SECTION 338 Activities Forbidden on Shabbos because They Produce [Musical] Sounds (1-9)

סימן שלח דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם הַשְׁמָעַת קוֹל וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is forbidden to produce musical sounds [on Shabbos]. One may produce musical sounds with one’s voice alone, but not by any other means.1 [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one repair a musical instrument.2

What is the definition of musical sounds? Any [sound] made with the intention of producing a pleasant tone, similar to a melody. For example, water is placed in a container filled with holes and [allowed to] drip, drop by drop, onto a metal utensil that has been turned over so that it makes a pleasant sound, [thereby] helping an ill person to fall asleep, for a pleasant sound induces drowsiness. This is forbidden to be done, except for a sick person. It may not be done for [the sake of] a healthy person, because this resembles the sound made by a musical instrument, and there is a basis [for issuing a prohibitive] decree lest one repair a musical instrument.

If, by contrast, [the water] drips forcefully, [producing a loud noise] so that a sleeping person will awaken, it is permitted even for a healthy person, for it does not resemble the sound of a musical instrument, because [the sound produced] is not pleasant and gentle. Similarly, one may knock on a door so that it will be opened for him or make other nonmusical sounds.

There are other authorities who maintain that, even so, it is forbidden to make [such] sounds with an instrument designated for this purpose. [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one repair [such an instrument]. For example, [it is forbidden] to knock on a door using a ring that is permanently affixed to it,3 even though one does not intend to make musical sounds. For this reason, it is forbidden for the synagogue attendant to bang on [congregants’] doors to call them to the synagogue using the instrument dedicated for that purpose. Instead, he should [merely] bang on their doors with his hand. This is the [accepted] practice. There are places where it is customary on Shabbos to bang with another instrument, one that is not designated for that [specific purpose].

Nevertheless, there is no prohibition involved in [making a sound with an instrument], except when one requires this sound and he intends to make the sound using the instrument dedicated for that purpose, although he does not intend to make a musical sound. [Different rules apply,] however, if the person does not intend to make any sound at all with that instrument, because he has no need for the sound at all. It is only that the sound is made on its own accord, as it were, when [the person] takes the instrument. For example, it is permitted to pick up and put down a bell that has a clapper or a ring that has a piece of lead that emits a sound, even though they thereby produce a sound. It is even permitted to walk while wearing a garment that has bells affixed to it that produce musical sounds, since [the person wearing the garment] does not intend to [produce sounds].4

For this reason, it is permitted to hang a strip [of fabric] from which bells dangle on the curtain [that hangs in front of the aron kodesh (the holy ark) in the synagogue] on Shabbos so that it makes a noise [to notify] the people in the synagogue when the Torah scroll is being taken out, so that they will hear it and rise. True, the person hanging the bells intends that a sound be made when the aron kodesh is opened. Nevertheless, the person who opens the aron kodesh does not have that intent at all. Even if he were to have such an intent, his act would not be forbidden, since his intent is for the sake of a mitzvah: that the people hear [the sound] and rise. [Since] it was even permitted to make a musical sound for the sake of enabling a sick person to sleep, surely [such] a nonmusical sound – inasmuch as it is not pleasant-sounding and it is hurried – [should be permitted] for the sake of a mitzvah, even though it is made with an instrument designated for that purpose.

א אָסוּר לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁירא אֶלָּא בְּפֶה בִּלְבָד,ב אֲבָל לֹא בְּדָבָר אַחֵר,ג,1 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן כְּלֵי שִׁיר.ד,2

וְאֵיזֶהוּ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר? כֹּל שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁמִיעוֹ בִּנְעִימוּת קְצָת כְּדֶרֶךְ שִׁיר, כְּגוֹן מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִים מַיִם בִּכְלִי מָלֵא נְקָבִים וּמַטִּיף עַל כְּלִי מַתֶּכֶת כָּפוּי טִיף טִיף אַחַר טִיף טִיף, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשָּׁמַע קוֹל נָעִים בִּשְׁבִיל הַחוֹלֶה שֶׁיִּישַׁן, שֶׁקּוֹל נָעִים מַרְדִימוֹ – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אֶלָּא לְחוֹלֶה בִּלְבָד, אֲבָל לֹא לְבָרִיא, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּעֵין קוֹל שֶׁל כְּלֵי שִׁיר,ה,1 וְיֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן כְּלֵי שִׁיר.

אֲבָל אִם מַטִּיף בְּחֹזֶק כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּיקַץ הַיָּשֵׁן – מֻתָּר אַף לְבָרִיא, שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּעֵין קוֹל שֶׁל כְּלֵי שִׁיר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּנְעִימָה וּבְנַחַת.ו, 1 וְכֵן לְהַקִּישׁ עַל הַדֶּלֶת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתְּחוּ לוֹ,ז, 1 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה מִקּוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שִׁיר – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁמִיעוֹ.ח

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםט שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְהַשְׁמִיעוֹ בִּכְלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְתַקְּנוֹ,י כְּגוֹן לְהַקִּישׁ עַל הַדֶּלֶת בְּטַבַּעַת הַקְּבוּעָה בָּהּ,3 אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן לְקוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר. וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לַשַּׁמָּשׁ לְהַכּוֹת עַל הַדֶּלֶת לִקְרֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עַל יְדֵי כְּלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא מַכֶּה בְּיָדוֹ עַל הַדֶּלֶת.יא וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין.יב וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁמַּכֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּכְלִי אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ.יג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין אִסּוּר בְּזֶה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְקוֹל זֶה וְהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁמִיעוֹ בִּכְלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְ אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן לְקוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל כְּלָל בְּאוֹתוֹ כְלִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַקּוֹל נִשְׁמָע מֵאֵלָיו כְּשֶׁנּוֹטֵל הַכְּלִי, כְּגוֹן זוּג שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ עִנְבָּל וְטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עוֹפֶרֶת מַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל – מֻתָּר לִטְּלָן וּלְהַנִּיחָן אַף שֶׁמַּשְׁמִיעִים קוֹל עַל יְדֵי זֶה.יד וַאֲפִלּוּ לֵילֵךְ לָבוּשׁ בַּבֶּגֶד שֶׁקָּבוּעַ בּוֹ זוּג הַמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר – מֻתָּר,טו כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ.טז,4

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת עַל הַפָּרֹכֶת רְצוּעָה שֶׁבָּהּ תְּלוּיִים פַּעֲמוֹנִים כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל לְאַנְשֵׁי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִים הַסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ וְיָקוּמוּ, שֶׁאַף שֶׁזֶּה הַתּוֹלֶה הַפַּעֲמוֹנִים מִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיַּשְׁמִיעוּ קוֹל בִּשְׁעַת פְּתִיחַת הָאָרוֹן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אוֹתוֹ הַפּוֹתֵחַ הָאָרוֹן אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל,יז וְאַף אִם הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ – אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ הָעָם וְיָקוּמוּ, וַהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה שֶׁיִּישַׁן הִתִּירוּ לְהַשְׁמִיעַ אֲפִלּוּ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, וְאֵינוֹ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ בִּנְעִימָה וּבְנַחַת,יח אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא בִּכְלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְ בִּלְבָד:

2 All the above applies when one makes a sound through performing an action. One may, by contrast, make a musical sound with his mouth even when he is not singing a song, e.g., imitating the sound of a musical instrument or the sound of a bird, like those who call to their friends by chirping like a bird. Even though such chirping is also commonly employed to make a song more pleasant, it is permitted to make such a sound on Shabbos. [The rationale is that a prohibitive] decree lest one repair a musical instrument is only appropriate to be imposed when one makes sounds through some type of [other physical] action, but not when he makes them with his mouth.

ב וְכָל זֶה בְּמַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל עַל יְדֵי מַעֲשֶׂה,יט אֲבָל בְּפִיו מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שִׁירָה בְּפֶה, אֶלָּא כְּקוֹל כְּלִי זֶמֶר, אוֹ כְּקוֹל צִפּוֹר, כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ שֶׁקּוֹרִין לְחַבְרֵיהֶם וּמְצַפְצְפִין כְּצִפּוֹר,כ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ הַצִּפְצוּף רְגִילִין לְהַנְעִים בְּשִׁירכא – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן כְּלֵי שִׁיר אֶלָּא בְּמַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל עַל יְדֵי אֵיזֶה מַעֲשֶׂה, אֲבָל לֹא עַל יְדֵי פִּיו:כב

3 There are authorities who permit instructing a non-Jew to play musical instruments in honor of the bride and groom at wedding celebrations [held on Shabbos], because this is a necessity for a mitzvah.5 For [instrumental music] is the primary [means of enhancing] the rejoicing of a groom and bride, and when a mitzvah is involved, [our Sages] did not impose [prohibitive] decrees with regard to giving instructions to a non-Jew concerning matters that are forbidden to a Jew only because of Rabbinic Law, as stated in sec. 307[:12].

If, however, [in the course of playing his instruments at the wedding celebration,] a harp string breaks, it is forbidden to instruct a non-Jew to fix it, for fixing an instrument involves a Scriptural prohibition,6 and such instructions are forbidden to be given to a non-Jew even when a mitzvah is involved, as stated in sec. 276[:8].7 (Consult that source, [which states] that those who act leniently [regarding such a matter] should not be admonished.)8

In an instance where the rejoicing of a groom and bride is not involved, it is even forbidden to instruct [a non-Jew] to play a musical instrument. In the present era, it has become customary to allow leniency in this regard. [People who conduct themselves in this manner] should not be admonished for the reason to be stated in sec. 339[:2].9

ג יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןכג לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְנַגֵּן בִּכְלֵי שִׁיר בְּחֻפּוֹת מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד חָתָן וְכַלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,5 שֶׁזֶּהוּ עִקַּר שִׂמְחַת חָתָן וְכַלָּה,כד וּבִמְקוֹם מִצְוָה לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִיכה בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,כו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז.כז

אֲבָל אִם נִפְסְקָה נִימָא בְּכִנּוֹר – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיְּתַקְּנֶנָּה,כח שֶׁתִּקּוּן כְּלִי הוּא אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,כט, 6 וְאָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ול, 7 (עַיֵּן שָׁם שֶׁאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הַמְּקִלִּים).8

וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם שִׂמְחַת חָתָן וְכַלָּה – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר לוֹ לְנַגֵּן בִּכְלֵי שִׁיר. וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל בְּזֶה.לא וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ט:לב,9

4 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to set up10 a clock that chimes on the hour that is operated by weights, because it produces musical tones (and indeed, it is an instrument designed for that purpose); [the person] requires this sound and intends [that the mechanism produce these tones]. It is, however, permitted to set up and prepare [such a clock] while it is still day [on Friday] so that it will chime throughout the Shabbos day for the reason stated in sec. 252[:16].11

ד זוּג הַמְקַשְׁקֵשׁ לְשָׁעוֹת עָשׂוּי עַל יְדֵי מִשְׁקֹלֶת – אָסוּר לְעָרְכוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,10 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁירלג (וְעוֹד שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְלד) וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לְקוֹל זֶה וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לוֹ.לה

אֲבָל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מֻתָּר לְעָרְכוֹ וְלַהֲכִינוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ וִיקַשְׁקֵשׁ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת,לו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב:לז,11

5 A person who is guarding his produce and his plants from animals and birds should not clap his hands together,12 slap his hands on his thighs, or dance,13 in order to chase them away [in the same manner as he does] on [ordinary] weekdays. [This is] a decree [imposed] lest he take a stone and throw it at [animals and birds that are] in the public domain in order to chase them away.

At present, when there are authorities who maintain that there is no [longer a] concept of a public domain in a complete sense,14 it is possible to be lenient in this regard, because a Rabbinic decree15 is not issued [in order to merely safeguard] another Rabbinic decree,16 as stated in sec. 252[:18].

ה הַמְשַׁמֵּר פֵּרוֹתָיו וּזְרָעָיו מִפְּנֵי חַיָּה וְעוֹף – לֹא יִסְפּוֹקלח כַּף אֶל כַּףלט,12 וְלֹא יְטַפֵּחַ כַּפָּיו עַל יְרֵכוֹמ וְלֹא יְרַקֵּד בְּרַגְלָיומא,13 כְּדֵי לְהַבְרִיחָםמב כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל,מג גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִטּוֹל צְרוֹר וְיִזְרוֹק לָהֶםמד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםמה כְּדֵי לְהַבְרִיחָם.מו

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה14 – אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּזֶה, שֶׁאֵין גּוֹזְרִים גְּזֵרָה15 לִגְזֵרָה,מז,16 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב:מח

6 One may not play with nuts, apples, or the like, on the ground.17 [This is] a decree [imposed] lest one intentionally level crevices in the ground to prepare a path for the nut or the apple to roll [smoothly]. It is, however, permitted to play on a table18 or on a rug, but not on the ground, even if it is paved, as stated in sec. 337[:4] with regard to applying oil to a [paved] floor.

It is, [however,] permitted to play with bones (that are called tsheich) even though they make sounds, because one does not intend to make music. All the above applies to playing merely for fun, but to gamble for profit is forbidden even when one plays odd-or-even19 (which is call grad or om grad), because this resembles a commercial transaction.20

Nevertheless, one should not admonish women and children, even if they play with nuts on the ground, because they will certainly not heed [the admonishment], and it is preferable that they [transgress] unknowingly rather than knowingly.21

[Whether one may] play with a ball was explained in sec. 308[:83].22

ו אֵין שׂוֹחֲקִין בֶּאֱגוֹזִיםמט וְלֹא בְּתַפּוּחִיםנ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםנא עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,17 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹאוּ לְהַשְׁווֹת גּוּמוֹת שֶׁבַּקַּרְקַענב בְּמִתְכַּוֵּןנג לְהָכִין דֶּרֶךְ לְגַלְגֵּל הָאֱגוֹזנד אוֹ הַתַּפּוּחַ. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׂחוֹק עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֻּׁלְחָןנה,18 אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי מַחֲצֶלֶת,נו אֲבָל לֹא עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אֲפִלּוּ הַמְרֻצָּף,נז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"זנח גַּבֵּי סִיכַת קַרְקַע.

וּמֻתָּר לִשְׂחוֹק בַּעֲצָמוֹת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין טשֵׁיי"ךְ) אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן מִתְכַּוְּנִים לְשִׁיר.נט וְכָל זֶה בְּשׂוֹחֵק דֶּרֶךְ צְחוֹק בְּעָלְמָא, אֲבָל בְּשׂוֹחֵק כְּדֵי לְהַרְוִיחַ – אָסוּר, אֲפִלּוּ בְּשׂוֹחֵק בְּתָם וְחָסֵר19 (שֶׁקּוֹרִין גרא"ד אוֹ או"ם גרא"דס), מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר.סא,20

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּנָשִׁים וּקְטַנִּים אֲפִלּוּ שׂוֹחֲקִין בֶּאֱגוֹזִים עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ, וּמוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִים וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִים.סב,21

וְלִשְׂחוֹק בְּכַדּוּרסג – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח:סד,22

7 It is forbidden to draw water with a pulley device.23 [See fig. 3.] Since one is easily able to fill [one’s buckets with water], there are grounds for concern that [were this to be permitted], one would draw water for his garden, for his ruin,24 or to soak flax.25 Therefore, if there is no garden, ruin, or pool to soak flax nearby, it is permitted [to draw water in this manner]. Even though the pulley device makes noise [while turning], it is not a musical sound.

There are authorities who maintain that [our Sages] forbade only [using] a large pulley device that draws out copious amounts of water without difficulty. This refers to pulley devices that have many buckets affixed to them. [See fig. 4.] The pulley devices of the present age, by contrast, draw out only a minimal amount of water. [Hence,] it is permitted [to use present-day pulley devices to draw water] even if there is a garden, ruin, or pool nearby. One may rely on their words and follow this leniency [since the matter concerns a point of] Rabbinic Law.

ז אָסוּר לִשְׁאוֹב מַיִם בְּגַלְגַּל,סה,23 שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁמְּמַלֵּא בּוֹ בְּלֹא טֹרַחסו – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְמַלֵּא בּוֹ לְגִנָּתוֹ וּלְחֻרְבָּתוֹ,סז,24 אוֹ לְמִשְׁרָה שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן.סח,25 לְפִיכָךְ, אִם אֵין שָׁם בְּסָמוּךְ לֹא גִנָּה וְלֹא חֻרְבָּה, וְלֹא בְּרֵכָה לִשְׁרוֹת בָּהּ פִּשְׁתָּן – מֻתָּר.סט,23 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַגַּלְגַּל מַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל – אֵינוֹ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר.ע,23

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעא שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא בְּגַלְגַּל גָּדוֹל שֶׁמּוֹצִיא מַיִם הַרְבֵּה בְּיַחַד בְּלֹא טֹרַח, וְהֵם גַּלְגַּלִּים הַקְּבוּעִים בָּהֶם דְּלָיִים הַרְבֵּה סָבִיב, אֲבָל בְּגַלְגַּלִּים שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְמַלְּאִים בָּהֶם אֶלָּא מְעַט – מֻתָּר אַף אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם גִּנָּה אוֹ חֻרְבָּה אוֹ בְּרֵכָה בְּסָמוּךְ לוֹ. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:עב

Fig. 3: A pulley device with one bucket
Fig. 3: A pulley device with one bucket

Fig. 4: A pulley device with several buckets
Fig. 4: A pulley device with several buckets

8 When a person has produce26 on top of his roof and he sees that it will soon rain, it is forbidden for him to lower [the produce] into his home on Shabbos through an opening in his roof.27 [The rationale is that the person] is troubling himself with a matter that is not necessary for Shabbos; it isa mundane activity [and is] denigrating the Shabbos. [The above applies] even though doing so is permitted on a festival, as will be stated in sec. 521[:1].28

[One] is, however, permitted to cover [the produce to protect it] from the rain.29 [Indeed,] it is even permitted to cover bricks that are arranged to be used for building with utensils that are permitted to be carried, to save them from dripping water, although [the bricks] are muktzeh.30 [There is no prohibition involved in doing so,] for a utensil may be carried for the sake of an entity that is forbidden to be carried, as explained in sec. 277[:8].

ח מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת26 בְּרֹאשׁ הַגַּג וְרוֹאֶה מָטָר שֶׁבָּא – אָסוּר לְשַׁלְשְׁלָם בְּשַׁבָּת דֶּרֶךְ אֲרֻבָּה שֶׁבַּגַּג,עג,27 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת,עד וּמַעֲשֵׂה חֹל הוּאעה וְזִלְזוּל לְשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקכ"א.עו,28

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי הַמָּטָר.עז,29 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְבֵנִים הַסְּדוּרִים לְבִנְיָן שֶׁהֵם מֻקְצִים30 – מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹתָן בִּפְנֵי הַדֶּלֶףעח בְּכֵלִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל, שֶׁהַכְּלִי נִטָּל לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל,עט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ז:פ

9 It is permitted to place a container beneath dripping water on Shabbos.31If [the container] becomes full, it may be poured out and returned to its place,32 provided the water is at least fit to be used for washing.33 If, however, [the water] is not fit for any purpose, it is muktzeh and forbidden to be carried. [Hence,] it is forbidden to place a container under [such dripping water], because one would thereby be nullifying the possibility of using [the container on Shabbos].34

If, [however,] one transgressed and placed a container [under the dirty dripping water], it is permitted to carry [the container] in order to remove it from that place because of the offensive water it contains, should it be standing in a place the person has designated [as the place where he is] sitting. For then it resembles a geref shel re’ei [i.e., a chamber pot], which a person may take to a dung heap out of consideration for his honor when the container is in a place the person has established as the place [where he is] sitting, as discussed in sec. 308[:72, 76].35

[Despite this leniency, a person] is initially forbidden to place [a container under the water] and rely on the fact that, ultimately, he will [be permitted to] remove [the container] and pour it out. Thus, [the person] will not be nullifying the potential of using the container [on that Shabbos. This logic is not accepted,] because [carrying] a geref shel re’ei was permitted only after the fact. Initially, it is forbidden to bring about a geref shel re’ei unless a financial loss is involved,36 as explained in that source.37

ט מֻתָּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי תַּחַת הַדֶּלֶף בְּשַׁבָּת,פא,31 וְאִם נִתְמַלֵּא – שׁוֹפְכוֹ וּמַחֲזִירוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ.פב,32 וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא הַדֶּלֶף רָאוּי לִרְחִיצָהפג עַל כָּל פָּנִים,33 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם וַהֲרֵי הוּא מֻקְצֶה וְאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל – אָסוּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי תַּחְתָּיו,פד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ מֵהֵיכָנוֹ.פה,34 וְאִם עָבַר וּנְתָנוֹ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּמַיִם הַמְּאוּסִים שֶׁבּוֹפו כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִשָּׁם, אִם הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּשִׁיבָתוֹ קְבוּעָה שָׁם,פז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּגְרָף שֶׁל רְעִי שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לָאַשְׁפָּה מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹדוֹ,פח אִם הוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּשִׁיבָתוֹ קְבוּעָה שָׁם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח.פט,35

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ שָׁם לְכַתְּחִלָּה עַל סְמַךְ שֶׁלִּבְסוֹף יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ וְיִשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ וְלֹא יְבַטְּלֶנּוּ מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,36 לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ בִּגְרָף שֶׁל רְעִי אֶלָּא בְּדִיעֲבַד, אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת גְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִיצ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:צא,37