SECTION 336 Whether It Is Permitted to Walk on Grass or [Climb] a Tree [on Shabbos] (1-22)

סימן שלו אִם מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֲשָׂבִים וְכֵן בָּאִילָן וּבוֹ כ"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 One may not climb a tree on Shabbos,1neither [one that] is supple nor [one that] is dry.2 Nor may one hang from it, (nor lean against it),3 nor may one use [the tree] for any purpose,4 e.g., to place an article on it or to take one from it,5 to tie an animal to it,6 or anything of that nature. All [these restrictions were instituted] as a decree lest one climb a tree and detach its fruit, leaves, or branches. This decree was applied to all trees, even dry ones that do not have fruit, leaves, or branches, as a safeguard and a “fence.”

One may, by contrast, descend into and ascend from a deep pit, even one 100 cubits deep, repeatedly climbing down and climbing up.7 There is no concern that [the person] will intentionally displace earth as he descends or ascends, ([thereby] forming a step and thus becoming liable for [the forbidden labor of] building). [The rationale is that] a person is more careful [not to do] this than [than he is with regard] to detaching [fruit or the like] from a tree.

א אֵין עוֹלִין בָּאִילָןא,1 בֵּין לַח בֵּין יָבֵשׁ,ב,2 וְאֵין נִתְלִין בּוֹג (וְאֵין נִשְׁעָנִים עָלָיוד),3 וְאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹה שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ,ו,4 כְּגוֹן לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו חֵפֶץז אוֹ לִטְּלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ,ח,5 אוֹ לִקְשׁוֹר בּוֹ בְּהֵמָה,ט,6 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָאֵלּוּ, וְהַכֹּל מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְלוֹשׁי מִמֶּנּוּ פֵּרוֹת אוֹ עָלִין אוֹ עֲנָפִים.יא וְגָזְרוּ בְּכָל הָאִילָנוֹת, אַף בִּיבֵשִׁים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם פֵּרוֹת וְעָלִין וַעֲנָפִים,יב מִשּׁוּם סְיָג וְגָדֵר.יג

אֲבָל בּוֹר עָמֹק אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה אַמָּה – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵירֵד וְלַעֲלוֹת בּוֹ, וּמְטַפֵּס וְיוֹרֵד, וּמְטַפֵּס וְעוֹלֶה,יד,7 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַעֲקוֹר קַרְקַעטו בְּמִתְכַּוֵּןטז בִּירִידָתוֹ וַעֲלִיָּתוֹיז (וִיתַקֵּן מַדְרֵגָהיח וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה), לְפִי שֶׁהָאָדָם נִזְהָר בְּזֶה יוֹתֵר מִבִּתְלִישָׁה מֵהָאִילָן:יט

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2 A person may not climb a tree while it is still day [on Friday] and remain there for the entire Shabbos. [The rationale is that] his abiding there constitutes making use of the tree. [Hence,] if [one] climbs [a tree] while it is still day [on Friday], he is permitted to descend after nightfall. Similarly, if [the person] climbs [the tree] on Shabbos without being aware of the prohibition, he may descend [on Shabbos]. True, while descending, he is making use of the tree. Nevertheless, he should not be prohibited [from descending] for that reason, since even when he abides there, he is in any case making use of the tree. If, however, [one] climbs the tree after nightfall in conscious violation [of our Sages’ decree], the Sages penalized him and [required] him to remain there for the entire Shabbos;8he is forbidden to descend.

There are authorities who maintain that even if [a person] climbs [a tree] while it is still day [on Friday] with the conscious intent of remaining there after nightfall, the Sages penalized him [as well, and he is forbidden to descend until after Shabbos. These authorities maintain that the Sages] permitted [a person] to descend [from the tree] after nightfall when he climbed it while it was still day [on Friday], only when he climbed with the intent of descending while it was still day [on Friday] and he unintentionally remained there [after Shabbos had already begun]. With regard to actual practice, [since the matter concerns] a Rabbinic prohibition, the more lenient approach should be followed.

ב לֹא יַעֲלֶה בָּאִילָן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְיֵשֵׁב שָׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ,כ,7 שֶׁהַיְשִׁיבָה שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב שָׁם – תַּשְׁמִישׁ הוּא שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָן.כא

וְאִם עָלָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לֵירֵד מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה.כב,7 וְכֵן אִם עָלָה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּשׁוֹגֵג – מֻתָּר לֵירֵד.כג וְאַף שֶׁבִּירִידָה זוֹ הוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָןכד – אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, הוֹאִיל וְאַף בִּישִׁיבָתוֹ שָׁם הוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָן.כה אֲבָל אִם עָלָה מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה בְּמֵזִיד – קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לִהְיוֹת שָׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת,8 וְאָסוּר לוֹ לֵירֵד.כו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכז שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִם עָלָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּמֵזִיד עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר יוֹשֵׁב שָׁם מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים.כח וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לֵירֵד מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה כְּשֶׁעָלָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעָלָה עַל דַּעַת לֵירֵד מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְנִשְׁתָּהָה שָׁם בְּשׁוֹגֵג.כט

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל:

3 All of the above applies with regard to a person who climbs a tree, in which instance there is a prohibition against abiding there.9 Therefore, [the Sages] permitted him to descend even though he uses the tree while descending. By contrast, if one places an object [on a tree], even if he places it there while it still is day [on Friday], it is forbidden to remove [the object] from nightfall [onward].10 For by removing [the object, the person] is [actively] making use of the tree, while when the object is left [on the tree, by contrast,] the person is not making use of the tree.

ג וְכָל זֶה בְּאָדָם שֶׁעָלָה שָׁם,ל שֶׁיֵּשׁ אִסּוּר בַּעֲמִידָתוֹ שָׁם,9 לָכֵן הִתִּירוּ לֵירֵד אַף שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָן בִּירִידָה זוֹ.לא אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחַ עָלָיו חֵפֶץ אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה,לב,10 לְפִי שֶׁבִּנְטִילָה זוֹ הוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָן,לג וּכְשֶׁהַחֵפֶץ מֻנָּח שָׁם אֵין הוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָן:לד

4 All the above applies with regard to a tree or the like. One may, by contrast, make use of pliable reeds even though they are attached to the ground, since [our Sages established a prohibitive] decree only with regard to a tree. The Sages did not, however, mention a safeguard with respect to vegetative growth and the like. [The laws pertaining to soft reeds] resemble [those pertaining to] grass, on which [the Sages] permitted one to walk, as will be explained.11 Nevertheless, one must be careful when making use of vegetation and the like not to move it by hand12 because it is muktzeh, as is [true of] all [plant growth that remains] attached to the earth, as stated in sec. 312[:9].

When, however, the reeds have become somewhat firm and are no longer pliable like vegetative growth, even if they are not firm like a tree, it is forbidden to make use of them. Indeed, the Sages ruled more stringently regarding them than with regard to a tree in the context to be discussed in sec. 409.13

ד וְכָל זֶה בָּאִילָן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, אֲבָל קָנִים הָרַכִּים כְּיָרָק – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּחֻבָּרִים בַּקַּרְקַע, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ אֶלָּא עַל אִילָן, אֲבָל בְּיָרָק וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ – לֹא הִזְכִּירוּ חֲכָמִים שְׁבוּת,לה וַהֲרֵי הֵם כַּעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לַהֲלוֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶםלו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.לז,11

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּיָרָק וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יְזִיזֵם בְּיָדָיו,לח,12 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם מֻקְצֶהלט כְּדִין כָּל מְחֻבָּר, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ב.מ אֲבָל קָנִים שֶׁהֻקְשׁוּ קְצָת וְאֵינָם רַכִּים כְּיָרָק, אַף שֶׁאֵינָם קָשִׁים כָּאִילָן – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם,מא וְהֶחֱמִירוּ בָהֶם חֲכָמִים יוֹתֵר מִבָּאִילָן לְעִנְיָן שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ט:מב,13

5 When a tree’s roots are three handbreadths above the ground, as commonly occurs with older trees, [those roots] are considered as the tree [itself] and it is forbidden to make use of them.14 True, there is no concern that one might detach them.15 Nevertheless, the Sages did not make distinctions with regard [to their decrees], as explained.16 If, however, [the roots] are not three handbreadths high, they are considered as the ground itself and it is permitted to make use of them.17 The same law also applies with regard to cabbage heads that have become firm.18

ה שָׁרְשֵׁי אִילָן הַגְּבוֹהִים מִן הָאָרֶץ ג' טְפָחִיםמג כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא בְּאִילָנוֹת הַזְּקֵנִיםמד – הֲרֵי הֵם כָּאִילָן,מה וְאָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶםמו,14 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁמָּא יִתְלוֹשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים בְּזֶה,מז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.מח,16

אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם גְּבוֹהִים ג' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי הֵן כַּקַּרְקַע, וּמֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם.מט,17 וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּקִלְחֵי כְרוּבנ שֶׁהֻקְשׁוּ:נא,18

6 This law also applies with regard to large branches that grow [and protrude from] the trunk of a tree less than three handbreadths [above the ground], or even when they grow above three handbreadths [from the ground], but they are bent [and hang] lower than three handbreadths [above the ground; see fig. 1]. It is permitted to make use of the portions [of the branches] that are less than three handbreadths [from the ground], but not those portions [of the branches] that are three handbreadths high. Even though the end [of the branch] that is [now] bent downward and is not three handbreadths high is growing and deriving its nourishment from a prohibited place, i.e., [a place] that is three handbreadths high which one is forbidden [to use], nevertheless, since it grew further and became bent over [and a portion is now below three handbreadths, that portion] becomes permitted [for use. The rationale is that the lower portion of the branch] has become comparable to the ground, for anything closer than three handbreadths to the ground is considered as the ground itself. Needless to say, it is permitted to make use of [the portion of] the trunk of the tree that is less than three handbreadths from the ground. [This applies] even when the tree grows very high, since the portion that is less than three handbreadths [from the ground] never became forbidden.

ו וְכֵן הַדִּין בַּעֲנָפִים הַגְּדֵלִים בְּעִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל אִילָן פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים,נב אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ גְּדֵלִים לְמַעְלָה מִג' טְפָחִים וְנִכְפָּפִים לְמַטָּה מִג' טְפָחִים – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶםנג בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינָן גְּבוֹהִים ג' טְפָחִים, אֲבָל לֹא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁגְּבוֹהִים ג' טְפָחִים.נד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹאשׁ זֶה הַנִּכְפָּף לְמַטָּה וְאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ ג' טְפָחִים הוּא גָדֵל וּבָא מִמָּקוֹם הָאָסוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ מִגָּבוֹהַּ ג' טְפָחִים, וּכְשֶׁהָיָה שָׁם מִתְּחִלָּה הָיָה אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁגָּדֵל יוֹתֵר וְנִכְפָּף לְמַטָּה – הֻתַּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כַּקַּרְקַע, שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ – הֲרֵי הוּא כָּאָרֶץ.נה,17

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּעִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל אִילָן פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאִילָן הוּא גָבוֹהַּ מְאֹד, שֶׁהֲרֵי מָקוֹם זֶה שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים לֹא נֶאֱסַר מֵעוֹלָם:נו

Fig. 1: A tree with a branch that begins more than three handbreadths above the ground but descends lower
Fig. 1: A tree with a branch that begins more than three handbreadths above the ground but descends lower

7 If [branches or roots]:

a) are three handbreadths above the ground,

b) have an empty space underneath them on three sides, and

c) have no empty space on one side, because in that location the ground is higher and they are level with the ground [on that side; see fig. 2],19

it is forbidden to make use of [the branches or roots]20 even on the side that is level with the ground. If, however, [the branches or roots] are level with the ground on two sides, and on [the other] two sides they are three handbreadths higher than the ground, it is permitted to use them. [Moreover, it is] even [permitted to use those portions of] the higher sides that are equal to the height [that is] permitted for use on the sides level [with the ground].

ז הָיוּ גְבוֹהִים ג' טְפָחִים וְחָלָל תַּחְתֵּיהֶם מִשְּׁלֹשֶׁת צְדָדֵיהֶם, וּמִצַּד אֶחָד אֵין חָלָל תַּחְתֵּיהֶם, שֶׁהַקַּרְקַע גָּבוֹהַּ שָׁם וַהֲרֵי הֵם שָׁוִים שָׁם לָאָרֶץ19 – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁנז,20 אֲפִלּוּ בַּצַּד הַשָּׁוֶה לָאָרֶץ.נח

אֲבָל אִם מִב' צְדָדִים הֵם שָׁוִין לָאָרֶץ וּמִב' צְדָדִים הֵם גְּבוֹהִים ג' טְפָחִים מֵהָאָרֶץ – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁנט אֲפִלּוּ בִּצְדָדִים הַגְּבוֹהִים עַד כְּנֶגֶד מָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּצְדָדִים הַשָּׁוִים:

Fig. 2: Roots that Project Above the Ground
a) Roots that run above a space of three handbreadths from the ground
b) Roots that run less than three handbreadths above the ground
Fig. 2: Roots that Project Above the Ground a) Roots that run above a space of three handbreadths from the ground b) Roots that run less than three handbreadths above the ground

8 It is permitted to walk on grass on Shabbos.21[This leniency applies] even when one walks barefoot and it is possible that the grass will get caught between his toes and become uprooted.22 Nevertheless, that is an unintentional act and [is therefore] permitted.23

ח מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ עַל גַּבֵּי עֲשָׂבִים בְּשַׁבָּת,ס,21 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹלֵךְ יָחֵףסא וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּדְבְּקוּ עֲשָׂבִים בְּקִשְׁרֵי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְיִתָּלְשׁוּ,סב,22 מִכָּל מָקוֹם דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא וּמֻתָּר:סג,23

9 One who waters plants is liable for [performing the forbidden labors of] plowing and sowing,24 for he loosens and softens the earth like one who plows, and he has the intent25 that the plants will grow like one who sows. For this reason, a person who eats [a meal] in a garden should be careful not to wash his hands over grass, because he is watering it. True, he is not doing so intentionally; nevertheless, it is inevitable that he will [water the grass if he washes his hands over it].26 [Moreover, this restriction applies] even if [the person] is eating in his friend’s garden – or even in [the garden] of a non-Jew – in which instance, he has no desire whatsoever for the grass to grow. Although his activity is a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah, a forbidden labor which a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed,27 it is, nonetheless, forbidden according to Rabbinic decree. It is, however, permitted to pour urine, wine, or other liquids [over grass], because they burn [the vegetation]. Water alone causes [vegetation] to grow. [Nevertheless,] it is fitting to be careful even with other liquids.

If one uses water [during his meal], it is preferable not to eat in a garden at all, because it is very difficult to be careful that even a small amount of water will not fall [onto the grass].28

ט הַמַּשְׁקֶה מַיִם לִזְרָעִים – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם חוֹרֵשׁ וּמִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ,סד,24 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּרַפֶּה וּמְרַכֵּךְ אֶת הַקַּרְקַע כְּמוֹ הַחוֹרֵשׁ,סה וְהוּא שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּןסו,25 לְהַצְמִיחַ הַזְּרָעִים כְּמוֹ הַזּוֹרֵעַ.סז

וּלְפִיכָךְ, מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל בְּגִנָּה – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִטּוֹל יָדָיו עַל הָעֲשָׂבִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה אוֹתָם. וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ – "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת" הוּא.סח,26

וְאַף אִם אוֹכֵל בְּגִנַּת חֲבֵרוֹ,סט אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל נָכְרִי,ע שֶׁאֵין לוֹ חֵפֶץ כְּלָל בְּגִדּוּל הָעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁבָּהּ, וַהֲרֵי הוּא מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּעא,27 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.עב

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַטִּיל עֲלֵיהֶם מֵי רַגְלַיִםעג אוֹ יַיִןעד וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,עה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם שׂוֹרְפִים אוֹתָם,עו וְאֵין מַצְמִיחִים אוֹתָם אֶלָּא מַיִם בִּלְבָד. וְרָאוּי לִזָּהֵר אַף בְּמַשְׁקִין.עז

וְטוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל כְּלָל בְּגִנָּה אִם יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם עִם מַיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּקֹשִׁי יוּכַל לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִפּוֹל שָׁם מְעַט מַיִם:עח,28

10 One should be careful not to cast away seeds in a place where rain falls,29 because ultimately they will grow there. If [one] is casting [seeds there as food] for chickens, he should not cast more than an amount that [the chickens] will eat that day or during two days.30 If, however, [one] casts [the seeds] in a place where people tread, it is permitted because [seeds] will not grow [after being trod upon]. Therefore, [the forbidden labor of] sowing does not apply.

י יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר מִלְּהַשְׁלִיךְ זְרָעִים בִּמְקוֹם יְרִידַת גְּשָׁמִים,29 שֶׁסּוֹפָן לְהַצְמִיחַ שָׁם.עט וְאִם יַשְׁלִיךְ לְתַרְנְגוֹלִים – לֹא יַשְׁלִיךְ אֶלָּא כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם אוֹ לְיוֹמַיִם.30 וְאִם הוּא בִּמְקוֹם דְּרִיסַת רַגְלֵי אָדָם – מֻתָּר, שֶׁאֵין סוֹפָן לִצְמוֹחַ, וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ:פ

11 When grasses grow on a vessel’s handles due to the vessel’s moisture, they are considered as attached to the ground, because this is the manner in which they grow.31 One who removes [this grass] is liable for [performing a derivative of the forbidden labor of reaping since he is] uprooting an entity from its source of nourishment. Similarly, one who removes hops from the place they grow [is liable] even though they are not attached to the ground.32

By contrast, one who uproots plants that grow in a non-perforated flowerpot33 is exempt [according to Scriptural Law],34 because it is not common to sow there.35 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic decree, it is forbidden to uproot [plants] from [such a flowerpot], even when [the plants] are located on the second story [of a building].36

יא עֲשָׂבִים שֶׁעָלוּ עַל אֹזֶן הַכְּלִי מִלַּחוּת הַכְּלִיפא – חֲשׁוּבִים כִּמְחֻבָּרִים לַקַּרְקַע,פב כֵּיוָן שֶׁזֶּהוּ דֶּרֶךְ גִּדּוּלָן,פג,31 וְהַתּוֹלְשָׁן – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם "עוֹקֵר דָּבָר מִגִּדּוּלוֹ".פד וְכֵן הַתּוֹלֵשׁ כִּשּׁוּתפה מִמְּקוֹם גִּדּוּלוֹ,פו,31 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע.פז,32

אֲבָל הַתּוֹלֵשׁ זְרָעִים שֶׁנִּזְרְעוּ בְּעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב33 – פָּטוּר,פח,34 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ זְרִיעָה שָׁם.פט,35 אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתְלוֹשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,צ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֻנָּח בַּעֲלִיָּה:צא,36

12 One who uproots [a plant growing] in a perforated flowerpot is liable37 [for performing a derivative of the forbidden labor of reaping], because it is considered as attached to the ground since it derives its nourishment from the ground through its perforation. [To explain: The plant] absorbs the vapor from the earth’s moisture via [the atmosphere through] the perforation. [This applies] even if [the flowerpot] is positioned on stakes, with open space intervening between [the pot] and the ground, for [the plant] still derives some [moisture] from the ground through the [intervening] air.

Accordingly,38 if [the flowerpot] was [previously] lying on the ground and [one picked it up and] placed it on stakes, he is not liable for uprooting [the plant] according to Scriptural Law,39 since it is still considered as attached to the earth. [Conversely,] if [the plant] was positioned on stakes and one placed it on the earth, he is not liable for planting according to Scriptural Law.40 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to take [a plant in a perforated flowerpot] from the earth and place it on stakes, because it resembles uprooting. Similarly, if [the plant] was [previously] placed on stakes, it is forbidden to place it on the earth, because it resembles planting. All the above applies with regard to a perforated flowerpot. If, however, [a flowerpot] is not perforated, [all of the above] is permitted.

To what does the above apply? To a wooden [flowerpot]. An earthenware [flowerpot], by contrast, is considered as perforated even if in actual fact it is not perforated, because earthenware will not stand in the way of roots. They will breach through and derive nourishment from the earth [despite] the earthenware [bottom].41

Other authorities maintain that the opposite [is true]. To what does the above [prohibition] apply? To an earthenware [flowerpot]; but a wooden [flowerpot] absorbs moisture from the earth and will not stand in the way of roots even though it is not perforated. In practice, weight should be given to both approaches and one should be careful [not to move] both wooden and earthenware flowerpots [from the earth onto stakes or from stakes onto the ground] even when they are not perforated.42

יב הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵעָצִיץ נָקוּב – חַיָּב,צב,37 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, לְפִי שֶׁיּוֹנֵק מִן הַקַּרְקַע עַל יְדֵי הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁמֵּרִיחַ לַחְלוּחִית הַקַּרְקַע דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם.צג וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֻנָּח עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת,צד שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲוִיר מַפְסִיק בֵּינוֹ לַקַּרְקַע – הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְחֻבָּר, לְפִי שֶׁיּוֹנֵק קְצָת מִן הַקַּרְקַע דֶּרֶךְ הָאֲוִיר.צה

וּלְפִיכָךְ,38 אִם הָיָה מֻנָּח עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֵשׁ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,צו,39 הוֹאִיל וַעֲדַיִן כִּמְחֻבָּר הוּא.צז וְכֵן אִם הָיָה מֻנָּח עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ מִן הַתּוֹרָה.40

אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע לְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְתוֹלֵשׁ.צח וְכֵן אִם הָיָה מֻנָּח עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְנוֹטֵעַ.צט

וְכָל זֶה בְּעָצִיץ נָקוּב, אֲבָל בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב – מֻתָּר.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּשֶׁל עֵץ, אֲבָל שֶׁל חֶרֶס, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב – הוּא כְּנָקוּב,ק שֶׁאֵין הַחֶרֶס עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי הַשָּׁרָשִׁים, וְהֵם מְפַעְפְּעִים וְיוֹנְקִים מִן הַקַּרְקַע דֶּרֶךְ הַחֶרֶס.קא,41 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקב בְּהֵפֶךְ, שֶׁבַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּשֶׁל חֶרֶס, אֲבָל שֶׁל עֵץ הוּא מִתְלַחְלֵחַ מֵהַקַּרְקַע, וְאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי הַשָּׁרָשִׁים אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב. וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְב' הַסְּבָרוֹת, וְלִזָּהֵר בֵּין בְּשֶׁל עֵץ בֵּין בְּשֶׁל חֶרֶס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן נְקוּבִים:קג,42

13 When grasses were buried in earth43 while it was still day [on Friday] so that they will remain moist, if some of their leaves are revealed, it is permitted to take hold of them and remove them44 [on Shabbos] in the manner described in sec. 311[:14].45

יג עֲשָׂבִים שֶׁתְּחָבָן בְּעָפָר43 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לַחִים, אִם מִקְצָת עָלִין מְגֻלִּין – מֻתָּר לֶאֱחוֹז בָּהֶם וּלְהוֹצִיאָם,קד,44 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א:קה,45

14 When a fruit-bearing branch was detached from its tree on Friday, it is permitted to remove the fruit from it on Shabbos.46

יד יִחוּר שֶׁל אִילָן שֶׁנִּפְשַׁח מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִן הָאִילָן וּבוֹ פֵּרוֹת – מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ הַפֵּרוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת:קו,46

15 When straw and grass grow in a drainpipe that carries the outflow from a roof, and they clog [the drainpipe] and prevent water from flowing down [through it], and [as a result,] the water spreads over the roof and drips down into the house, one is permitted to crush [the straw] with his feet [if he does so] covertly.47 [The rationale is that] since [the person] is fixing the problem in an abnormal manner – he is doing so only with his feet – [our Sages] did not impose a [restrictive] decree in an instance where a loss is involved.48

טו צִנּוֹר הַמְקַלֵּחַ מַיִם מִן הַגַּג וְעָלוּ בוֹ קַשִּׁים וַעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁסּוֹתְמִים וּמְעַכְּבִים קִלּוּחוֹ וּמֵימָיו יוֹצְאִים וּמִתְפַּשְּׁטִים בַּגַּג וְדוֹלְפִים לַבַּיִת – מֻתָּר לְמַעֲכוֹ בְּרַגְלָיו בְּצִנְעָה,קז,47 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּתַקֵּן עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי הוּא, שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אֶלָּא בְּרַגְלָיו – לֹא גָזְרוּ בְּזֶה בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד:קח,48

16 It is forbidden to smell an esrog or an apple or any other fruit that is fit to be eaten, while it is still attached [to its tree. This is] a decree [instituted] lest one pull [the fruit off the tree in order] to eat it.49 It is, however, permitted to smell a myrtle [branch] while it is attached [to its tree], since the only benefit derived from it is its fragrance.50 [The rationale is that the fragrance of the myrtle] can be appreciated even when it is attached. Why then would one break it off? This is not true with regard to an edible [fruit]. True, one could eat [the fruit] while it is attached [to the tree]. But there is no greater act of reaping than that. Even though [the ordinary manner of] picking fruit is not with one’s mouth, but only with one’s hands,51 and thus [one who reaps a fruit in this manner] is exempt according to Scriptural Law (like one who nurses [from an animal] with his mouth, as stated in sec. 328[:40]),52 [doing so] is nevertheless forbidden according to Rabbinic decree.

טז אֶתְרוֹג וְתַפּוּחַ וְכָל דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה – אָסוּר לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹ בְּעוֹדוֹ מְחֻבָּר,קט גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָקֹץ אוֹתוֹ כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ.קי,49 אֲבָל הֲדַס מְחֻבָּר – מֻתָּר לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹ,קיא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הֲנָאָתוֹ אֶלָּא רֵיחוֹ,50 וְזֶה יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ מְחֻבָּר וְלָמָּה יִקְצְצֶנּוּ,קיב,49 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה.

וְאַף אִם יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ מְחֻבָּר – אֵין לְךָ תְּלִישָׁה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ.קיג וְאַף שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ תְּלִישָׁה בְּפִיו אֶלָּא בְּיָד בִּלְבָדקיד,51 וּפָטוּר הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה (כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַיּוֹנֵק בְּפִיו פָּטוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"חקטו)52 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:קטז

17 Soaking [kernels of] wheat, barley, or the like in water so that they will sprout is a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of sowing.53 Hence, one is liable for soaking even the slightest amount.

[The above applies] provided one soaks [the kernels] for an extended time. It is, however, permitted to place barley [kernels] in water to feed them to animals for their immediate consumption.54

([Moreover,] even if [the kernels] remain in the water after [the animals finish] eating, this is of absolutely no consequence, because at the time they were placed in the water, it was not inevitable that they would sprout,55 for it was [entirely] possible that the animals would eat all of them.)

יז הַשּׁוֹרֶה חִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם בְּמַיִםקיז כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְמְחוּקיח – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת זוֹרֵעַ,53 וְחַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. וְהוּא שֶׁשּׁוֹרֶה זְמַן אָרֹךְ,קיט אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן שְׂעוֹרִים לְמַיִם לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֵמוֹת לְאַלְתַּר.קכ,54

(וְאַף אִם יִשָּׁאֵר בְּמַיִם מֵאֲכִילָתָם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנְּתָנָם לְמַיִם – לָאו "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"26 הוּא שֶׁיַּצְמִיחוּ,55 שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה תֹּאכַל אֶת כֻּלָּם):

18 When branches [detached] from trees were designated to be used [on Shabbos]56 while it was still day [on Friday] – thus placing them in the category of utensils and making it permissible for them to be moved [on Shabbos], as stated in sec. 308[:55] – it is permitted for them to be placed in water on Shabbos. [This license applies] provided they do not have flowers or buds [on them] that will open because of the water’s moisture.

[One] must be careful not to put water in a container so that he can [then] place [the branches] there [immediately thereafter]. Instead, [one] should place [the branches] in a container where water had been placed previously.57 Even if one placed [the branches] in water while it was still day [on Friday], it is forbidden to add water to them on Shabbos or on a festival,58 because, [by doing so,] one is expending effort to improve a utensil.59 See sec. 654.60

יח עַנְפֵי אִילָנוֹתקכא שֶׁהוּכְנוּ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ56 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםקכב בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם וּמֻתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"חקכג – מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִידָם בְּמַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת. וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ בָּהֶם פְּרָחִים וְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים, שֶׁהֵם נִפְתָּחִים מִלַּחְלוּחִית הַמַּיִם. וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן מַיִם אֶל כְּלִי כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִידָם שָׁם, אֶלָּא יַעֲמִידֵם בְּמַיִם שֶׁהָיוּ בִּכְלִי מִכְּבָר.קכד,57 וַאֲפִלּוּ הֶעֱמִידָם בְּמַיִם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר לְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם בְּשַׁבָּתקכה וְיוֹם טוֹב,קכו,58 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ לְתַקֵּן כְּלִי,קכז,59 עַיֵּן סִמָּן תרנ"ד:קכח,60

19 [When] figs have [already] dried on their branches or [the] fruits of other trees have [already] dried [on their branches], one who picks them on Shabbos is [still] liableeven though [these fruits] are considered as already having been harvested with regard to the laws of ritual impurity.61

יט תְּאֵנִים שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ בְּאִבֵּיהֶם, וְכֵן שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶם בָּהֶם – הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם כִּתְלוּשִׁים לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה:קכט,61

20 It is forbidden to make use of the sides of a tree. One may, by contrast, make use of “the sides of the sides”62 [of a tree, i.e., objects that are placed on the sides of a tree].

What is implied? On Shabbos, it is forbidden to ascend a ladder leaning on the side of a tree, since when ascending [the ladder], one is making use of the sides of [i.e., parts of] the tree that support [the ladder].63 If, however, there is a peg embedded in the side of a tree, one may lean the ladder against the peg and [climb up on] it. The peg is considered as “the side [of the tree]” and the ladder, “the side of the sides [of a tree].”

Similarly, if one embedded a peg in a tree and hung a basket from the peg, the peg is considered as “the side [of the tree]” and the basket, “the side of the sides [of the tree].” It is permitted to take an article from the basket, but it is forbidden to move the basket itself, because when moving it, one is making use of the peg, which is “the side [of the tree].” If the basket is hanging from the tree itself, the basket is considered “the side [of the tree]” and it is forbidden to take an object from it. And if the opening of the basket is so narrow that when one removes an object from the basket, he causes the tree to move, it is forbidden [to use it] in all instances,64 because one is making use of the tree itself.

כ אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּצְדָדֵי הָאִילָן, אֲבָל בְּצִדֵּי צְדָדִין62 – מֻתָּר.קל כֵּיצַד? סֻלָּם הַסָּמוּךְ לִצְדָדֵי הָאִילָן – אָסוּר לַעֲלוֹת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁבַּעֲלִיָּתוֹ הוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּצְדָדֵי הָאִילָן שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ בָּהֶם,קלא,63 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ יָתֵד תָּקוּעַ בְּצִדֵּי הָאִילָן – מֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ הַסֻּלָּם בְּיָתֵד וְלַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו,63 שֶׁהַיָּתֵד הוּא צְדָדִין, וְהַסֻּלָּם צִדֵּי צְדָדִין.קלב

וְכֵן אִם נָעַץ יָתֵד בָּאִילָן וְתָלָה בּוֹ כַּלְכָּלָה – הַיָּתֵד נִקְרָא צְדָדִין, וְהַכַּלְכָּלָה צִדֵּי צְדָדִין,קלג וּמֻתָּר לִטּוֹל חֵפֶץ מֵהַכַּלְכָּלָה,קלד אֲבָל הַכַּלְכָּלָה עַצְמָהּ אָסוּר לִטּוֹל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּנְטִילָה זוֹ הוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּיָּתֵד שֶׁהוּא צְדָדִין.קלה וְאִם הַכַּלְכָּלָה תְּלוּיָה בָּאִילָן עַצְמוֹ – הִיא נִקְרֵאת צְדָדָיו, וְאָסוּר לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנָּה חֵפֶץ.קלו וְאִם פִּי הַכַּלְכָּלָה צַר שֶׁכְּשֶׁנּוֹטֵל הַחֵפֶץ מֵהַכַּלְכָּלָה מֵנִיד הָאִילָן – אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,64 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָן עַצְמוֹ:קלז,63

21 (It is permitted to lean on a [firm,] healthy tree,65 but not on a weak one,66 because it will bend, and thus, one will be making use of a tree.)

כא (מֻתָּר לְהִשָּׁעֵן בְּאִילָן בָּרִיא,65 אֲבָל בְּתָשׁ אָסוּר,קלח,66 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּנִידוֹ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּאִילָןקלט):

22 It is permitted to touch a tree, but it is forbidden to bend it, (because it is muktzeh67and forbidden to be moved).68

כב מֻתָּר לִגַּע בָּאִילָן, וְאָסוּר לַהֲנִידוֹקמ (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה,67 וְאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּלקמא)68: