SECTION 335 The Laws Pertaining to a Barrel that Breaks [on Shabbos] (1-5)

סימן שלה דִּין חָבִית שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 Our Sages decreed that when a barrel of wine or oil breaks [on Shabbos], one should only save what he needs for that Shabbos.1For example, if [the barrel] broke on Friday night2 before the meal, [the person] may save [enough] for three meals. [If the barrel broke] in the morning, [the person] may save [enough] for two meals, and [if it broke] in the afternoon, he may save [enough] for one meal. [The reason for this restriction is that] if [one] is permitted to save a large amount, there is reason for concern that due to his preoccupation with saving [the wine or the oil], he will panic and become anxious about saving it. [As a result, the person] will forget that it is Shabbos and will bring containers through the public domain3 to save [the wine or the oil] from the barrel.

Leniency may not be granted even in the present age, when, according to some authorities, there is no concept of a public domain.4 [The rationale is] there is concern that because one may forget that it that is Shabbos, he will come to fix the barrel.

Even if the barrel is already completely broken and the wine spilled out onto the earth, [one] should not collect from the earth more than he needs for that Shabbos.5This is a decree [imposed] lest one collect [the wine with] a sponge, i.e., place a sponge in the wine that spilled and then let it drip into a container. [This activity is] forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.6

[In the case at hand, this restriction applies] even if the sponge has a handle, in which instance there is no concern that [the prohibition against] squeezing will be violated since it is not inevitable7 [that liquids will be squeezed out] where he holds the sponge. Nevertheless, [collecting the liquids in this manner] is a mundane activity and [is thus] disrespectful to the Shabbos. Furthermore, there is room for concern that if one follows the same practice that he follows during the week, it is possible that he will [forget that it is Shabbos and] intentionally squeeze out [the liquids the sponge absorbed]. Therefore, it is even forbidden to [collect] the liquids one [may] save for his Shabbos needs in this manner. For this same reason, [our Sages] forbade collecting oil with one’s hands, i.e., dipping [one’s] hands in oil and then wiping them against the edge of a container,8 so that [the person] will not follow the same practice he follows during the week.

The prohibition against saving more [oil or wine than is necessary] for three meals applies only [when one uses] many containers. If, however, [the person] uses one container just once, he may save enough for even 100 meals, because he is saving [everything at] once, as stated in sec. 334[:6] with regard to a fire. [Similarly, the person] may tell others, “Come and save [oil or wine] for yourselves for three meals,”even though he knows that they will return [what they save] to him, as explained in that source.9

All the above applies when a barrel breaks, and [the owner] panics and is anxious to save [his property]. If, however, the barrel merely cracks and the wine seeps out drop by drop, [the owner’s] panic will not reach the degree where there is concern that he will forget that it is Shabbos. [In this case,] it is permitted to save all [the contents of the barrel] even by using many [different] containers.

All the above [restrictions] apply when [one] is saving [by taking containers] from one courtyard to another, in which instance, transferring many containers involves much effort and there is reason for concern that, as a result, he will forget that it is Shabbos and [feel motivated] to fix the barrel.

When, in contrast, [one is taking containers from] inside the same courtyard, since not that much effort is required [to bring many containers, the owner] may save as much as he desires even [when using] many containers. (As stated in sec. 334[:11], there are authorities who rule leniently [with regard to saving one’s property in the same courtyard] with regard to a fire. Although in that instance, it is appropriate to rule stringently, in the instance discussed here, leniency is recommended. [The rationale is that] fundamentally, our Sages’ decree was instituted because of the possibility that one might bring a container through a public domain, but in the present era, there are authorities who rule that a public domain no longer exists.)

א חָבִיתא שֶׁל יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶןב שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה – גָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁלֹּא יַצִּיל מִמֶּנָּה אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד,ג,1 כְּגוֹן אִם נִשְׁבְּרָה בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת2 קֹדֶם אֲכִילָהד – מַצִּיל מִמֶּנָּה לְג' סְעֻדּוֹת,ה,1 וּבְשַׁחֲרִית לִשְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת, וּבַמִּנְחָה לִסְעֻדָּה אַחַת, שֶׁאִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַצִּיל הַרְבֵּה – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא מֵחֲמַת טִרְדַּת הַהַצָּלָה שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל וְנֶחְפָּז לְהַצִּיל – יִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְיָבִיא כֵּלִים דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים3 לְהַצִּיל בָּהֶם מֵהֶחָבִית.ו

וְאַף עַכְשָׁו שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםז שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים4 – אֵין לְהָקֵל, כִּי יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא מֵחֲמַת שִׁכְחַת שַׁבָּת יָבֹא לְתַקֵּן הֶחָבִית.ח

וְאַף אִם כְּבָר נִשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית לְגַמְרֵי וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַיַּיִן לָאָרֶץ – לֹא יִקְלוֹט מִן הָאָרֶץ יוֹתֵר מִלְּצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,5 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְפּוֹג,ט דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּשִׂים סְפוֹג בְּיַיִן הַנִּשְׁפָּךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַטִּיפוֹ בַּכְּלִי,י וְדָבָר זֶה אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,6 אַף אִם יֵשׁ לִסְפוֹג בֵּית אֲחִיזָה שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ לִסְחִיטָהיא בִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"7 בִּמְקוֹם אֲחִיזַת יָדוֹ,יב מִכָּל מָקוֹם מַעֲשֵׂה חֹל הוּאיג וְזִלְזוּל לְשַׁבָּת.יד וְגַם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ אִם יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל, שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לִסְחוֹט הַסְּפוֹג בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן,טו וְלָכֵן אָסְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אַף בְּמַה שֶּׁמַּצִּיל לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת.

וְכֵן אָסְרוּ מִטַּעַם זֶה לְטַפֵּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן,טז דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַכְנִיס יָדוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן וּלְקַנְּחָהּ בִּשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי,יז,8 שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל.יח,5

וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לְהַצִּיל יוֹתֵר מִג' סְעֻדּוֹת אֶלָּא בְּכֵלִים הַרְבֵּה, אֲבָל בִּכְלִי אֶחָד בְּפַעַם אַחַת – יָכוֹל לְהַצִּיל אֲפִלּוּ ק' סְעֻדּוֹת, שֶׁהַכֹּל הַצָּלָה אַחַת הִיא,יט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"דכ לְעִנְיַן דְּלֵקָה. וְיָכוֹל לוֹמַר לַאֲחֵרִים "בֹּאוּ וְהַצִּילוּ לָכֶם"כא כָּל אֶחָד ג' סְעֻדּוֹת,כב,5 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ בָּהֶם שֶׁיַּחֲזִירוּ לוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.כג,9

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית, שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל וְנֶחְפָּז לְהַצִּיל, אֲבָל אִם נִסְדְּקָה וְהַיַּיִן עוֹשֶׂה טִיף טִיף, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּהוּל כָּל כָּךְ – אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיִּשְׁכַּח שַׁבָּת, וּמֻתָּר לְהַצִּיל כֻּלּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּכֵלִים הַרְבֵּה.כד

וְכָל זֶה לְהַצִּיל מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר,כה שֶׁיֵּשׁ כַּאן טֹרַח רַב בְּהוֹלָכַת כֵּלִים הַרְבֵּה, וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן יִשְׁכַּח הַשַּׁבָּתכו וְיָבֹא לְתַקֵּן הֶחָבִית.כז אֲבָל לְחָצֵר זוֹ עַצְמָהּכח שֶׁאֵין כַּאן טֹרַח כָּל כָּךְ – יָכוֹל לְהַצִּיל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּכֵלִים הַרְבֵּה (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"דכט שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְקִלִּין כֵּן גַּבֵּי דְלֵקָה. וְאַף שֶׁשָּׁם יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בָּזֶה,ל מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּזֶה, הוֹאִיל וְעִקַּר גְּזֵרַת חֲכָמִים בְּזֶה הָיְתָה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יָבִיא כְּלִי דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,לא וְעַכְשָׁו יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כְּלָל):

2 [If a barrel of wine] broke while on the edge of a person’s roof, he may bring a container and place it [on the ground or on another object] below [the roof],10 provided he does not bring another container and [hold it] in the air to collect [the wine] after it runs down from the roof. [Similarly,] he may not take another container and attach it to the edge of the roof so that the wine will flow from the roof into the container.11 [These activities are forbidden because of] a decree [instituted] lest one bring a container via the public domain.

If [the person] saves [the wine using] only one container, he may save it even if he collects [the wine in the air] or attaches [the container to the roof.12 The rationale is that] since [the person] was permitted to use only one container, there is no reason for concern that he will forget that it is Shabbos and carry a container via the public domain.

ב אִם נִשְׁבְּרָה בְּרֹאשׁ גַּגּוֹ – מֵבִיא כְּלִי וּמַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ,10 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יָבִיא כְּלִי אַחֵר וְיִקְלוֹט לְקַבֵּל מִן הַקִּלּוּחַ בַּאֲוִיר לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּרַד מִן הַגַּג, וְלֹא יָבִיא כְּלִי אַחֵר וִיצָרֵף אוֹתוֹ לְרֹאשׁ הַגַּגלב שֶׁיָּזוּב הַיַּיִן מִן הַגַּג לַכְּלִי,לג,11 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבִיא כְּלִי דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.לד,3 וְאִם מַצִּיל בִּכְלִי אֶחָד בִּלְבָד – מַצִּיללה אֲפִלּוּ קוֹלֵט אוֹ מְצָרֵף,לו,12 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ אֶלָּא כְּלִי אֶחָד – אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיִּשְׁכַּח הַשַּׁבָּת וְיָבִיא כְּלִי דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:לז

3 If one had guests visiting him [at the time the barrel broke], he may bring another container and collect the wine in the air or attach [the container] to the roof.13 However, [the person] may not collect [the wine in the air] or attach [a container to the roof] and then invite guests. Instead, he should invite [the guests] first. Nor may [the person] act cunningly and invite guests who do not need to eat and drink so that the wine will remain for him. If he transgressed and collected [the wine in the air] or attached [a container to the roof] and afterwards invited guests (– even guests who do not need to eat and drink –) [the wine] is permitted.

ג נִזְדַּמְּנוּ לוֹ אוֹרְחִים – מֵבִיא כְּלִי אַחֵר וְקוֹלֵט, כְּלִי אַחֵר וּמְצָרֵף.13 וְלֹא יִקְלוֹט וִיצָרֵף וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַזְמִין הָאוֹרְחִים, אֶלָּא מַזְמִינָם תְּחִלָּה.לח,13 וְלֹא יַעֲרִיםלט לְזַמֵּן אוֹרְחִים שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים לֶאֱכוֹלמ וְלִשְׁתּוֹתמא,13 כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוֹתִירוּ לוֹ.מב

וְאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה שֶׁקָּלַט וְצֵרֵף וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִזְמִין אוֹרְחִים (וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹרְחִים שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים לֶאֱכוֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹתמג) – מֻתָּר:מד

4 [A problematic situation arises] if grape juice seeps out of a crack in a barrel of grapes that were yet to be crushed, for the juice dripping out is not fit to be used on Shabbos, because liquids that flow [from fruit] on Shabbos are forbidden, as stated in sec. 320[:3. Hence,] one may not place a container [under the barrel to collect the juice], because [doing so] nullifies the possibility of using that container [on Shabbos].14

What should [the person] do? He should move his couch or his table [near the dripping container], establishing this as the place where he is sitting.15 This will cause [the place] where the [juice] is dripping to be considered like a chamber pot16 for him, because the ground [where it is located] will become filthy and muddy. [Therefore, the person] may put a container there to collect the dripping juice so that it does not create mud.

[The person] is not nullifying the possibility of using that container [on Shabbos], because when the container becomes full, he is permitted to carry it in order to pour out [the juice], and [then he may] reposition it below the dripping [juice once again in order] to collect it and prevent it from [making the ground] muddy.

Doing so does not violate the prohibition against carrying an article that is muktzeh, as stated in sec. 308[:72ff.] with regard to any [object that is considered the equivalent of a] chamber pot (geref shel re’ei). [Such articles] were permitted to be carried, out of consideration for human dignity. True, it is not permitted to create a geref shel re’ei initially. Nevertheless, because of the [monetary] loss, license was granted [for the person to do so], as stated in that source.

When the container [collecting the dripping juice] becomes full, one should not pour the contents into another container, for he will be nullifying the possibility of using [that second] container.17 Instead, [the person] should empty the contents [back] into the barrel from where they leaked out. The possibility of using [that barrel] was already nullified by the liquids inside it, which are prohibited because they flowed out [from the grapes] on Shabbos.18

If [the person] desires, he may place a container with water under the wine19 that is seeping out, so that the wine will be nullified as it reaches the water, drop by drop. In such an instance, [the person] is permitted to carry this container, pour it out,20 and return it without having to establish [the place near the barrel] as the place where he is sitting. Even though afterwards there will be more wine than water [in the container], it is of no concern, because there are authorities who rule leniently with regard to such instances, even with regard to wine used for the worship of false deities,21 as will be stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 134.22 One may rely on their words, at least with regard to carrying [this mixture on Shabbos].

Even though this wine is a davar sheyeish lo matirin, a substance that will later become permitted,23 its presence nevertheless becomes nullified in the water. [The rationale is that the principle our Sages] stated: [that the presence of] a davar sheyeish lo matirin is never nullified,24 applies only when [the original substance] is mixed together with a substance of the same type, but not when it is mixed together with a substance of a different type,25 as will be stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 102.26

ד אִם יָזוּב תִּירוֹשׁ מִסֶּדֶק שֶׁבְּגִיגִית שֶׁל עֲנָבִים שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִדְרְכוּ, שֶׁנִּמְצָא אוֹתוֹ הַדֶּלֶף אֵינוֹ רָאוּי בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲסוּרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"כ,מה וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לָשׂוּם כְּלִי תַּחְתָּיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,מו,14 כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? יַנִּיחַ שָׁם מִטָּתוֹ אוֹ שֻׁלְחָנוֹ וְיִקְבַּע שָׁם יְשִׁיבָתוֹ,מז,15 וְאָז יִהְיֶה אוֹתוֹ הַדֶּלֶף לְפָנָיו כִּגְרָף שֶׁל רְעִי,16 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּלַכְלֵךְ אֶת הַקַּרְקַע וְעוֹשֶׂה טִיט, וְיוּכַל לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם כְּלִי לְקַבֵּל לְהַדֶּלֶף כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה טִיט.מח

וְאֵין כַּאן בִּטּוּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,מט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא הַכְּלִי יוּכַל לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְשָׁפְכוֹ וּלְהַחֲזִירוֹ תַּחַת הַדֶּלֶף לְקַבְּלוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה טִיט. וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"חנ בְּכָל גְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי, שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בּוֹ הַטִּלְטוּל מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם. וְאַף שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין גְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי לְכַתְּחִלָּה,נא מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵד הִתִּירוּ,נב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.נג,15

וּכְשֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא הַכְּלִי – לֹא יִשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ לִכְלִי אַחֵר, שֶׁלֹּא יְבַטְּלֶנּוּ מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,17 אֶלָּא מְרִיקוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַגִּיגִית שֶׁזָּבוּ הַמַּשְׁקִים מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁהִיא מְבֻטֶּלֶת כְּבָר מֵהֵיכָנָהּ עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקִין שֶׁבָּהּ הָאֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם שֶׁזָּבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת.נד,18

וְאִם הוּא רוֹצֶה – יָכוֹל לִתֵּן כְּלִי עִם מַיִם תַּחַת יַיִן הַדּוֹלֵף, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל הַיַּיִן בְּמַיִם רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן,נה,19 וְאָז מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַכְּלִי וּלְשָׁפְכוֹ20 וּלְהַחֲזִירוֹ בְּלִי שֶׁיִּקְבַּע שָׁם יְשִׁיבָתוֹ. וְאַף שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ מִתְרַבֶּה הַיַּיִן עַל הַמַּיִם – אֵין לָחוּשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְקִלִּין בְּזֶה אֲפִלּוּ לְעִנְיַן יֵין נֶסֶךְ,21 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קל"ד,נו,22 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶםנז עַל כָּל פָּנִים לְעִנְיַן טִלְטוּל.נח

וְאַף שֶׁיַּיִן זֶה הוּא "דָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין"23 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּמַיִם, שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" אֵינוֹ בָטֵל24 אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב מִין בְּמִינוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ,נט,25 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן ק"ב:ס,26

5 When a person’s produce becomes scattered in a courtyard, some in one direction and some in another direction, [the person] may gather a few [of the items] at a time and eat them.27 [The person] should not place [the produce] in a basket or in a large container, so that he will not follow his weekday pattern.

If, however, all the produce fell in one place, [the person] may even place [it all] in a basket or in a large container. [There is] an exception: If [the produce] fell among pebbles and dust in the courtyard. In that instance, [one] may [only] gather a few [items] at a time and eat them. [The person] may not place [the produce] in a basket or in a large container, so that he will not follow his weekday pattern.28

ה נִתְפַּזְּרוֹ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת בֶּחָצֵרסא אַחַת הֵנָּה וְאַחַת הֵנָּהסב – מְלַקֵּט מְעַט מְעַט וְאוֹכֵל.סג,27 וְלֹא יִתֵּן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ הַקֻּפָּה,סד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל.סה

אֲבָל אִם נָפְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – נוֹתֵן אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל וְהַקֻּפָּה.סו,27 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ צְרוֹרוֹת וְעַפְרוּרִית שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר, שֶׁאָז מְלַקֵּט אֶחָד אֶחָד וְאוֹכֵל, וְלֹא יִתֵּן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ הַקֻּפָּה,סז שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל:סח,28