore, engraving such a line is considered one of the primary categories of forbidden labor.55 Similarly, one is liable for scratching such a line on parchment or paper so that he can write evenly.

יא דֶּרֶךְ הָרַצְעָנִים כְּשֶׁהוּא בָּא לַחְתּוֹךְ הָעוֹר מְשַׂרְטְטוֹ תְּחִלָּה כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְהַאֲרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיב וּלְקַצֵּר הַחִתּוּךְ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲבִיר הַסַּכִּין דֶּרֶךְ הַשִּׂרְטוּט, וְכֵן עָשׂוּ בְּעוֹרוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּשֶׁחֲתָכוּם,קח וְלָכֵן שִׂרְטוּט זֶה הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת.קט,55 וְכֵן הַמְשַׂרְטֵט אֲפִלּוּ הַקְּלַף אוֹ הַנְּיָר כְּדֵי לִכְתּוֹב בְּיֹשֶׁר – חַיָּב:קי

12 One who sews two stitches and ties up [the thread]56 or one who sews three stitches – even though he does not tie up [the thread] – is liable [for performing the forbidden labor of sewing].57 If, however, [the person] sews two stitches, but does not tie up [the thread], he is exempt because [his act] will not endure. It is, however, forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law. If [the person] ties up the thread, he is also liable for [performing the prohibited labor of] tying [a knot].58

יב הַתּוֹפֵר ב' תְּפִירוֹתקיא וְקָשַׁר,קיב,56 אוֹ ג' תְּפִירוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָשַׁרקיג – חַיָּב.57 אֲבָל ב' תְּפִירוֹת וְלֹא קָשַׁר – פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם,קיד אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.קטו וְאִם קָשַׁר – חַיָּב גַּם מִשּׁוּם קוֹשֵׁר:קטז,58

13 [The following laws apply when] a garment was sewn, but a long thread was left, and the two portions of the garment separated slightly from each other and the threads became loose: [If] one pulled the end of the thread in order to tighten the portions and attach them to each other, and [as a result of his action, the sides of the garment] became attached [for] the length of three stitches,59 he is considered to have sewn [this garment] and he is liable,60 even though he did not tie up [the threads].

[There are] people who tighten garments around their arms via a cord that is extended and pulled tight. It is forbidden to extend [the cord and tighten it] on Shabbos because [of the prohibition against] sewing. (True, this is not a lasting stitching, since [the person] only pulls [the cord to tighten the garment] when he wears it, and when he removes [the garment], he loosens it. Nevertheless, [this practice] is forbidden by Rabbinic Law because it resembles sewing.) [An exception is made when] the holes are slightly large and have a circular [border] sewn around them, for then [tightening the cord] does not resemble sewing.

In such a situation, even if the thread is threaded through a needle, it is permitted to go out wearing [the garment with the needle attached].61 [The rationale is that] since [the needle] is always connected to the thread and the thread [is always connected] to the garment, [the needle and the thread] are considered as being used by the garment.

If the garment is not closed tightly by this thread to the extent that [the person] must loosen [the thread] when he takes off [the garment], but instead, at times he changes his mind and leaves [the thread] as is for the indefinite future,62 because he can take off [the garment] as it is while [the thread] is tightened somewhat, it is forbidden for [the person] to tighten [the thread] on Shabbos in any case, lest he decide to leave [the thread tightened] this way for the indefinite future. Thus, he will have made a lasting stitch and when one makes a lasting stitch, the fact that the holes are slightly large and have a circular [border] sewn around them is inconsequential.

יג בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא תָּפוּר וְעוֹמֵד וְהִנִּיחַ הַחוּט אָרֹךְ וְנִתְפָּרְדוּ שְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת הַבֶּגֶד זוֹ מִזּוֹ בְּמִקְצָת וְחוּטֵי הַתְּפִירוֹת נִמְשָׁכִים, וּמוֹתֵחַ אֶת רֹאשׁ הַחוּט כְּדֵי לְהַדְּקָן וּלְחַבְּרָן – זוֹ הִיא תְּפִירָתָן,59 וְחַיָּבקיז,60 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָשַׁר, אִם נִתְחַבְּרוּ כְּשִׁעוּר ג' תְּפִירוֹת.קיח

וְאוֹתָן שֶׁמְּהַדְּקִין הַבְּגָדִים סְבִיב זְרוֹעוֹתֵיהֶם עַל יְדֵי הַחוּט שֶׁמּוֹתְחִים אוֹתוֹ וּמִתְהַדֵּק – אָסוּר לְמָתְחוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם תּוֹפֵר.קיט

(וְאַף שֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּפִירָה שֶׁל קַיָּמָא, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מְהַדְּקוֹ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁלּוֹבְשׁוֹ, וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁפּוֹשְׁטוֹ מְרַפֶּה אוֹתוֹ,קכ מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְתוֹפֵרקכא).

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִהְיוּ הַנְּקָבִים רְחָבִים קְצָת וּמְתֻקָּנִים בִּתְפִירָה וּבְעִגּוּל,קכב שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְתוֹפֵר.קכג

וְאָז אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַחוּט תָּחוּב בְּמַחַט נְקוּבָה – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ,קכד,61 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא מְחֻבֶּרֶת לְעוֹלָם בְּחוּט וְהַחוּט בְּבֶגֶד,קכה וַהֲרֵי הִיא תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַבֶּגֶד.קכו

וְאִם אֵין הַבֶּגֶד מְהֻדָּק כָּל כָּךְ עַל יְדֵי חוּט זֶה שֶׁיְּהֵא צָרִיךְ לְרַפּוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁפּוֹשְׁטוֹ, אֶלָּא לִפְעָמִים נִמְלָךְ וּמַנִּיחוֹ כָּךְ לְעוֹלָם,62 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְפָשְׁטוֹ כָּךְ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא מְהֻדָּק קְצָת – אָסוּר לְהַדְּקוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל עִנְיָן,קכז שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ לְהַנִּיחוֹ כָּךְ לְעוֹלָם,קכח וְנִמְצָא עָשָׂה תְּפִירָה שֶׁל קַיָּמָא, וּבִתְפִירָה שֶׁל קַיָּמָא אֵין מוֹעִיל מַה שֶּׁהַנְּקָבִים רְחָבִים וּמְתֻקָּנִים בִּתְפִירָה וּבְעִגּוּל:

14 When soft fabric falls out of a pillow, it is permitted to return it. It is, however, forbidden to place [soft fabric] in a pillow initially, because by doing so, one is fashioning an implement. See sec. 317[:5].

יד מוֹכִין שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מִן הַכֶּסֶת – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָם. אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתְּנָם בִּתְחִלָּה בַּכֶּסֶת,קכט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו עוֹשֵׂהוּ כְּלִי.קל עַיֵּן סִמָּן שי"ז:קלא

15 Collecting produce is one of the primary categories of forbidden labor.63 It was performed in [the construction of] the Sanctuary with the herbs that were sown. [The forbidden labor of] collecting produce applies only when produce is collected in the place in which it grows, like a harvested crop whose sheaves are collected in the place where they grow. Similarly, it applies when one collects fruit and gathers them together in the place where they fell from the tree. If, however, [the fruit] scattered in another place, it is permitted to gather them, as stated in sec. 335[:5].64

[According to Scriptural Law, the forbidden labor of] collecting produce applies only to produce that grows from the earth.65 According to Rabbinic Law, however, a [similar] prohibition applies to collecting other products in the place where they are produced, for example, [the Sages prohibited] collecting salt from the place where water is evaporated and salt is produced. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

(There are authorities who maintain that one who presses produce together until it forms a single block is liable for collecting produce, even if it is performed in a place other than where the produce grows, for example,) one who presses together dried figs and makes a [cake of dried figs] or one who pierces [fresh] figs, passes a string through them, and collects them so that they become one entity. This is a derivative of the forbidden labor of collecting fruit and one is liable for doing so. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations. (One must follow the stringency of this view.)66

טו הַמְעַמֵּר הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹתקלב,63 שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן בְּסַמָּנִיםקלג הַזְּרוּעִים. וְאֵין עִמּוּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּאַסְּפוֹ בִּמְקוֹם גִּדּוּלוֹ,קלד כְּעֵין קָמָה קְצוּרָה שֶׁמְּגַבֵּב הַשִּׁבֳּלִיםקלה בִּמְקוֹם גִּדּוּלָן. וְכֵן הַמְאַסֵּף פֵּרוֹת וּמְקַבְּצָן יַחַד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מִן הָאִילָן.קלו אֲבָל אִם נִתְפַּזְּרוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר – מֻתָּר לְקַבְּצָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ה.קלז,64

וְאֵין עִמּוּר אֶלָּא בְּגִדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע.קלח,65 אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר אַף שֶׁלֹּא בְּגִדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע לְקַבְּצָם בִּמְקוֹם גִּדּוּלָם,קלט כְּגוֹן לְקַבֵּץ מֶלַחקמ מִמִּשְׂרְפוֹת הַמַּיִם שֶׁשּׂוֹרַפְתָּן וְנַעֲשִׂים מֶלַח,קמא וְכֵן בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.קמב

(וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקמג שֶׁהַמְדַבֵּק פֵּרוֹת עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ גּוּף אֶחָד – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְעַמֵּר אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם גִּדּוּלָם, כְּגוֹן) הַמְקַבֵּץ דְּבֵלָה וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ עִגּוּל, אוֹ שֶׁנָּקַב תְּאֵנִים וְהִכְנִיס הַחֶבֶל בָּהֶם עַד שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ גּוּף אֶחָד – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מְעַמֵּר וְחַיָּב, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶהקמד (וְצָרִיךְ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵיהֶםקמה):66

16 One who places flax seeds or sesame seeds in water is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] kneading a dough, because the seeds mix together and become attached to each other.67

טז הַנּוֹתֵן זֶרַע פִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ שֻׁמְשְׁמִין בְּמַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם לָשׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְעָרְבִים וְנִתְלִים זֶה בָּזֶה:קמו,67

17 Cutting an object that was already separated from its source of nourishment is permitted as an initial preference, provided one is not careful to cut it in a precise measure, as stated in sec. 314[:16]. Nevertheless, if by doing so, [the person] makes [the object] fit to be used for a purpose, he is liable for fashioning an implement, should he cut [the object] with a knife, as stated in sec. 32268 with regard to cutting a sliver of wood. It is forbidden to cut [the object] without using a knife, but one who does so is exempt [from punishment].69 Therefore, one may not break a shard [into small pieces] or tear a paper70 [even though the shard and the paper] are permitted to be carried,71 [if the person is doing so] to use [the pieces that were broken off] for a purpose,because it is considered as if one fashioned an implement. See sec. 508[:2].

(There is, however, no prohibition in doing so because of concern for [the forbidden labor of] tearing, since [that forbidden labor applies] only when one separates many entities that had previously been joined together, for example, [when] one tears a garment woven from many strands.72 In contrast, a piece of paper is a single entity. [Hence,] one does not [incur liability for the forbidden labor of] tearing when he tears and cuts it.73

For this reason, it is permitted to tear a piece of leather off the opening of a barrel of wine, as stated in sec. 314[:12. This is permitted because] the leather is a single entity and the prohibition against tearing does not apply to it, only the prohibition against cutting, when one is careful to cut it in a precise measure,74 as stated in that source.)

Nevertheless, separating papers that are attached together is a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of tearing,75 and attaching papers or hides with scribes’ paste or the like is a derivative of [the forbidden labor of] sewing, and one is liable [for doing so].

When does the above apply? When [the papers or hides] are attached in a manner that is intended to endure. When, however, pages of books are stuck together [unintentionally] by wax or during the binding process, it is permitted to open them on Shabbos because they were not attached to endure. [Indeed,] they were attached as a matter of course, without any intent. Therefore, this is not at all comparable to [the forbidden labor of] sewing, and [the forbidden labor of] tearing does not apply [when separating them].

יז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחֲתִיכַת תָּלוּשׁ מֻתֶּרֶת לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד לְחַתְּכוֹ בְּמִדָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ד,קמז מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם עַל יְדֵי זֶה מְתַקְּנוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁקמח – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִי אִם מְחַתְּכוֹ בְּסַכִּין,קמט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"בקנ,68 גַּבֵּי קְטִימַת קֵיסָם, וְשֶׁלֹּא בְסַכִּין – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר.קנא,69 לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין שׁוֹבְרִין אֶת הַחֶרֶס וְאֵין קוֹרְעִין אֶת הַנְּיָרקנב,70 הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּלקנג,71 כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְתַקֵּן כְּלִי.קנד,70 עַיֵּן סִמָּן תק"ח.קנה

(אֲבָל מִשּׁוּם קוֹרֵעַ – אֵין אִסּוּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁקּוֹרֵעַ וּמַפְרִיד גּוּפִים רַבִּים שֶׁנִּתְחַבְּרוּ, כְּגוֹן קוֹרֵעַ בֶּגֶד הָאָרוּגקנו מֵחוּטִים הַרְבֵּה.קנז,72 אֲבָל הַנְּיָר שֶׁהוּא גּוּף אֶחָד – אֵין בִּפְסִיקָתוֹקנח וְחִתּוּכוֹקנט מִשּׁוּם קוֹרֵעַ.קס,73

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹעַ עוֹר שֶׁעַל פִּי חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ד,קסא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹר הוּא גּוּף אֶחָד, וְלֹא שַׁיָּךְ בּוֹ אִסּוּר קְרִיעָה אֶלָּא אִסּוּר הַחִתּוּךְקסב אִם מַקְפִּיד לְחַתְּכוֹ בְּמִדָּה,74 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםקסג).

אֲבָל הַמְפָרֵק נְיָרוֹת דְּבוּקִים – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת קוֹרֵעַ.קסד,75 וְהַמְדַבֵּק נְיָרוֹת אוֹ עוֹרוֹת בְּקוֹלָן שֶׁל סוֹפְרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלְדוֹת תּוֹפֵר וְחַיָּב.קסה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁדִּבּוּק זֶה נַעֲשֶׂה לְקִיּוּם, אֲבָל דַּפֵּי סְפָרִים שֶׁנִּדְבְּקוּ זֶה לְזֶה עַל יְדֵי שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַקְּשִׁירָהקסו – מֻתָּרִים לְפָתְחָן בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה לְקִיּוּם, וְעוֹד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מֵאֵלָיו בְּלֹא מִתְכַּוֵּן,קסז לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה כְּלָל לְתוֹפֵר, וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם קוֹרֵעַ:

18 When a pin or needle becomes even slightly crooked, it is forbidden to straighten it (because one is repairing an implement).76

יח מַחַט שֶׁנִּתְעַקְּמָה אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט – אָסוּר לְפָשְׁטָהּ,קסח (מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִיקסט):76