SECTION 339 Several Individual Laws [Regarding Restrictions] That Are Observed on Shabbos (1-11)

סימן שלט כַּמָּה דִּינִים פְּרָטִיִּים הַנּוֹהֲגִים בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 One may not ride on an animal.1 [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one break off a branch to direct it, as stated in sec. 305[:23].

One may not swim on the surface of water, lest one make a swimmer’s barrel,2 i.e., a utensil made from woven reeds and constructed like a long barrel with which a person learns how to swim [by holding on to it].

When does the above apply? [When one swims] in a river. However, [swimming] in a [large] receptacle3 is permitted, because it is uncommon to make a barrel with which to swim in a receptacle.

It is, by contrast, forbidden [to swim] in a pool in a courtyard, because the water will be uprooted and flow out of the pool when he swims, and thus it resembles [swimming in] a river. If, however, the pool has a border [that prevents the water from flowing out], it is permitted to swim in it. [The rationale is that] even if the water is uprooted, the border will cause it to return to its place [and not escape the pool]. Thus, it resembles a [large] receptacle.4 [See figs. 5 and 6.]

א אֵין רוֹכְבִין עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה,א,1 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְתּוֹךְ זְמוֹרָהב לְהַנְהִיגָהּ,1 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ה.ג

וְאֵין שָׁטִין עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם,ד גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשֶׂה חָבִית שֶׁל שַׁיָּטִין,ה,2 דְּהַיְנוּ כְּלִי שֶׁל גּוּמָא שֶׁאוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ וְעוֹשִׂים כְּמִין חָבִית אֲרֻכָּה וּלְמֵדִין לָשׁוּט בּוֹ.ו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּנָהָר, אֲבָל בִּכְלִי3 – מֻתָּר,ז שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת חָבִית לָשׁוּט בָּהּ בִּכְלִי.ח

אֲבָל בִּבְרֵכָה שֶׁבְּחָצֵר – אָסוּר,ט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהַמַּיִם נֶעֱקָרִים כְּשֶׁשָּׁט – הֲרֵי הֵם יוֹצְאִים חוּץ לַבְּרֵכָה, וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְנָהָר.י וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהּ שָׂפָה סָבִיב – מֻתָּר לָשׁוּט בָּהּ,יא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נֶעֶקְרוּ הַמַּיִם – הַשָּׂפָה מַחֲזֶרֶת אוֹתָם לִמְקוֹמָם,יב וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לִכְלִי:יג,4

Fig. 5: A pool without a border
Fig. 5: A pool without a border

Fig. 6: A pool with a border
Fig. 6: A pool with a border

2 One may not slap his hands on his thighs nor clap his hands, neither as an expression of joy, even at a wedding [celebration],5 nor in mourning. [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one repair a musical instrument for [the purpose of] celebration or for mourning. An exception is made when one slaps [his sides] or claps [his hands] in an abnormal manner.6

It is even forbidden to rap one’s fingers on the ground or on a tablet, or to snap them together as musicians do, e.g., those who snap their middle finger and thumb together and make pleasant sounds.

Nor may one rattle nuts for a baby or play with a bell7 to quiet him. All of these and other like activities are forbidden as a decree [imposed] lest one repair a musical instrument. Similarly, it is forbidden to dance for this reason, even at a wedding [celebration]. Nevertheless, on Simchas Torah, it is permitted to dance when the Torah is being praised, as an expression of honor for the Torah.

In the present era, when the general populace is accustomed to slapping [their sides], clapping [their hands], and dancing at all kinds of celebrations, they should not be admonished8 since they will certainly not heed the admonishment, and it is preferable that [people transgress] unknowingly rather than knowingly.9

Some authorities have also provided justification for their conduct, stating that in the present era, [people at large] do not know how to [repair] musical instruments and thus it is not appropriate to impose prohibitive decrees lest one repair a musical instrument, because it is not at all common practice to do so.

ב אֵין מְסַפְּקִין כַּף עַל יָרֵךְ, וְאֵין מְטַפְּחִין כַּף אֶל כַּף,יד,1 בֵּין לְשִׂמְחָה,טו אֲפִלּוּ בְּנִשּׂוּאִין,טז,5 בֵּין לְאֵבֶל,יז גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן כְּלֵי שִׁיריח לְשׁוֹרֵר אוֹ לְקוֹנֵן,יט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מְסַפֵּק וּמְטַפֵּחַ כִּלְאַחַר יָד.כ,6

אֲפִלּוּ לְהַכּוֹת בְּאֶצְבַּע עַל הַקַּרְקַע אוֹ עַל הַלּוּחַ, אוֹ אַחַת כְּנֶגֶד אַחַת כְּדֶרֶךְ הַמְשׁוֹרְרִים,כא כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ שֶׁמַּכִּין בְּאַמָּה עַל הַגּוּדָל וְעוֹשִׂין בְּזֶה תְּנוּעוֹת עֲרֵבוֹת,כב אוֹ לְקַשְׁקֵשׁ בֶּאֱגוֹז לְתִינוֹק אוֹ לְשַׂחֵק בְּזוּגכג,7 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוֹק – כָּל זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ אָסוּר, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן כְּלֵי שִׁיר.כד,1

וְכֵן אָסוּר לְרַקֵּדכה מִטַּעַם זֶה,כו אֲפִלּוּ בְּנִשּׂוּאִין. אֲבָל בְּשִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה מֻתָּר לְרַקֵּד בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים קִלּוּסִים לַתּוֹרָה, מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה.כז

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ הֶהָמוֹן לְסַפֵּק וּלְטַפֵּחַ וּלְרַקֵּד בְּכָל מִינֵי שִׂמְחָה8 – אֵין מוֹחִין בְּיָדָם, לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ, וּמוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִים וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִים.כח,9

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת לוֹמַר, שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִים בַּעֲשִׂיַּת כְּלֵי שִׁיר, וְלֹא שַׁיָּךְ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן כְּלֵי שִׁיר,כט שֶׁדָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי הוּא כְּלָל:ל

3 Cases of monetary law are not adjudicated [on Shabbos]. [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one write.10 Punishment may not be meted out [by the court] on Shabbos.11Therefore, it is forbidden to seize a person who is liable for a punishment and jail him lest he flee. How much more so is it forbidden to administer lashes, (for this is included [in the prohibition] against delivering judgment). If [the guilty party] does flee, we are not responsible.

One may not present legal arguments [before a court] on Shabbos. One may, however, lodge a complaint or propose matters to the court, e.g., to dispute a bride’s virginity,12 as will be stated in Even HaEzer, sec. 62.13

Rabbeinu Gershom Maor HaGolah14 ordained not to nullify the regular communal prayer services15 on Shabbos except for the complaints of the congregation.16

It is forbidden to establish a place where a chalitzah17will be conducted, because it appears that a court is convening.

ג אֵין דָּנִיןלא דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת,לב,1 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִכְתְּבוּ.לג,10 וְאֵין עוֹנְשִׁין בְּשַׁבָּת.לד,11 וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִתְפּוֹס וּלְהַכְנִיס לְבֵית הַסֹּהַר מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב אֵיזֶה עֹנֶשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִבְרַח, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַלְקוֹתוֹ (שֶׁזֶּהוּ בִּכְלַל דִּיןלה). וְאִם יִבְרַח – אֵין עָלֵינוּ כְּלוּם.לו

וְאֵין מְסַדְּרִין טְעָנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,לז אֲבָל לִקְבּוֹל וּלְהַצִּיעַ דְּבָרִים, כְּגוֹן עַל טַעֲנוֹת בְּתוּלִים – מֻתָּר,לח,12 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּאֶבֶן הָעֶזֶר סִמָּן ס"ב.לט,13

וְתִקֵּן רַבֵּנוּ גֵרְשׁוֹם מְאוֹר הַגּוֹלָהמ,14 שֶׁלֹּא לְבַטֵּל הַתָּמִידמא,15 בְּשַׁבָּת, אִם לֹא בִּשְׁבִיל טַעֲנוֹת הַקָּהָל.מב,16

וְאָסוּר לִקְבּוֹעַ מָקוֹם לַחֲלִיצָה,17 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ יוֹשְׁבִים לָדוּן:מג

4 A woman may not be consecrated18 on Shabbos, nor may the rite of chalitzah or divorce be performed. [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one write.

When the ailment of a person who is mortally ill peaks, and he desires to divorce his wife so that she will not be subject to yibbum,19[our Sages] permitted him to carry out the divorce on Shabbos in the manner to be described in Even HaEzer, sec. 136,20 so that he will not become overly agitated should his desire not be fulfilled.21

ד אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה,18 וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין,מד,1 וְלֹא מְגָרְשִׁין,מה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב.מו,10

וּשְׁכִיב מְרָע שֶׁתָּקַף עָלָיו הַחֹלִי וְרוֹצֶה לְגָרֵשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹמז כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִזָּקֵק לְיִבּוּםמח,19 – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְגָרֵשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּאֶבֶן הָעֶזֶר סִמָּן קל"ו,מט,20 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִטְרוֹף דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיונ אִם לֹא יַעֲשׂוּ רְצוֹנוֹ:נא,21

5 Similarly, the rites of yibbum22and marriage23 are not carried out [on Shabbos.24 This applies] even if the groom already consecrated [his intended] on Friday. [The rationale is that, through marriage, the husband] acquires [the right to] inherit [his wife’s estate],25 and it is forbidden to conduct an act of acquisition on Shabbos, for it is included in the decree forbidding commercial transactions which were prohibited lest one [come to] write, as stated in sec. 306[:4].

There are authorities who grant a man who does not have a wife and children permission to consecrate and marry his wife [on Shabbos] to enable him to fulfill the mitzvah of procreation.26 Although, fundamentally, [the halachah does not follow this view,] one may rely on it in a pressing situation out of consideration for the honor of those involved.27

[Such a situation may occur when,] as happens on occasion, [a wedding is scheduled for Friday afternoon. Sometimes, the families] are not able to work out the details of the dowry on Friday until nightfall. The chupah and the consecration may then take place on Friday night28 [in such a situation], since everything has already been prepared for the feast and the wedding, and it would embarrass the bride and the groom if the wedding was not held then. Nevertheless, initially, one should take precautions not to arrive at such a situation. Many transgressions result from the fact that a chupah is delayed [in such a manner]. Every G‑d-fearing person should be stringent regarding his own conduct and never marry on Shabbos, as will be stated in Even HaEzer, sec. 62.29

ה וְכֵן אֵין מְיַבְּמִין,נב,22 וְלֹא24 כּוֹנְסִין אִשָּׁה לְחֻפָּה,נג,23 אֲפִלּוּ קִדְּשָׁהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,נד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָךְ קוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ לְיָרְשָׁהּ,נה,25 וְאָסוּר לִקְנוֹת קִנְיָן בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בִּכְלַל גְּזֵרַת מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר,נו שֶׁגָּזְרוּ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ו.נז

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִים לְקַדֵּשׁנח וְלִכְנוֹסנט לְמִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה וּבָנִים, מִשּׁוּם מִצְוַת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה.26 וְאַף שֶׁאֵין זֶה עִקָּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סוֹמְכִין עַל זֶה בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,ס כִּי גָדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת,27 כְּמוֹ שֶׁרְגִילִין שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ יְכוֹלִים לְהַשְׁווֹת עִם הַנְּדוּנְיָא בְּיוֹם ו' עַד הַלַּיְלָה וְעוֹשִׂין הַחֻפָּה וְהַקִּדּוּשִׁין בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת28 הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר הוּכְנוּ לִסְעֻדָּה וּלְנִשּׂוּאִין, וְהָיָה בִּיּוּשׁ לַכַּלָּה וְלֶחָתָן אִם לֹא יִכְנוֹס אָז.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי כָךְ,סא וְכַמָּה עֲבֵרוֹת בָּאִין מִמַּה שֶׁמְּאַחֲרִים הַחֻפָּה.סב

וְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּלָל נִשּׂוּאִין בְּשַׁבָּת,סג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּאֶבֶן הָעֶזֶר סִמָּן ס"ב:סד,29

6 Similarly, [vows to consecrate property, including] arachin,30 hekdeishim,31and charamim32 to the Most High are forbidden to be made [on Shabbos,] because doing so resembles commercial transactions, as stated in sec. 306[:14-15].

Similarly, a firstborn son may not be redeemed, even when giving [the kohen] a utensil worth five selaim33[in place of that sum,] because it resembles commercial activity. [If the thirty-first day of the child’s life is Shabbos, the father] should not give the kohen the money [for the redemption] on Friday, because he will not be able to recite the [required] blessing then, since [the obligation to perform] the mitzvah did not yet take effect and it is thus not appropriate to say “and commanded us.”34 [Moreover, were the baby’s father to have given the money to the kohen on Friday, then] on Shabbos, which is when [the mitzvah takes effect,]he would also not be able to recite the blessing,since he is not doing anything at that time.35 Therefore, [the baby’s father] should wait until Sunday [to conduct the ceremony].

[The above applies] even if 29 [days,] 12 [hours], and 793 [portions of an hour], i.e., a full lunar month [of the firstborn’s life], was completed on Friday. [Nevertheless,] he should not be redeemed on Friday. [The rationale is that the Torah commands that the firstborn be redeemed at the age of one month, and] according to the Torah, a month is 30 full days. Therefore, the child must reach his thirty-first day36 at the time of his redemption.

ו וְכֵן אֵין מַעֲרִיכִין,30 וְלֹא מַקְדִּישִׁין,31 וְלֹא מַחֲרִימִיןסה,32 שׁוּם דָּבָר לְגָבוֹהַּ,22 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר,סו,10 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ו.סז

וְכֵן אֵין פּוֹדִין אֶת הַבֵּן,סח אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִיסט שֶׁשָּׁוֶה ה' סְלָעִים,33 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר.ע

וְאֵין לוֹ לִתֵּן הַמָּעוֹת לְכֹהֵן בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לְפִי שֶׁאָז לֹא יוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא חָלָה עָלָיו הַמִּצְוָה – אֵיךְ יֹאמַר "וְצִוָּנוּ",עא,34 וּבְשַׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא זְמַנָּהּ גַּם כֵּן לֹא יוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם,עב,35 לָכֵן יַמְתִּין עַד יוֹם א' בְּשַׁבָּת.עג

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כָּלוּ לוֹ כ"ט י"ב תשׁצ"ג בְּיוֹם ו' שֶׁהוּא חֹדֶשׁ – לֹא יִפְדֵּהוּ בְּיוֹם ו',עד לְפִי שֶׁחֹדֶשׁ שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה הוּא שְׁלֹשִׁים יָמִים שְׁלֵמִים,עה וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְיוֹם ל"א36 בִּשְׁעַת הַפִּדְיוֹן:עו

7 Terumos37 and tithes also may not be separated [on Shabbos],38 because it is as if one is making an entity that was [previously] unfit for use [to be] fit for use. If, however, [such separations] were made on Shabbos, whether unknowingly or in conscious violation of the law, the separations are effective.39 Nevertheless, if one separates terumos and tithes in conscious violation of the law, neither that person nor others may partake [of the food] on that Shabbos,40as is the law whenever a person consciously violates a Rabbinic prohibition.41 [In such instances,] it is forbidden – even for others – to benefit from [the produce] until Saturday night. On Saturday night, [the produce] is immediately permitted,42 even to the transgressor, as explained in sec. 318[:1].

ז וְאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין תְּרוּמוֹת37 וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת,עז,38 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְתַקֵּן דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מְתֻקָּן.עח

וְכֻלָּן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, בֵּין שׁוֹגְגִין, בֵּין מְזִידִין, בֵּין מֻטְעִין – מַה שֶּׁעָשׂוּ עָשׂוּי.עט,39 אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמוֹת וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת בְּמֵזִיד – לֹא יֹאכַל מִזֶּהפ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,פא לֹא הוּא וְלֹא אֲחֵרִים,40 כְּדִין הָעוֹשֶׂה כָּל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בְּמֵזִידפב,41 שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ לַאֲחֵרִים עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מֻתָּר מִיָּד42 אֲפִלּוּ לוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ח:פג

8 A person who marries a widow43 [on Friday or on the eve of a festival] should not be intimate with her for the first time on Shabbos or on a festival.44 [The rationale is that merely] bringing a widow to the chupah45does not bring about the acquisition [of the right to inherit] her [property]. Rather, this acquisition is accomplished through intimacy or through going into a private place where the marriage can be consummated,46 and an acquisition may not be formalized on Shabbos.

Even if [the groom] married [the widow] on Thursday night and had already entered into privacy with her in a manner in which the marriage could have been consummated [before Shabbos], it is still desirable to be stringent and not to be intimate for the first time on Shabbos or on a festival. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that [standing with a woman under the] chupah is [equivalent to] entering into intimate privacy, [but] this does not [apply to the] chupah as it is understood today. [Furthermore, these authorities maintain that] there is no concept of chupah for a widow. [Instead,] it is only through marital intimacy that [her husband] acquires [the right to inherit] her [property].47 How much more so does the above apply if the woman was ritually impure on Thursday night and [the groom] entered into privacy with her [only] accompanied by two watchmen. For that is not [a meeting of] intimate privacy at which time the marriage can be consummated, and [the right to inherit] a widow’s [property] is not acquired thereby, even according to the first [and more lenient] opinion [mentioned above]. Therefore, [such a woman] should not immerse herself [in the mikveh] on Friday night.48 Whether she is permitted to immerse herself on Saturday night will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 197.49

Even with regard to a virgin [bride], in which instance, [the right to inherit] her [property] is acquired through chupah, [the couple] should enter into [a place of] intimate privacy, at which time the marriage could be consummated before Shabbos, or they should refrain from entering into such intimate privacy throughout the entire Shabbos in order to give weight to the latter opinion that such intimate privacy is what is termed chupah and not what we consider chupah [to be. Therefore,] it is forbidden to [enter into such intimate privacy] for the first time on Shabbos and also on festivals.

ח הַכּוֹנֵס אֶת הָאַלְמָנָהפד,43 – לֹא יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ בִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא בְּיוֹם טוֹב,פה,44 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין חֻפָּה45 לְאַלְמָנָה לִקְנוֹתָהּ עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי בִּיאָהפו אוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִחוּדפז הָרָאוּי לְבִיאָהפח הוּא שֶׁקּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ,46 וְאֵין קוֹנִין קִנְיָן בְּשַׁבָּת.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נְשָׂאָהּ בְּלֵיל ה' וְנִתְיַחֲדָה עִמּוֹ כְּבָר יִחוּד הָרָאוּי לְבִיאָה – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לָבֹא עָלֶיהָ בִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה בְּשַׁבָּתפט אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצ שֶׁיִּחוּד הוּא הַנִּקְרָא חֻפָּה45 וְלֹא חֻפָּה שֶׁלָּנוּ,23 וְאֵין חֻפָּה לְאַלְמָנָה, אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי בִּיאָה בִּלְבָד הוּא שֶׁקּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ.צא,47

וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה בְּלֵיל ה' וְנִתְיַחֲדָה עִמּוֹ עַל יְדֵי ב' שׁוֹמְרִים, שֶׁאֵין זֶה יִחוּד הָרָאוּי לְבִיאָה, וְאֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה בְּאַלְמָנָה אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְלָכֵן אֵין לָהּ לִטְבּוֹל בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת.צב,48 וְאִם מֻתֶּרֶת לִטְבּוֹל בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קצ"ז.צג,49

וְגַם בִּבְתוּלָה שֶׁחֻפָּה קוֹנָה בָּהּ – יֵשׁ לְיַחֲדָן אַחַר הַחֻפָּה יִחוּד גָּמוּר הָרָאוּי לְבִיאָה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת,צד אוֹ לֹא יִתְיַחֲדוּ יִחוּד גָּמוּר כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ, כְּדֵי לָחוּשׁ לִסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁיִּחוּד גָּמוּר הוּא הַנִּקְרָא חֻפָּה וְלֹא חֻפָּה שֶׁלָּנוּ,23 וְאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בִּתְחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, וְכֵן בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

9 It is forbidden for a person to float any article in a river,50 whether to have it float away from him or have it brought closer to him. [Doing so] is included in the decree not to swim on Shabbos. For this reason, it is forbidden to cause slivers of wood floating on the surface of water to move to either side so that the water will be cleaner and thus [more] palatable.

The above applies to a river. When, however, [water is] in a container or a pool that has a border, our Sages did not impose a decree at all, as explained above.51

ט אָסוּר לְאָדָם לְהָשִׁיט דָּבָרצה בְּנָהָר50 לְהוֹלִיכוֹ מֵאֶצְלוֹ אוֹ לַהֲבִיאוֹ אֶצְלוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן בִּכְלַל הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא לָשׁוּט בְּשַׁבָּת.צז וְלָכֵן, קֵסָמִים שֶׁעַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם – אָסוּר לְהַפְצִילָן לְכַאן וּלְכַאן כְּדֵי לְנַקּוֹת הַמַּיִם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יָפִים.צח

וְכָל זֶה בְּנָהָר, אֲבָל בִּכְלִיצט אוֹ בִּבְרֵכָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שָׂפָה – לֹא גָזְרוּ כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:ק,51

10 When a ship is resting on the seabed and is not floating at all, it is permitted to board it [on Shabbos]. If not, it is forbidden [to board the ship] unless one already did so while it was still day [on Friday], as explained in sec. 248[:9].52 If the ship is tied in the manner that ships docked in a harbor [are tied to their moorings], it is permitted to board it, even if it is floating on the water. The gangplank [on which one enters] must have one end tied to the ship and the other tied to the ground.

י סְפִינָה, אִם הִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת בְּקַרְקַע הַיָּם מַמָּשׁ וְאֵינָהּ שָׁטָה כְּלָל – מֻתָּר לִכָּנֵס בָּהּ. וְאִם לָאו – אָסוּר,קא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִכְנָס לְתוֹכָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ח.קב,52 וְאִם הִיא קְשׁוּרָה כְּמִנְהַג הַסְּפִינוֹת הָעוֹמְדוֹת בְּנָמָל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא שָׁטָה עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם – מֻתָּר לִכָּנֵס בָּהּ.קג וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא [קֶרֶשׁ] קָשׁוּר בְּרֹאשׁוֹ הָאֶחָד בַּסְּפִינָה וּבַשֵּׁנִי בַּיַּבָּשָׁה:קד

11 When a ship is resting on a riverbed, it is forbidden to act with guile and board it to sleep in it, knowing that [later on] a non-Jew will steer it to the other side [of the river]. A Torah scholar may act with guile in this manner.53 In the present era, however, there are none who can be placed in the category of Torah scholars in this context, as explained in sec. 314[:21].54

יא סְפִינָה הָעוֹמֶדֶת בְּקַרְקַע הַנָּהָר – אָסוּר לְהַעֲרִים לִכָּנֵס לִישַׁן בְּתוֹכָה וְיוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יוֹלִיכֶנָּה לְעֵבֶר הַשֵּׁנִי, וְתַלְמִיד חָכָם מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַעֲרִים בְּכָךְ.קה,53 וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין לָנוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים לְעִנְיָן זֶה,קו עַיֵּן סִמָּן שי"ד:קז, 54