SECTION 331 The Laws Governing Circumcision on Shabbos (1-14)

סימן שלא דִּינֵי מִילָה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ד סְעִיפִים:

1 [Performing] a circumcision at the appropriate time1 supersedes the Shabbos [prohibitions], as it is written:2 “On the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin should be circumcised.” [Our Sages explain:] “‘On the… day’ [implies] even on Shabbos.Periah3 is an intrinsic element of circumcision [and thus it is also performed on Shabbos].4 Metzitzah5also supersedes the Shabbos [prohibitions], because of the danger [that might arise were the blood not to be sucked out].6 Similarly, a poultice and the like may be placed [on the place of the circumcision]7 even though [our Sages] prohibited [placing a bandage on the wound of] a sick person who is not in [mortal] danger.8 Similarly, with regard to [all] other acts necessary to heal his circumcision, [the infant] is governed by the laws that apply to a sick person who is in mortal danger.

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, [everything necessary for the infant’s healing that can be prepared earlier] should be prepared on Friday. [However,] if one did not prepare [these necessities] on Friday, they may be prepared on Shabbos, provided one deviates [from the ordinary way he performs these tasks]. For example, in [the Talmudic] era, a mixture of ground cumin, wine, and oil would be applied to the place of the circumcision. If one did not grind [the cumin] on Friday, he may chew it with his teeth [on Shabbos] and place it [on the wound]. If [one] did not mix the wine and the oil on Friday, he should not mix them on Shabbos. Instead, [the person] should apply each of them separately in order to deviate [from the norm]. (With regard to [one’s conduct] on a festival, [the relevant laws] are explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 266.)9

Similar concepts apply with regard to other sick people,10 i.e., even though it was not known before Shabbos that [a sick person] would require wine and oil to be mixed for [him],11 [nevertheless,] if [the sick person is] not in [mortal] danger, it is forbidden to mix it for [him] on Shabbos. (For it is forbidden to perform any therapeutic activity for [a sick person who is not in mortal danger] without deviating [from the ordinary way in which that activity is performed], as stated in sec. 328[:19].)

If one does not have cumin at all, or it is impossible to chew it and it must be ground – and similarly if it is necessary to grind other spices that inhibit [the flow of] blood, the circumcision should be postponed until the following day. [The rationale is that] only circumcision itself supersedes the Shabbos [prohibitions], but not [all] its auxiliary [activities], as will be explained,12 unless there is [mortal] danger. Accordingly, one should not initially cause the infant to face a situation where [mortal] danger might arise and it would then be necessary to desecrate the Shabbos. If, however, one had ground cumin or other spices [prepared] while it was still day [on Friday], and the infant was circumcised on Shabbos, and then the spices scattered, [new spices] may be ground on Shabbos because of the danger [to the infant were he not to be treated].

א מִילָה בִּזְמַנָּהּ1 דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת,א שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרב,2 "וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ", בַּיּוֹם וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת,ג וְהַפְּרִיעָה3 הִיא מִכְּלַל הַמִּילָה,ד,4 וְהַמְּצִיצָה5 גַּם כֵּן דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתה מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה,ו,6 וְכֵן נוֹתְנִים עָלֶיהָ רְטִיָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּז,7 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסְרוּ לְחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,ח,8 וְכֵן לִשְׁאָר צָרְכֵי רְפוּאוֹת מִילָתוֹ דִּינוֹ כְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה.ט

אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְהָכִין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.י,7 וְאִם לֹא הֵכִין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי,יא כְּגוֹן בִּימֵיהֶם שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹתְנִים עַל הַמִּילָה כַּמּוֹן שָׁחוּק וְיַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן מְעֹרָבִים,יב אִם לֹא שָׁחַק מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – לוֹעֵס בְּשִׁנָּיו וְנוֹתֵן. וְאִם לֹא עֵרֵב יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – לֹא יְעָרְבֵם בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְזֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,יג כְּדֵי לְשַׁנּוֹתיד (וּלְעִנְיַן יוֹם טוֹב, נִתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רס"וטו).9

וְכֵן לִשְׁאָר חוֹלִים,טז,10 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָדוּעַ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁיִּצְטָרְכוּ לְעָרֵב לָהֶם יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן,11 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵין בָּהֶם סַכָּנָה – אָסוּר לְעָרֵב לָהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת (שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶם רְפוּאָה בְּלֹא שִׁנּוּי,יז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"חיח).

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ כַּמּוֹן כְּלָל, אוֹ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְלָעֳסוֹיט וְצָרִיךְ לְשָׁחֳקוֹ, אוֹ לִשְׁחוֹק סַמָּנִים אֲחֵרִים הַמְעַצְּרִים הַדָּם – תִּדָּחֶה הַמִּילָה עַד לְמָחָר,כ שֶׁאֵין דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִילָה עַצְמָהּ אֲבָל לֹא מַכְשִׁירֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,כא,12 אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה, וְאִם כֵּן אֵין לַהֲבִיאוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה לִידֵי סַכָּנָה כְּדֵי שֶׁנִּצְטָרֵךְ לְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת אַחַר כָּךְ.כב

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה לוֹ כַּמּוֹן שָׁחוּק אוֹ סַמָּנִים שְׁחוּקִים מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וּמָלוּ אֶת הַקָּטָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְפַּזְּרוּ – שׁוֹחֲקָן בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה:כג

2 As long as [the mohel]13 has not withdrawn his hand from the circumcision, he may go back [and remove] even strips of flesh that would not disqualify [the circumcision] after the fact.14 Once [the mohel] has withdrawn his hand, he may go back and remove only those strips of flesh that disqualify [the circumcision], as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 264.15

ב כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא סִלֵּק יָדוֹ13 מֵהַמִּילָה – חוֹזֵר אֲפִלּוּ עַל צִיצִין שֶׁאֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין בְּדִיעֲבַד.14 סִלֵּק יָדוֹ – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר אֶלָּא עַל צִיצִין הַמְעַכְּבִין,כד שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רס"ד:כה,15

3 An infant [born] in the eighth [month of pregnancy] whose hair and nails are fully developed, or an infant that was definitely [born] in the seventh [month] even though [his hair and nails] are not fully developed, may be circumcised on Shabbos.16If there is a doubt whether an infant was [born in] the seventh [month] or the eighth [month] and his [hair and nails] were not fully developed, he should not be circumcised on Shabbos, as explained in sec. 330[:8].

ג בֶּן ח' שֶׁגָּמְרוּ שְׂעָרוֹ וְצִפָּרְנָיו,כו אוֹ בֶּן ז' וַדַּאי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גָמְרוּ – מָלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.16 סָפֵק בֶּן ז' סָפֵק בֶּן ח' וְלֹא גָמְרוּ – אֵין לְמוּלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ל:כז

4 A circumcision that is not being performed at the appropriate time17 does not supersede the Shabbos [prohibitions.18 This applies] even when it was not possible to circumcise [the infant] beforehand, e.g., he was sick. [The rationale is that] it is possible to circumcise him after Shabbos and this will not cause any lack in [the observance of] the mitzvah, because [the circumcision] is not being performed at the appropriate time in any event.19

ד מִילָה שֶׁלֹּא בִזְמַנָּהּ,כח,17 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְמוּלוֹ קֹדֶם לָכֵן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה חוֹלֶה,כט אֵינָהּ דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת,18 שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְמוּלוֹ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת,ל וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שׁוּם חִסּוּר מִצְוָה בְּזֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּלֹא זֶה אֵינָהּ בִּזְמַנָּהּ:לא,19

5 When [an infant] was born on Friday bein hashmashos,20 he should not be circumcised on Shabbos,21for there is an unresolved doubt whether [the following Shabbos] is the eighth day or the ninth day [after his birth],22 and the Shabbos [prohibitions] are not superseded in a situation of uncertainty. Even if only the majority of [the infant’s] head emerged bein hashmashos and the remainder of his [head and] body emerged on Shabbos, he is deemed as having been born bein hashmashos.

Bein hashmashos begins from the time it takes to walk three and a quarter mil23after the beginning of sunset, as explained in sec. 261[:5].24 This is approximately a quarter of an hour before the appearance of the stars. If an infant is born before that time, even though the sun has already set, he should be circumcised on [the following] Friday.25 And if he is born at such a time Saturday evening, he is circumcised on Shabbos.

True, there are authorities who maintain that night begins at the start of sunset, as explained in the above source. Nevertheless, in these countries we do not pay heed to their words at all, [as evidenced by the fact that] at times, we do not accept the Shabbos and we perform all the labors [forbidden on Shabbos] until a quarter of an hour before the appearance of the stars. Therefore, we should not postpone a circumcision [past] its appropriate time because of concern [for this view].26

ה מִי שֶׁנּוֹלַד בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת20 – אֵין מָלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,לב,21 שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק שְׁמִינִי סָפֵק תְּשִׁיעִי,22 שֶׁאֵין דּוֹחִין שַׁבָּת מִסָּפֵק.לג וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הוֹצִיא אֶלָּא רֹב רֹאשׁוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָא כֻלּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנוֹלַד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.לד

וְהַתְחָלַת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הוּא אַחַר הִלּוּךְ ג' מִילִין וּרְבִיעַ23 לְאַחַר הַתְחָלַת הַשְּׁקִיעָה,לה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"א,לו,24 וְהוּא לְעֶרֶךְ רְבִיעִית שָׁעָה קֹדֶם צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים.לז

וְאִם נוֹלַד קֹדֶם לָכֵן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר שָׁקְעָה הַחַמָּה – נִמּוֹל בְּיוֹם ו'.25 וְאִם נוֹלַד כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת – נִמּוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת.לח

וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה הִיא לַיְלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,לט מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵין אָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין כְּלָל לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אֵין מְקַבְּלִים שַׁבָּת וְעוֹשִׂים כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת עַד רְבִיעִית שָׁעָה קֹדֶם צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים, אִם כֵּן אֵין לָנוּ לִדְחוֹת הַמִּילָה מִזְּמַנָּהּ בִּשְׁבִיל חֲשָׁשׁ זֶה:מ,26

6 [The halachic status of] an androgynous27 [is a matter of question. There is] a doubt whether [such a baby] is considered male or female. [Hence,] his circumcision does not supersede the Shabbos [prohibitions].28 Similarly, [when an infant] is born circumcised – even when he appears circumcised only when [his penis] is erect29 – [all that is required] is to extract the blood of circumcision from him. [This procedure] does not supersede the Shabbos [prohibitions], because [this extraction of blood] is not a definite Scriptural requirement.30

Similarly, when [an infant] is born through Cesarean section, and similarly, when a non-Jewish woman gives birth and then converts,31 it is unclear whether [these infants] are to be circumcised on the eighth day of their lives or immediately after birth.32 [The reason for the doubt is that] the mothers [of such infants] do not incur the impurity associated with childbirth,33 and the Torah states [the command for] circumcision on the eighth day directly after [the verses describing] the impurity associated with a woman who gives birth.34

Similarly, when [an infant] has two foreskins, i.e., two layers of skin, one on top of the other, or two male organs, there is room for doubt whether he should be circumcised on the eighth day,35 for the Torah36 mentions “his foreskin.” [The singular form could be interpreted as meaning “only] one.” Therefore, [generally such a child] should be circumcised on the eighth day even though a doubt exists [whether there is an obligation to circumcise him], but [his circumcision] does not supersede the Shabbos [prohibitions] because of [this] uncertainty.37

ו אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס27 שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק זָכָר סָפֵק נְקֵבָה – אֵין מִילָתוֹ דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת.מא,28

וְכֵן נוֹלַד כְּשֶׁהוּא מָהוּל,מב אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה מָהוּל אֶלָּא בְּעֵת הַקִּשּׁוּי,מג,29 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַטִּיף מִמֶּנּוּ דַּם בְּרִיתמד – אֵינוֹ דּוֹחֶה שַׁבָּת,מה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין זֶה חִיּוּב בָּרוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה.מו,30

וְכֵן יוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, וְנָכְרִית שֶׁיָּלְדָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיְּרָה,31 הוֹאִיל וְאֵין אִמּוֹ טְמֵאָה לֵדָהמז,33 – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּקמח אִם נִמּוֹלִים בַּשְּׁמִינִי אוֹ מִיָּד שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ,32 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתּוֹרָהמט סָמְכָה מִילַת שְׁמִינִי לְטֻמְאַת הַיּוֹלֶדֶת.נ,34

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי עָרְלוֹת,נא דְּהַיְנוּ ב' עוֹרוֹת זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶה,נב אוֹ שְׁנֵי גִידִיםנג – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם נִמּוֹל בַּשְּׁמִינִי,נד,35 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָהנה,36 "עָרְלָתוֹ" אַחַת,נו לְפִיכָךְ נִמּוֹלִים הֵם בַּשְּׁמִינִינז מִסָּפֵק, אֲבָל אֵינָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתנח מִסָּפֵק:37

7 It is only the circumcision itself that supersedes the Shabbos [prohibitions,] since it may not be performed on Friday.38 As will be explained,39 all of the auxiliary activities [that prepare] for the circumcision,40 e.g., sharpening the knife,41 bringing it to the place of the infant,42 crushing herbs43 [that will stop the bleeding],44 and preparing a cloak45 [for the infant], do not supersede the Shabbos [prohibitions], since they can be performed on Friday. [This applies] even if a person was prevented from making these [preparations] by forces beyond his control, or he made them and [the preparatory items] were lost. Even Rabbinic prohibitions were not released [to make] the mitzvah of circumcision [possible on Shabbos].

Our Sages upheld [the safeguard they instituted] even when [observing it will prevent the performance of a preparatory activity] – e.g., bringing a knife or the infant [to be circumcised] through a courtyard that is not enclosed by an eruv46– that will result in the circumcision to be postponed entirely despite the fact that [a mitzvah] punishable by kareis [for failing to observe it] is involved.47

With regard to instructing a non-Jew to perform [such a preparatory activity on Shabbos]: One may instruct a non-Jew to perform an activity that is only forbidden for a Jew to perform by Rabbinic Law.48 [The rationale is that our Sages] did not enforce a decree against [the performance of] a shvus d’shvus49in a situation involving a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 307[:12].

If, [however,] the act is forbidden to be performed by a Jew according to Scriptural Law, e.g., to sharpen the knife or to bring it through [an area that is classified as] a public domain in the complete sense,50 [one] may not instruct a non-Jew to perform it. There are authorities who permit instructing a non-Jew in a situation involving a mitzvah, even when the activity is forbidden by Scriptural Law, as stated in sec. 276[:8].51 Although one should not rely on their words with regard to other mitzvos, as stated in that source,52 nevertheless, with regard to circumcision, [which] itself supersedes the Shabbos [prohibitions], one may rely on their words even regarding the auxiliary activities,53 if it is otherwise impossible to perform the circumcision on that day.

ז אֵין דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִילָה עַצְמָהּ, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.נט,38 אֲבָל כָּל40 מַכְשִׁירֵי מִילָה,ס כְּגוֹן תִּקּוּן הָאִזְמֵלסא,41 וַהֲבָאָתוֹ אֵצֶל הַתִּינוֹק,סב,42 וּשְׁחִיקַת44 סַמָּנִים,סג,43 וְתִקּוּן הֶחָלוּק45 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,סד,39 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָם מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – אֵינָן דּוֹחִים אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת,סה אֲפִלּוּ אִם נֶאֱנַס וְלֹא עֲשָׂאָם,סו אוֹ שֶׁעֲשָׂאָם וְנֶאֶבְדוּ.סז

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִסּוּר דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוַת מִילָה,סח אֲפִלּוּ אִם תִּדָּחֶה הַמִּילָה לְגַמְרֵי בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, כְּגוֹן לְהָבִיא אִזְמֵל מֵחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת,סט אוֹ לִשָּׂא הַתִּינוֹק דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם,ע,46 שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּ חֲכָמִים אֶת דִּבְרֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם כָּרֵת.עא,47

וְלוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת, אִם הוּא דָבָר שֶׁאִם עָשָׂהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי וְעוֹשֵׂהוּ,עב,48 שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת49 בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז.עג וְאִם הוּא דָבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,עד כְּגוֹן לְתַקֵּן הָאִזְמֵל,עה,41 אוֹ לַהֲבִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםעו גְּמוּרָהעז,50 – לֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםעח אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר הָאָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ו.עט,51 וְאַף שֶׁאֵין לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁאָר מִצְוָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,פ,52 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּמִילָה שֶׁהִיא עַצְמָהּ דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶםפא אַף לְעִנְיַן מַכְשִׁירֶיהָ,53 אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לָמוּל הַיּוֹם בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר:פב

8 There are authorities who forbid taking the infant [to be circumcised] from his house to the synagogue [where the circumcision is designated to be held]54 via a karmelis55 or a courtyard that is not encompassed by an eruv, even [when he is carried] by a non-Jew.56 [They maintain that] carrying [the infant through these domains] is not necessary for [the performance of] a mitzvah, because it is possible to circumcise the infant at home.

There are authorities who permit [having a non-Jew carry the infant through these domains] because [of the principle]:57 “The King’s glory is [evident] amidst a multitude of people.” In a place where it is customary that the infant is brought to the synagogue by [means of] passing him from one person to another person and then to yet another, [each one passing the baby to the next person within a distance of] less than four cubits,58 he should be taken from the private domain59 by a non-Jew and brought into [the synagogue] by a non-Jew, or one should follow the procedure to be explained in sec. 347[:7].60 They should not, however, take [the infant] out [of his home] and bring him into [the synagogue] by [means of] two people [acting in tandem], one lifting the infant up [and passing him outside the house] and the other [taking him from the hands of the first, thus] performing the hanachah. Even though one is exempt [if he did so,]61 it is nevertheless forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.62

ח יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןפג לְהוֹצִיא הַתִּינוֹק מִבֵּיתוֹ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת54 דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית55 אוֹ חָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,56 שֶׁאֵין בְּהוֹצָאָה זוֹ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְמוּלוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ.פד

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין בְּזֶה,פה מִשּׁוּם57 "בְּרָב עָם הַדְרַת מֶלֶךְ".פו

וְיֵשׁ לְהַנְהִיג כֵּן בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לְהָבִיא הַתִּינוֹק לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁאֶחָד נוֹתְנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת,58 שֶׁיּוֹצִיאוּהוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד59 עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי וְיַכְנִיסוּהוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,פז אוֹ יַעֲשׂוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ז.פח,60 אֲבָל לֹא יוֹצִיאוּהוּ וְיַכְנִיסוּהוּ עַל יְדֵי שְׁנַיִם שֶׁזֶּה עוֹקֵר וְזֶה מַנִּיחַ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר,61 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:פט,62

9 A cloak is not made for [the infant’s organ],63 i.e., a piece of cloth is [not to be perforated] so that [the male organ] can be inserted through that hole and the remainder of the cloth wound around the organ and [tied] tightly there so that the skin of the organ will not return to cover the place of the circumcision. One may, however, wind a cloth around the organ. If he did not prepare [the cloth] on the preceding day, he may bring it – even from another courtyard which is not encompassed with the same eruv64– provided that he winds [the cloth] around his finger and brings it [in this manner],65 thus deviating from the ordinary practice.66 Similarly, it is permitted to bring [the cloth] via a karmelis by deviating [from the ordinary practice], but not via a public domain.67

ט אֵין עוֹשִׂין לָהּ חָלוּק,צ,63 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּקּוֹב חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל בֶּגֶד כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס הַמִּילָה בְּאוֹתוֹ הַנֶּקֶב וְיִכְרוֹךְ שְׁאָר הַבֶּגֶד עַל הָאֵבֶרצא וִיהַדְּקֶנּוּ שָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזוֹר עוֹר הָאֵבֶר לְכַסּוֹת הַמִּילָה.צב אֲבָל כּוֹרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ סְמַרְטוּט.צג וְאִם לֹא הִזְמִינוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםצד – מֵבִיא אֲפִלּוּ מֵחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ,64 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּכְרְכֶנּוּ עַל אֶצְבָּעוֹ וִיבִיאֶנּוּ,צה,65 כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשִׁנּוּי.צו,66 וְכֵן מֻתָּר לַהֲבִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִיתצז עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, אֲבָל לֹא דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:צח,67

10 The knife used for the circumcision is categorized as muktzeh machmas chisaron kis, muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss.”68 It is [therefore] forbidden to be moved except for the purpose of circumcision. [The knife may not be moved] to store it away, and not even to use it for a permitted purpose or to use its place, and how much more so [may it not be moved] for no purpose at all, as explained in sec. 308[:4-5]. Nevertheless, while the knife is still in the hand of the person who performed the circumcision, he is permitted to carry it to any place he desires and store it away, as stated in that source.69 It is, however, forbidden to wash [the knife], even while it is still in [the mohel’s] hand, because it is forbidden to wash utensils on Shabbos unless they are necessary [for use on] that day, as explained in sec. 323[:6].

י אִזְמֵל שֶׁל מִילָה הוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס,68 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמִּילָה וְלֹא כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעוֹ,צט וַאֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח.ק

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּעוֹדוֹ בְּיָדוֹ כְּשֶׁמָּל בּוֹ – רַשַּׁאי לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְהַצְנִיעוֹ שָׁמָּה,קא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קב,69

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְרָחֳצוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ בְּיָדוֹ,קג,13 שֶׁאֵין מְדִיחִין כֵּלִים בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ג:קד

11 In the Talmudic era, if an infant was not washed in warm water before and after the circumcision,70 and [was not washed] on the third day after [the circumcision], he would be in mortal danger. If it was necessary to heat [water] on Shabbos for washing [the infant] before the circumcision, [the situation] was governed by the law that applies with regard to sharpening the knife, as explained [above].71 If it was necessary to heat [water] for washing [the infant] afterwards, [the situation] was governed by the law that applies with regard to grinding spices, as explained [above].72 Similarly, if the third [day] following the circumcision fell on Shabbos, water was permitted to be heated even by a Jew if it was not prepared beforehand, because [its lack] presented a [mortal] danger to [the infant].

In the present era, however, in some regions, it has become customary not to wash [an infant] at all [in connection with circumcision. In these places,] if one wishes [to wash the infant], washing him on Shabbos is governed by the same laws that apply to washing all others, i.e., it is forbidden to wash using warm water even if it was heated while it was still day [on Friday], except to wash one’s face, hands, and feet, as stated in sec. 326[:1].

In these regions,73 it is customary to wash [the infant] before the circumcision in hot water that was heated on Friday, as well as [to wash him] after the circumcision on Saturday night. Similarly, if the third day [after the circumcision] falls on Shabbos, and it is evident that it will be necessary to wash [the infant on Shabbos], hot water is prepared while it is still day [on Friday] and he is washed on Shabbos.

All of the above applies in ordinary circumstances. However, [the infant] should be washed after the circumcision if it is evident that there is concern for danger if he is not washed. The Shabbos may be desecrated for his sake, as [it may be desecrated] for the sake of any other sick person who is in mortal danger.

יא בִּימֵי חַכְמֵי הַתַּלְמוּד אִם לֹא הָיוּ רוֹחֲצִין הַוָּלָד לִפְנֵי הַמִּילָה וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָקה,70 וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְמִילָהקו בְּמַיִם חַמִּין70 – הָיָה מְסֻכָּן. וְאִם הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לְהָחֵם בְּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ רְחִיצָה שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמִּילָה – הָיָה דִינוֹ כְּדִין תִּקּוּן הָאִזְמֵלקז שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קח,71 וְאִם הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לְהָחֵם לְצֹרֶךְ רְחִיצָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ – הָיָה דִינוֹ כְּדִין שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִיםקט שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קי,72 וְכֵן שְׁלִישִׁי לְמִילָה שֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת – מְחַמִּין לוֹ חַמִּין אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם לֹא הֵכִינוּ מֵאֶתְמוֹל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסַּכָּנָה הִיא לוֹ.קיא

אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו לֹא נָהֲגוּ בִּרְחִיצָה כְּלָל בִּקְצָת מְדִינוֹת, וְדִינוֹ לִרְחוֹץ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם רָצוּ כְּדִין רְחִיצַת כָּל אָדָם,קיב שֶׁאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֶלָּא פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בִּלְבָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ו.קיג

וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ73 נוֹהֲגִים לְרָחֳצוֹ לִפְנֵי הַמִּילָה בְּחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ מֵאֶתְמוֹל, וּלְאַחַר הַמִּילָה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה יוֹם ג' בְּשַׁבָּת וְרוֹאִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ צֹרֶךְ לְרָחֳצוֹ – מְכִינִים חַמִּין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְרוֹחֲצִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.

וְכָל זֶה מִן הַסְּתָם, אֲבָל אִם רוֹאִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְסַכָּנָה אִם לֹא יִרְחֲצוּ אוֹתוֹ אַחַר הַמִּילָה – מַרְחִיצִין אוֹתוֹ, וּמְחַלְּלִין עָלָיו שַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ עַל שְׁאָר חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה:קיד

12 When [the infant] is washed before the circumcision, one should be careful not to soak the cloth [with which he is being washed] in water, because soaking a cloth constitutes laundering it.74 Instead, a non-Jew should place the cloth in the water. It is permitted to have a non-Jew do this since one does not intend to launder the cloth; it is only [being laundered as an] inevitable consequence [of being soaked in water. Hence, it is permitted to have a non-Jew do so], as stated in sec. 253[:10].75 If, however, the hot water spilled out, a non-Jew may not be instructed to heat water for [the infant].76

יב כְּשֶׁרוֹחֲצִים אוֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַמִּילָה – יִזָּהֲרוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁרוּ סָדִין בְּמַיִם, שֶׁשְּׁרִיַּת בֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ.74 אֶלָּא יָשִׂים נָכְרִי הַסָּדִין תּוֹךְ הַמַּיִם,קטו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכִבּוּס אֶלָּא שֶׁ"פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא – מֻתָּר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג.קטז,75

אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁפְּכוּ הַחַמִּין – לֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהָחֵם בִּשְׁבִילוֹ:קיז,76

13 A person who has yet to perform a circumcision should not perform a circumcision on Shabbos lest he err and thus desecrate the Shabbos.77If, however, he has already performed a circumcision,78 it is permitted for him to perform a circumcision on Shabbos. [This applies] even when [the person performing the circumcision] is the father of the infant [being circumcised], who is obligated to circumcise his son, and he is pleased that his son will be improved on Shabbos through this circumcision.79

Similarly, a person who performed a circumcision, but never performed periah,80 is forbidden to perform periah on Shabbos.

יג אָדָם שֶׁלֹּא מָל מֵעוֹלָם – לֹא יָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת,קיח שֶׁמָּא יְקַלְקֵל וְנִמְצָא מְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת.קיט,77

אֲבָל אִם מָל כְּבָר פַּעַם אַחַת78 – מֻתָּר לָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת,קכ וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא אֲבִי הַבֵּןקכא שֶׁעָלָיו מֻטָּל לָמוּל בְּנוֹקכב וְנוֹחַ לוֹ מַה שֶּׁבְּנוֹ נִתַּקֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי מִילָה זוֹ.קכג,79

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁמָּל וְלֹא פָרַע80 מֵעוֹלָם – אָסוּר לִפְרוֹעַ בְּשַׁבָּת:קכד

14 Whether the son of a male or female apostate or a Karaite81is circumcised on Shabbos is explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 266.82 In that source, it is [also] explained whether it is permitted for one person to perform the circumcision and another, the periah.83

יד אִם מָלִין בֶּן הַמּוּמָר אוֹ מוּמֶרֶת אוֹ הַקָּרָאִים81 בְּשַׁבָּת – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רס"ו.קכה,82 וְשָׁםקכו נִתְבָּאֵר אִם מֻתָּר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶחָד מוֹהֵל וְאֶחָד פּוֹרֵעַ:83