SECTION 472 The Laws Pertaining to Reclining and [Drinking] the Four Cups [of Wine at the Seder] (1-31)

סימן תעב דִּינֵי הֲסִבָּה וְד' כּוֹסוֹת וּבוֹ ל"א סְעִיפִים:

1 A person’s [Seder] table should be arranged while it is still day1 [on the day before Pesach] so that he can begin the Seder immediately at nightfall.2 Even if [one] is in a House of Study, he should arise [and depart] immediately at nightfall,3 for it is a mitzvah to hurry to begin the Seder [as early as possible] so that the children not fall asleep.4 [Their participation is a priority, as reflected by] the Torah’s statement:5 “You shall tell your children on that day….”

א יִהְיֶה שֻׁלְחָנוֹ עָרוּךְ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,1 כְּדֵי לְהַתְחִיל הַסֵּדֶר מִיָּד כְּשֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ.א,2 וְאַף אִם הוּא בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ – יָקוּםב מִיָּד כְּשֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ,ג,3 שֶׁמִּצְוָה לְמַהֵר לְהַתְחִיל הַסֵּדֶר בִּשְׁבִיל הַתִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ,ד,4 וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה:ה,5 "וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא":

2 Nevertheless, one should not hasten to recite Kiddush before it is definitely nightfall. Even though on other festivals6 a person may add [time] from the mundane to the holy and recite Kiddush and eat while it is still day [on the day preceding the festival],7 nevertheless, one may not do so on Pesach. [The rationale is that Scripture] links eating matzah to partaking of the Pesach sacrifice,8 as it is written:9 “You shall eat [the Pesach sacrifice] together with matzah and bitter herbs,” and with regard to the Pesach sacrifice, it is written:10 “They shall eat the meat on this night,” [implying that the Pesach sacrifice must be eaten] specifically at night.

Since the Scriptural requirement to eat matz­ah [applies] only after nightfall, therefore, all the four cups [of wine] that our Sages ordained may similarly [be drunk] only at night, during the time when it is fit to partake of matzah, for all [the practices] established by our Sages were ordained in a manner resembling Scriptural practices.11 [Since] the cup [of wine over which] Kiddush [is recited] is one of the four cups [of wine to be drunk at the Seder], therefore, it must [be drunk] when it is actually night and not during [the time] added from the mundane to the holy.

ב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יְמַהֵר לְהַתְחִיל הַקִּדּוּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּהְיֶה וַדַּאי חֲשֵׁכָה.ו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִיםז,6 יָכוֹל הָאָדָם לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלֶאֱכֹל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,ח,7 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, לְפִי שֶׁאֲכִילַת מַצָּה הֻקְּשָׁה לַאֲכִילַת פֶּסַח,ט,8 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרי,9 "עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ", וּבְפֶסַח נֶאֱמַר:יא,10 "וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה", בַּלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֲכִילַת מַצָּה שֶׁהִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה, לָכֵן גַּם כָּל הָאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה, בַּזְּמַן הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילַת מַצָּה,יב שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה תִּקְּנוּ,יג,11 וְכוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ הוּא אֶחָד מִן הָאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת, לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ בַּלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ,יד וְלֹא בְּמַה שֶּׁהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ:

3 A person who is in mourning – even for his father and/or mother – is obligated to recline. He may not refrain from reclining because of his state of mourning. [The rationale is that] once the shivah12[period of mourning] passes, [one] is permitted to recline on his bed, even on weekdays, for one is only obligated to overturn one’s bed13 during the shivah [period. Thus, by and large, this practice is not relevant in this instance, for] even if one’s deceased [relative] was buried on the day preceding Pesach, the mourning [obligations] of shivah are nullified immediately at the onset of the Pesach [holiday] if [the person] observed the mourning practices for any amount of time14 before nightfall, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 399.15

ג מִי שֶׁהוּא אָבֵל אֲפִלּוּ עַל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ – חַיָּב לְהָסֵב, וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לִמְנֹעַ מִלְּהָסֵב מֵחֲמַת הָאֲבֵלוּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִשֶּׁעָבְרוּ שִׁבְעָה12 רַשַּׁאי לְהָסֵב עַל מִטָּתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בִּכְפִיַּת הַמִּטָּה13 אֶלָּא תּוֹךְ שִׁבְעָה.טו

וַאֲפִלּוּ נִקְבַּר מֵתוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִיָּד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח – בָּטְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ הָאֲבֵלוּת שִׁבְעָהטז אִם נָהַג אֲבֵלוּת שָׁעָה אַחַת14 קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן שצ"ט:יז,15

4 If, however, a person did not observe the mourning [practices] at all before Pesach and thus, the mourning [obligations of] shivah were not nullified for him,16 it is customary not to recline on Pesach night. [The rationale is that] reclining is considered a private practice and one must observe [the mourning restrictions against such private practices] during the festival, as explained in Yoreh Deah, loc. cit.17

Nevertheless, such a person may wear the kittel, as is [customarily] worn while conducting the Seder,18because this garment is [comparable to a shroud] in which the dead are garbed. It is worn to humble the heart,19 so that one’s spirits [will] not rise [to the point of haughtiness] because of the joy and freedom experienced on this night.

ד אֲבָל אִם לֹא נָהַג אֲבֵלוּת כְּלָל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא בָּטְלָה מַמָּשׁיח אֲבֵלוּת שִׁבְעָהיט,16 – נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהָסֵב בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח,כ לְפִי שֶׁחוֹשְׁבִין הֲסִבָּה זוֹ כִּדְבָרִים שֶׁבְּצִנְעָה שֶׁהוּא נוֹהֵג אוֹתָם בָּרֶגֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה שָׁם.כא,17

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יָכוֹל לִלְבֹּשׁ הַקִּיטְל שֶׁלּוֹבְשִׁין בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיַּת הַסֵּדֶר,כב,18 שֶׁבֶּגֶד זֶה הוּא בֶּגֶד מֵתִים,כג וְלוֹבְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ לְהַכְנִיעַ הַלֵּב,19 שֶׁלֹּא תָּזוּחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵחֲמַת הַשִּׂמְחָה וְהַחֵרוּת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּלֵיל זֶה:כד

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 A mourner is obligated to recite Hallel on this night.20 Although it is customary not to recite Hallel in the house of a mourner,21 nevertheless, [the recitation of] Hallel on this [occasion] is an obligation [even for a mourner].22

ה וְחַיָּב הָאָבֵל בְּהַלֵּל שֶׁבְּלַיְלָה זֶה.20 אַף שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין לִקְרוֹת הַלֵּל בְּבֵית הָאָבֵל,21 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַלֵּל זֶה חוֹבָה הוּא:כה,22

6 Even though during the entire year, it is desirable to minimize the use of attractive [articles and] utensils in remembrance of the destruction [of the Beis HaMikdash],23 on Pesach night, it is desirable to use attractive articles and utensils according to one’s capacity.24 Even [articles and] utensils that are not necessary for the meal should be arranged on the table25 for aesthetic reasons, to recall [our people’s] freedom.

Even articles and utensils belonging to a non-Jew which are held as collateral [for a loan] should be arranged on the table for aesthetic reasons. Even if one would desire to use [these utensils], that would not constitute stealing from the non-Jew or deceiving him, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 120.26

ו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה טוֹב לְמַעֵט בְּכֵלִים נָאִים זֵכֶר לַחֻרְבָּן,23 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח טוֹב לְהַרְבּוֹתכו בְּכֵלִים נָאִים כְּפִי כֹּחוֹ,כז,24 אֲפִלּוּ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַסְּעוּדָהכח יְסַדְּרֵם יָפֶה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָןכט,25 לְנוֹי, זֵכֶר לְחֵרוּת.ל

וַאֲפִלּוּ כֵּלִים הַמְמֻשְׁכָּנִים בְּיָדוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי יְסַדְּרֵם עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָןלא לְנוֹי.לב וְאַף אִם יִרְצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם – אֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם גֵּזֶל הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם גְּנֵבַת דַּעַת,לג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"כ:לד,26

7 One should prepare a place to sit so that he will be able to recline27 in a manner [that reflects] freedom,28 as kings and men of great stature do while eating.29 [The underlying rationale for this practice is that] in every generation, a person is obligated to present himself30 as if he is now leaving the subjugation of Egypt,31 as [implied by] the verse,32 “It is for the sake of this that G‑d acted on my behalf when I went out33 of Egypt.”

It is with regard to this matter that the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded,34 “And you shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt,” i.e., it is as if you yourself were a slave in Egypt and were redeemed and granted freedom. Therefore, one must carry out all the practices of this night in a manner that reflects freedom, as will be explained.35

ז וְיָכִין מְקוֹם מוֹשָׁבוֹ,לה שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב בַּהֲסִבָּהלו,27 דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת,לז,28 כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַמְּלָכִים וְהַגְּדוֹלִים אוֹכְלִים,לח,29 לְפִי שֶׁבְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹרלט חַיָּב הָאָדָםמ לְהַרְאוֹתמא אֶת עַצְמוֹ30 כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עַתָּה יוֹצֵא מִשִּׁעְבּוּד מִצְרַיִם,מב,31 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרמג,32 "בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה ה' לִי בְּצֵאתִי33 מִמִּצְרָיִם", וְעַל דָּבָר זֶה צִוָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:מד,34 "וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּמִצְרָיִם", כְּאִלּוּ אַתָּה בְּעַצְמְךָ הָיִיתָ בְּמִצְרַיִם עֶבֶד וְנִפְדֵיתָ וְיָצָאתָ לְחֵרוּת,מה לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה לַיְלָה זֶה דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת,מו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:מז,35

8 A poor person who does not possess cushions and bedding on which to recline should nevertheless sit on a bench [at the Seder] and not on the ground as he does during the other days of the year. If possible, [the poor person] should lean on the thigh of another person, [for] this is [also] deemed reclining.36

[The poor person] should not, however, lean on his own thigh, for then he appears to be worrying, and that is not conduct that reflects freedom.

ח וְעָנִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת לְהָסֵב עֲלֵיהֶן,מח מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשֵׁב עַל הַסַּפְסָלמט וְלֹא עַל הַקַּרְקַענ כְּבִשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. וְאִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִסְמֹךְ עַל יֶרֶךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ – הֲרֵי זוֹ נִקְרֵאת הֲסִבָּה.נא,36 אֲבָל לֹא יִסְמֹךְ עַל יֶרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּדוֹאֵג,נב וְאֵין זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת:נג

9 When a person reclines, he should not lean on his back or on his face,37 for this is not [conduct] that reflects freedom. Instead, [one] should lean on his left side. [One should] not [lean] on his right [side] because this is not the manner in which [one] reclines. [The rationale is that one] must eat with his right [hand].38 Furthermore, if [one] leans to his right, a dangerous situation might result, for the esophagus is to the right and the trachea is to the left. Should [one] lean on his right [side], the esophagus will be below the trachea. [Consequently,] the flap over the trachea will open as a matter of course and food will enter the trachea, resulting in a dangerous situation.36 Therefore, even one who is left-handed, [and] who usually eats with his left hand, should, nevertheless, recline on his left side, i.e., that [side] which is deemed by people as a whole as “left.”

ט וּכְשֶׁהוּא מֵסֵב – לֹא יַטֶּה עַל גַּבּוֹ וְלֹא עַל פָּנָיו,נד,37 שֶׁאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת,נה אֶלָּא יַטֶּה עַל צִדּוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית,נו וְלֹא עַל הַיְמָנִיתנז שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הֲסִבָּה בְּכָךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל בְּיָמִין.נח,38 וְעוֹד שֶׁאִם יָסֵב בְּיָמִין יוּכַל לָבוֹא לִידֵי סַכָּנָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַוֵּשֶׁט הוּא בְּיָמִין וְהַקָּנֶה בִּשְׂמֹאל, וְאִם יַטֶּה עַל יְמִינוֹ – יִהְיֶה הַוֵּשֶׁט מִלְּמַטָּה וְקָנֶהנט מִלְמַעְלָה, וִיהֵא נִפְתָּח הַכּוֹבַע שֶׁעַל פִּי הַקָּנֶה מֵאֵלָיו וְיִכָּנֵס הַמַּאֲכָל דֶּרֶךְ הַקָּנֶה וְיָבוֹא לִידֵי סַכָּנָה.ס,36 וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף מִי שֶׁהוּא אִטֵּר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל בִּשְׂמֹאל, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָסֵב עַל שְׂמֹאלוֹ שֶׁהוּא שְׂמֹאל כָּל אָדָם:סא

10 A woman – whether married, widowed, or divorced39 – is not required to recline40 because it is not common for women to recline and for them, this is not conduct that reflects freedom.

A prominent woman, whose ordinary practice is to recline, is obligated to recline.36 [Presently,] all our woman are considered as prominent. Nevertheless, it is not customary for them to recline. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that there is no obligation to recline at all in the present era,41 since it is not customary to recline in these countries at all on the other days of the year. Indeed, even kings and prominent people sit in an ordinary manner. In the present era, women rely on the words [of these authorities] and do not recline.

י אִשָּׁה,סב בֵּין נְשׂוּאָה בֵּין אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁהסג,39 – אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה הֲסִבָּה,40 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הַנָּשִׁים לְהָסֵבסד וְאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת לָהֶן.סה וְאִם הִיא חֲשׁוּבָהסו וְדַרְכָּהּ לְהָסֵבסז – צְרִיכָה הֲסִבָּה.36 וְכָל הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁלָּנוּ נִקְרָאוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת,סח וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נָהֲגוּ לְהָסֵב,סט לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםע שֶׁבִּזְמַן הַזֶּה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב כְּלָל,41 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה אֵין רְגִילוּת לְהָסֵב כְּלָל בָּאֲרָצוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אֶלָּא אַף הַמְּלָכִים וְהַגְּדוֹלִים יוֹשְׁבִין כְּדַרְכָּן, וְעַל דִּבְרֵיהֶן סוֹמְכוֹת הַנָּשִׁים עַכְשָׁו שֶׁלֹּא לְהָסֵב:עא

11 A son who eats in his father’s presence must recline.36 [This applies] even if his father is his foremost teacher.42 [The rationale is that] it can be assumed that a father will waive the honor due him from his son. By contrast, when a student eats in his teacher’s presence, even when he is not [the student’s] foremost teacher, [the student] is not permitted to recline,36 as an expression of the awe and honor due his teacher, unless [the] teacher gave [the student] permission to recline in his presence. In that instance, [the student] is required to recline. A teacher is not, [however,] obligated to give his students permission to recline in his presence. It is only that if [the teacher] desires to forego his honor and grant [a student] permission to recline, he has license to do so.43

Similarly, one who eats in the presence of a Torah sage who is one of the most distinguished [scholars] in his generation should consider [the sage] as his teacher [and must respect the sage accordingly]44 even if he did not learn anything from that scholar. He should not recline in [the scholar’s] presence unless he gives him permission.

All the above applies when one eats at the same table as his teacher. If, however, [a person] eats at another table [which is located in the same room as his teacher’s table], he is obligated to recline even [if the teacher] is his foremost teacher and the leading sage of the generation.

יא בֵּן הָאוֹכֵל אֵצֶל אָבִיו – צָרִיךְ הֲסִבָּה,עב,36 אֲפִלּוּ אִם אָבִיו הוּא רַבּוֹעג מֻבְהָק,עד,42 לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הָאָב מוֹחֵל עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ לִבְנוֹ.עה אֲבָל תַּלְמִיד הָאוֹכֵל לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ,עו אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רַבּוֹ מֻבְהָקעז – אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאיעח לְהָסֵב בְּפָנָיו,36 מִשּׁוּם מוֹרָאעט וּכְבוֹדפ הָרַב, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָתַן לוֹ הָרַב רְשׁוּתפא לְהָסֵב בְּפָנָיו, שֶׁאָז חַיָּב הוּא לְהָסֵב.פב וְאֵין חִיּוּב עַל הָרַב לִתֵּן רְשׁוּת לְתַלְמִידוֹ לְהָסֵב בְּפָנָיו, אֶלָּא אִם רוֹצֶה לִמְחֹל עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ וְלִתֵּן לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהָסֵב – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ.פג,43

וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל אֵצֶל תַּלְמִיד חָכָם מֻפְלָג בְּדוֹרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא לָמַד מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם – חָשׁוּב כְּרַבּוֹ,פד וְאֵין לוֹ לְהָסֵב בְּפָנָיו עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ רְשׁוּת.44

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד עִם הָרַב, אֲבָל אִם אוֹכֵל עַל שֻׁלְחָן אַחֵר – חַיָּב לְהָסֵב,פה אֲפִלּוּ הוּא רַבּוֹ מֻבְהָק וְגָדוֹל בְּדוֹרוֹ:

12 All the above applies with regard to a student [who studies] Torah [under a teacher]. A student who learns a profession, by contrast, even though he is in awe of his teacher, honors him, and serves him, must nevertheless recline, even in his [teacher’s] presence.45

Similarly, one’s Jewish servants46 and maidservants47 must recline. Although they must walk to and fro to serve during the meal, nevertheless, it is possible48 for them to recline while they eat the [required] olive-sized portion of matzah49and the afikoman50and drink the four cups of wine.45 [Reclining at these times suffices, for] these constitute the fundamental mitzvah of reclining, as will be explained.51

יב וְכָל זֶה בְּתַלְמִיד שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, אֲבָל תַּלְמִיד הַלּוֹמֵד אֻמָּנוּת,פו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִתְיָרֵא מֵרַבּוֹ וּמְכַבְּדוֹ וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָנָיו.45 וְכֵן עֲבָדִים46 וּשְׁפָחוֹתפז,47 הָעִבְרִים צְרִיכִין הֲסִבָּה.פח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין לֵילֵךְ אָנֶה וָאָנָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בַּסְּעוּדָה,פט מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילַת כְּזַיִת מַצָּה49 וַאֲפִיקוֹמָן50 וּשְׁתִיַּת אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת45 שֶׁבָּהֶן עִקַּר מִצְוַת הֲסִבָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרצ,51 – אֶפְשָׁר48 לָהֶם לְהָסֵב:צא

13 Anyone who is exempt from reclining and yet reclines is considered a commoner.52

יג כָּל מִי שֶׁפָּטוּר מֵהֲסִבָּה וּמֵסֵב – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא הֶדְיוֹט:צב,52

14 When is it necessary to recline? When eating the olive-sized portion [of matz­ah]45 on which one recites the blessing, Al achilas matzah,53when eating the korech [that combines] matzah and maror,54when eating the afikoman,55and when drinking [each of] the four cups of wine.45 [The rationale is that] all of these acts are commemorations of the redemption and the freedom [granted to the Jews].56 For the Sages ordained [the drinking of] the four cups [of wine] to correspond to the four promises of redemption57 related in Parshas Va’eira:58“I will take out,” “I will redeem,” “I will take,” and “I will save.”59 And the afikoman and the korech are commemorations of the Pesach [sacrifice]60 that was eaten in a manner [reflecting] freedom. Therefore, [the afikoman and korech also] must be [eaten while] reclining in a manner [reflecting] freedom.

However, during the rest of the meal, if one desires to eat and/or drink without reclining, he may do so, for we do not have [the authority] to require him to recline. Nevertheless, one who reclines during the entire meal is praiseworthy and performs the mitzvah in the optimum manner.61

יד אֵימָתַי צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב?צג בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילַת כְּזַיִתצד,45 שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה,צה,53 וּבִשְׁעַת אֲכִילַת הַכְּרִיכָה מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר,צו,54 וּבִשְׁעַת אֲכִילַת אֲפִיקוֹמָן,צז,55 וּבִשְׁעַת שְׁתִיַּת ד' כּוֹסוֹת,צח,45 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ הֵם זֵכֶר לִגְאֻלָּה וּלְחֵרוּת,56 שֶׁהַד' כּוֹסוֹת תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים כְּנֶגֶד ד' לְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל גְּאֻלָּהצט,57 הָאֲמוּרִים בְּפָרָשָׁה וָאֵרָא:ק,58 "וְהוֹצֵאתִי וְגָאַלְתִּי וְלָקַחְתִּי וְהִצַּלְתִּי",קא,59 וְהָאֲפִיקוֹמָן וְהַכְּרִיכָה הֵם זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח,קב,60 שֶׁהָיָה נֶאֱכָל דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת,קג לְפִיכָךְ הֵם צְרִיכִין הֲסִבָּה דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת.

אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל הַסְּעוּדָה, אִם רָצָה לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ, וְאֵין בְּיָדֵינוּ לְהַצְרִיכוֹ לְהָסֵב.קד אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמֵּסֵב בְּכָל הַסְּעוּדָה – הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּחקה וְעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר:קו,61

15 According to the strict [requirements of the law, everyone who is required to recline and ate or drank without reclining, must eat and/or drink a second time while reclining.62 Nevertheless, since there are authorities who rule that in the present era, there is no obligation to recline at all in these countries,63 one may rely on their words [to the extent that], after the fact, one [is considered to have] fulfilled his obligation although he did not recline. Nevertheless, with regard to partaking of matzah, it is desirable to be stringent and eat [a second time] while reclining. Similarly, with regard to the second cup [of wine], if one drank it without reclining, he should drink [another cup of wine] while reclining. [The person] need not recite the blessing borei pri hagafen again, because the blessing borei pri hagafen that he recited on the second cup [of wine], which is in close proximity to the meal, covers even the wine [he will] drink during the meal,64 as explained in sec. 174[:5].65

If, however, [the person] drank the first, third, or fourth cups [of wine] without reclining, he should not drink them a second time while reclining. [The rationale is that the person] would have to recite another blessing over [the additional cup of wine], for [in the present era], it is uncommon to drink between the first cup [of wine] and the second.66 And it is forbidden to drink between the third and fourth cups [of wine] according to law, for the reason to be explained in sec. 479[:3]. Similarly, it is forbidden to drink more after the fourth cup [of wine], as will be explained in sec. 481[:1]. If so, when [one] drinks one of these cups without reclining and, afterwards, remembers that he drank without reclining and, hence, desires to drink again while reclining, he is considered to have changed his mind [and decided to drink after intending to cease drinking. Hence,] he must recite another blessing.67 Thus, [making an additional blessing] would cause it to appear [as if the person] is adding to the number of cups [of wine] the Sages ordained [that one drink at the Seder]. Therefore, it is preferable not to drink [another cup of wine in these instances], relying on the authorities who maintain that in the present era, it is not necessary to recline at all.

Nevertheless, as an initial and preferred option, it is desirable that when one first reclines [at the beginning of the Seder], before he recites the blessing over the first cup of wine, he have in mind that he will drink [again] between the first and second cups [of wine] on the basis of this blessing.68 In such an instance, even if [the person] will err and drink the first cup [of wine] without reclining, he will be able to drink again without [reciting] a [new] blessing, since [this second cup of wine] is covered by the blessing recited over the first cup [of wine]. If so, [drinking this additional cup of wine] is considered [as part of] a single continuum of drinking that was interrupted [and divided into] two [parts]. Thus, it does not seem as if [the person] added to the number of cups [of wine ordained by the Sages].

טו כָּל מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהָסֵב וְאָכַל אוֹ שָׁתָה בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת בַּהֲסִבָּהקז מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין.62

אֲבָל לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקח שֶׁבִּזְמַן הַזֶּה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב כְּלָל בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ63 – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְעִנְיָן שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד יָצָא בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה.קט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְעִנְיַן אֲכִילַת מַצָּה – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל בַּהֲסִבָּה.קי וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן כּוֹס שֵׁנִי, אִם שָׁתָה בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – יַחֲזֹר וְיִשְׁתֶּה בַּהֲסִבָּה.קיא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", כִּי בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס שֵׁנִי שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה הִיא פּוֹטֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,קיב,64 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ד.קיג,65

אֲבָל אִם שָׁתָה כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹןקיד אוֹ שְׁלִישִׁי אוֹ רְבִיעִיקטו בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – אֵין לוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בַּהֲסִבָּה, לְפִי שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי עַכְשָׁו אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת בֵּין כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן לְשֵׁנִי,קטז,66 וּבֵין כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי לִרְבִיעִי מִן הַדִּין אָסוּר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ט,קיז וְכֵן לְאַחַר כּוֹס רְבִיעִי אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"א,קיח וְאִם כֵּן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כָּל כּוֹס מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה כּוֹסוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁנִּזְכַּר שֶׁשָּׁתָה בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה וְרוֹצֶה לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת – הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְלָךְ, וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ,67 וִיהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל מִנְיַן הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים,קיט לָכֵן טוֹב יוֹתֵר שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת, וְלִסְמֹךְ עַל הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבִּזְמַן הַזֶּה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב כְּלָל.קכ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בִּתְחִלַּת הֲסִבָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִשְׁתֶּה בֵּין כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן לְשֵׁנִי עַל סְמַךְ בְּרָכָה זוֹ,68 וְאָז אֲפִלּוּ אִם יִטְעֶה וְיִשְׁתֶּה כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – יוּכַל לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,קכא וְלֹא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן, אִם כֵּן הַכֹּל שְׁתִיָּה אַחַת הִיא מֻפְסֶקֶת לִשְׁנַיִם:

16 One must drink the four cups [of wine] in the order to be explained,69 i.e., between the first cup and the second cup, and between the third and the fourth [cups], he should intervene with the recitation of the Haggadah and the recitation of the Hallel [respectively]. Between the second [cup] and the third [cup, one] should intervene with eating matzah and [reciting] Grace. If one did not intervene with these practices, but instead drank the four cups [of wine] one after the other [in direct succession], he does not fulfill [his obligation to drink] four cups [of wine].70 Instead, they are all considered as one cup [of wine], and [the person] is required to drink another three cups [of wine] according to the order to be explained.

טז צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת הַד' כּוֹסוֹת עַל הַסֵּדֶרקכב שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קכג,69 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבֵּין כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן לְשֵׁנִי וּבֵין שְׁלִישִׁי לִרְבִיעִי יַפְסִיק בַּאֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָהקכד וְהַהַלֵּל, וּבֵין שֵׁנִי לִשְׁלִישִׁי יַפְסִיק בַּאֲכִילַת מַצָּה וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.

וְאִם לֹא הִפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם בַּדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ, אֶלָּא שָׁתָה ד' כּוֹסוֹת זֶה אַחַר זֶה – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי ד' כּוֹסוֹת,קכה,70 אֶלָּא כֻּלָּן נֶחְשָׁבִין לוֹ לְכוֹס אֶחָד, וְחַיָּב לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד [ג'] כּוֹסוֹת עַל הַסֵּדֶרקכו שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:קכז

17 Each one of these four cups may not have less than a reviis71 of wine after it has been blended70 [with water] if it is strong wine that requires diluting.72 The extent to which the wine must be diluted is dependent on the feelings of the person drinking,73 so that he will experience the drinking as pleasant and as an expression of freedom. If [the person] drank [the wine] undiluted, without blending it [with water], were there to have been a reviis of wine in each cup, he would have fulfilled [the mitzvah of drinking] four cups [of wine]70 and he would not be required to drink the four cups again. However, [the person] would not have fulfilled [his obligation to drink the wine] in a manner that reflects freedom, i.e., he did not fulfill the mitzvah in an optimum manner.

It can be assumed that the wines of the present era are not strong and do not require any blending.74

יז כָּל אֶחָד מִד' כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ לֹא פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית71 יַיִן לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּמְזְגֶנּוּקכח,70 אִם הוּא יַיִן חָזָק שֶׁצָּרִיךְ מְזִיגָה,קכט,72 וְשִׁעוּר מְזִיגָה הוּא לְפִי דַּעַת הַשּׁוֹתֶה,קל,73 כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה שְׁתִיָּה עֲרֵבָהקלא דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת.קלב וְאִם שְׁתָאוֹ חַי בְּלֹא מְזִיגָה,קלג אִם יֵשׁ רְבִיעִית יַיִן בְּכָל כּוֹסקלד – יָצָא יְדֵי ד' כּוֹסוֹת,70 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת,קלה אֲבָל יְדֵי חֵרוּת לֹא יָצָא,קלו כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא קִיֵּם מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר.קלז וּסְתָם יֵינוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ אֵינָן חֲזָקִים, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ מְזִיגָה כְּלָל:קלח,74

18 The measurements of a cup that holds a reviis [are as follows]: Its length is two thumbbreadths;75 its width, two thumbbreadths; and its height, 2.7 thumbbreadths.

These measurements apply when the cup is cube-shaped over its entire height. A similar reckoning should be made when the cup is cylindrical, [the area of] a circle being [approximately] a fourth less than a square [whose side-length is the same as the diameter of the circle] (i.e., .9 less).76 If so, a [circular] cup with a length and width of two thumbbreadths must be 3.6 thumbbreadths high.77

יח שִׁעוּר הַכּוֹס שֶׁמַּחֲזִיק רְבִיעִית, אָרְכּוֹ כְּרֹחַב ב' גּוּדָלִין,75 וְרָחְבּוֹ כְּרֹחַב ב' גּוּדָלִין, וְגָבְהוֹ כְּרֹחַב ב' גּוּדָלִין וַחֲצִי גּוּדָל וְחֹמֶשׁ גּוּדָל.קלט וְשִׁעוּר זֶה הוּא כְּשֶׁהַכּוֹס מְרֻבָּע עַל פְּנֵי כָּל גָּבְהוֹ, וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה תְּשַׁעֵר בְּכוֹס עָגֹל, שֶׁהָעִגּוּל פָּחוֹת מִמְּרֻבָּע – רְבִיעַקמ (שֶׁהוּא ד' חֻמְשִׁין וָחֵצִיקמא),76 וְאִם כֵּן אִם הַכּוֹס הוּא ב' גּוּדָלִין אֹרֶךְ וּב' גּוּדָלִין רֹחַב – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה גָּבְהוֹ ג' גּוּדָלִין וְג' חֻמְשֵׁי גּוּדָלִין77:

19 There are authorities who maintain that as an initial preferred option, [on Pesach night,] it is a mitzvah to drink the entire cup [of wine over which a blessing was recited],78 even if it holds several revios. Although it is sufficient to drink a cheekful, i.e., the majority of a reviis, even as an initial preferred option, for Kiddush on other festivals and Shabbasos,79nevertheless, for the four cups [of wine] on Pesach, the Sages ruled stringently [and required] that the entire cup be drunk as an initial preferred option. And after the fact, one who drank the majority of the cup fulfills his obligation. If, however, [a person] drank only half the cup, even if [the cup] contains several reviis, he does not fulfill his obligation.

There are other authorities who differ with this ruling and maintain that, even as an initial preferred option, it is sufficient to drink the majority of a reviis even if the cup contains several reviis. Fundamentally, [this view deserves] primacy and this is the commonly accepted practice.

Nevertheless, it is preferable to give weight to the first opinion and [if it is difficult for one to drink an entire large cup of wine, he should] take a small cup and drink it in its entirety. In places where wine is expensive, it is sufficient to drink [the] majority [of the cup of wine].

All the above applies to the first three cups. It is, however, necessary to drink an entire reviis for the fourth cup [of wine], so that one will be able to recite the blessing afterwards80 without any hesitation [as to whether a blessing is required], as explained in sec. 190[:6] with regard to the cup [of wine over which] Grace [is recited];81 consult that source.

יט יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקמב שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה מִצְוָה לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל הַכּוֹס,78 אֲפִלּוּ מַחֲזִיק כַּמָּה רְבִיעִיּוֹת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה דַּי בִּשְׁתִיַּת מְלֹא לֻגְמָיו, דְּהַיְנוּ רֹב רְבִיעִית,קמג,79 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּד' כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל פֶּסַח הֶחֱמִירוּ חֲכָמִים לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל הַכּוֹס לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁשָּׁתָה רֹב הַכּוֹס – יָצָא.קמד אֲבָל אִם לֹא שָׁתָה אֶלָּא חֲצִי הַכּוֹס, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ מַחֲזִיק כַּמָּה רְבִיעִיּוֹת – לֹא יָצָא.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםקמה שֶׁאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה דַּי בִּשְׁתִיַּת רֹב רְבִיעִית אַף אִם הַכּוֹס מַחֲזִיק כַּמָּה רְבִיעִיּוֹת. וְכֵן עִקָּר, וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט.קמו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְלִקַּח כּוֹס קָטָןקמז וְלִשְׁתּוֹת כֻּלּוֹ.קמח וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר – דַּי בִּשְׁתִיַּת רֻבּוֹ.קמט

וְכָל זֶה בְּג' כּוֹסוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, אֲבָל בַּכּוֹס הָאַחֲרוֹן – צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת רְבִיעִית שָׁלֵם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה הָאַחֲרוֹנָהקנ,80 בְּלִי שׁוּם פִּקְפּוּק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"צקנא לְעִנְיַן כּוֹס בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,81 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

20 As an initial and preferred option, it is desirable to drink the majority of a reviis at once, i.e., this [measure] should be drunk with one swallow,78 without pausing [so that] two swallows [are necessary]. Therefore, one should not take a cup with a narrow opening (like those that are called klug glasses), for it is impossible to drink a reviis at once [from such a glass]. After the fact, even if one paused several times [while drinking], he fulfilled [his obligation].

[The latter ruling] applies provided the person does not take more time than k’dei achilas p’ras (i.e., the time it takes to eat a half a loaf of bread) from the time he begins drinking to when he finishes.82 There are authorities who maintain that the person must not take more than the time it takes to drink a reviis from the time he begins drinking to when he finishes (see sec. 612[:15]).83 Weight should be given to their words with regard to the first two cups [of wine drunk at the Seder]. If [one] tarries in his drinking to the extent that more than the time it takes to drink a reviis [has elapsed from the beginning of the time he began drinking until he finished], he should drink that cup again without reciting [another] blessing. With regard to the two last cups, by contrast, if one is required to drink again, it could be considered as if he added to the number of cups [ordained by the Sages], as explained above.84 [Hence,] one should rely on the first opinion and not drink again, unless he waited more than k’dei achilas p’ras from [the beginning of] the time he began drinking until he finished.

כ צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה לִשְׁתּוֹת רֹב הָרְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת,קנב דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁתִיָּה אַחַת78 וְלֹא יַפְסִיקֶנּוּ לִשְׁתֵּי שְׁתִיּוֹת.קנג וְלָכֵן אֵין לִקַּח כּוֹס שֶׁפִּיו צַר כְּעֵין שֶׁקּוֹרִין (קלו"ג גלא"ז), מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת.קנד

וּבְדִיעֲבַד אֲפִלּוּ הִפְסִיק כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים בָּאֶמְצַע – יָצָא. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁהֶה מִתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁתִיָּה עַד סוֹפָהּ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס.קנה,82 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקנו שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁהֶה מִתְּחִלַּת שְׁתִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף שְׁתִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית (עַיֵּן סִימָן תרי"בקנז).83 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְעִנְיַן שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, שֶׁאִם הִפְסִיק כָּל כָּךְ בְּאֶמְצַע הַשְּׁתִיָּה עַד שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁתִיָּה עַד סוֹפָהּ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת אוֹתוֹ הַכּוֹסקנח בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה. אֲבָל בִּשְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים, שֶׁאִם יִצְטָרֵךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל מִנְיַן הַכּוֹסוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקנט,84 – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְלֹא יַחֲזֹר וְיִשְׁתֶּה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁהָה מִתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁתִיָּה עַד סוֹפָהּ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס:קס

21 Even [a person] who does not drink wine throughout the year because he dislikes it or because it is harmful to him is nevertheless obligated to force himself to drink the four cups [of wine at the Seder]. Thus, our Sages relate85 that Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Ila’i would drink the four cups of wine on Pesach and would have to bind his temples until Shavuos.86

כא מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן כָּל הַשָּׁנָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשּׂוֹנְאוֹ אוֹ שֶׁמַּזִּיקוֹ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב לִדְחֹק אֶת עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת ד' כּוֹסוֹת,קסא כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִיםקסב,85 עַל רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי אִילְעַי שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹתֶה אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחֲגֹר צְדָעָיו עַד עֲצֶרֶת:86

22 By contrast, it is not necessary to compel oneself to drink the cup [of wine] for Kiddush on other festivals and on Shabbasos. Instead, one may listen to Kiddush recited by someone else, as explained in sec. 272[:12]. This is not true with regards to the four cups [of wine drunk on] Pesach. [On that night,] even the other members of the household who listen to Kiddush and the Haggadah as recited by the master of the household are, nevertheless, obligated to each drink four cups [of wine]87 in a manner that reflects freedom.88

כב אֲבָל קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִדְחֹק אֶת עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת הַכּוֹס, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לִשְׁמֹעַ הַקִּדּוּשׁ מֵאַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ב,קסג מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל פֶּסַח, שֶׁאַף בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת שֶׁהֵן שׁוֹמְעִין הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְהַהַגָּדָה מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לִשְׁתּוֹת ד' כּוֹסוֹתקסד,87 דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת:קסה,88

23 If it is impossible for a person to hold the Seder immediately at the beginning of the night89 and the young children wish to eat, even though it is permitted to feed them before they hear Kiddush and the Haggadah, as stated in sec. 269[:3] and sec. 471[:10],90 nevertheless, [one] should hurry to remove the food from them so that they do not eat much, lest they sleep at the time of the recitation of the Haggadah.91(It is possible that it is forbidden to give [the young children] even a small amount of matzah that is “poor man’s bread”92 before the recitation of the Haggadah for the reason explained in sec. 471[:10]. Consult that source.)93

כג אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת הַסֵּדֶר בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה מִיָּדקסו,89 וְהַתִּינוֹקוֹת רוֹצִים לֶאֱכֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתֵּן לָהֶם לֶאֱכֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְהַהַגָּדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רס"טקסז וְתע"א,קסח,90 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יְמַהֵר לְסַלֵּק הַמַּאֲכָל מִלִּפְנֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַנִּיחֵם לֶאֱכֹל הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה.קסט,91

(וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁמַּצַּת "לֶחֶם עֹנִי"92 אָסוּר לְהַאֲכִילָם אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"א,קע עַיֵּן שָׁם):93

24 If the cup from which the master of the house drinks is large and contains several revios, his children and the other members of his household may fulfill their obligation by drinking what remains in the cup after the master of the house drinks, provided everyone receives the majority of a reviis [to drink].94

Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to give every participant [in the Seder] an individual cup so that they can all drink from a full cup. That is an embellishment of the mitzvah, as stated in sec. 183[:4].95

כד וְאִם הַכּוֹס שֶׁשָּׁתָה בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִמֶּנּוּ הוּא גָּדוֹל וּמַחֲזִיק כַּמָּה רְבִיעִיּוֹת – יְכוֹלִין בָּנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ לָצֵאת בְּמַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁתַּיֵּר בַּכּוֹס מִשְּׁתִיַּת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,קעא וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ רֹב רְבִיעִיתקעב לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד.94 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָרקעג לִתֵּן כּוֹס לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד יִשְׁתֶּה מִכּוֹס מָלֵא,קעד שֶׁזֶּה הִדּוּר מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ג:קעה,95

25 A father is obligated to train even [his] young children in the observance of the mitzvos and have them drink cups [of wine]96 in the order to be explained,97 if they have reached an educable age, (i.e., [the children have] reached an age when they are fit to be trained to hear [and understand] the concepts that are recited over these cups [of wine], for example, [when] they comprehend the holiness of a festival, it is therefore appropriate to train them to listen to the Kiddush that is recited over the first cup [of wine]98 (see sec. 269[:3]).99 Similarly, [when children] are capable of understanding [the portions of the story] of the Exodus from Egypt that are being related to them during the recitation of the Haggadah,100it is therefore appropriate to train them to listen to the Haggadah that is recited over the second cup [of wine]. Similarly, one is obligated to train [his children] to listen to Grace that is recited over the third cup [of wine]101 and the conclusion of the Hallel, the Great Hallel,102and [the blessing] Nishmas that is recited over the fourth cup [of wine].)

Young girls as well are governed by the same laws as boys when they reach an educable age.103 Similarly, there is no difference between men and women with regard to the other mitzvos observed on this night. Although women are exempt from all the time-oriented positive commandments, whether of Scriptural or Rabbinic origin,104 the Sages nevertheless obligated them in all the practices ordained for this night,105 for they also were [part] of the miracle of the Exodus from Egypt.

[Women] are obligated to eat matzah according to Scriptural Law. [This requirement is derived as follows:] An association was established between the positive commandment of eating matzah and the prohibition against eating chametz, as [reflected in] the verse,106 “Do not eat chametz with it; eat matzos because of it for seven days.” [This association teaches that] just as women are charged with the prohibition against eating chametz, as it is written:107 “For anyone who partakes of leaven will be cut off…”; the word “anyone” includes women [in the prohibition], so too, are they charged with the positive commandment of eating matzah.108

כה וְאַף הַקְּטַנִּיםקעו חַיָּב אֲבִיהֶם לְחַנְּכָם בְּמִצְוֹת לְהַשְׁקוֹתָם כּוֹסוֹתקעז,96 עַל הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרקעח,97 אִם כְּבָר הִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְקעט (דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לַזְּמַן שֶׁרָאוּי לְחַנְּכָם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁאוֹמְרִים עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֵן יוֹדְעִין מֵעִנְיַן קְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב, וְלָכֵן רָאוּי לְחַנְּכָם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַקִּדּוּשׁקפ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים עַל כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹןקפא,98 (עַיֵּן סִימָן רס"טקפב).99 וְגַם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן דַּעַת לְהָבִין מַה שֶּׁמְּסַפְּרִים לָהֶם מִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם בַּאֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה,קפג,100 וְלָכֵן רָאוּי לְחַנְּכָם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַהַגָּדָה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים עַל כּוֹס שֵׁנִי.קפד וְכֵן חַיָּב לְחַנְּכָם לִשְׁמֹעַ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןקפה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי,קפו,101 וּגְמַר הַהַלֵּל וְהַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל102 וְ"נִשְׁמַת" שֶׁאוֹמְרִים עַל כּוֹס רְבִיעִיקפז).

וְאַף הַקְּטַנּוֹת שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ דִּינָם כִּקְטַנִּים.קפח,103 וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת הַנּוֹהֲגוֹת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה – אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אֲנָשִׁים לְנָשִׁים,קפט שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא,קצ בֵּין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קצא,104 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חִיְּבוּ אוֹתָן חֲכָמִים בְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בְּלַיְלָה זֶה,105 לְפִי שֶׁאַף הֵם הָיוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַנֵּסקצב שֶׁל יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם.קצג

וּבַאֲכִילַת מַצָּה הֵן חַיָּבוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קצד לְפִי שֶׁהֻקְּשָׁה מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה לְמִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל אֲכִילַת חָמֵץ,קצה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקצו,106 "לֹא תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל עָלָיו מַצּוֹת", לוֹמַר לְךָ שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים מֻזְהָרוֹת עַל לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל אֲכִילַת חָמֵץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקצז,107 "כִּי כָּל אֹכֵל מַחְמֶצֶת וְנִכְרְתָה וְגוֹ'", "כִּי כָּל" לְרַבּוֹת הַנָּשִׁיםקצח – כָּךְ הֵן מֻזְהָרוֹת עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה:קצט,108

26 It is a mitzvah to seek out red wine [for the four cups] if the white [wine available] is not more esteemed than it, as [can be derived from] the verse,109 “Do not look at the wine when it is red,” from which it appears that wine is superior when red. True, with regard to Kiddush on other festivals and Shabbasos, it is customary to follow the view of the authorities who maintain that there is no need to seek out red wine if it is not superior to white [wine], as stated in sec. 272[:4]. Nevertheless, for the four cups [of wine for the Seder], one should follow [the directive of] the authority who maintains that it is necessary to seek out [red wine],110 because it recalls the blood [shed by] Pharaoh, [who ordered] the slaughter of Jewish children.111

In the present era, when it is common [for non-Jews] to instigate blood libels, [the custom has become] to refrain from taking red wine for Pesach.112

כו מִצְוָה לַחֲזֹר אַחַר יַיִן אָדֹםר אִם אֵין הַלָּבָן מְשֻׁבָּח מִמֶּנּוּ,רא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַררב,109 "אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם", מַשְׁמַע שֶׁחֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ שֶׁל יַיִן כְּשֶׁהוּא אָדֹם.רג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת נוֹהֲגִין כְּהָאוֹמְרִיםרד שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אַחַר יַיִן אָדֹם אִם אֵינוֹ מְשֻׁבָּח מִן הַלָּבָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ב,רה מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּד' כּוֹסוֹת יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג כְּהָאוֹמֵר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אַחֲרָיו,110 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ זֵכֶר לַדָּם,רו שֶׁהָיָה פַּרְעֹה שׁוֹחֵט אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.רז,111

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁמְּצוּיִם לַעֲלֹל עֲלִילוֹת שְׁקָרִים – נִמְנְעוּ מִלִּקַּח יַיִן אָדֹם לְפֶסַח:רח,112

27 All wines that are acceptable for Kiddush on other festivals and Shabbasos are acceptable for the four cups [of wine used at the Seder.113 This includes] boiled wine114 and konditon, i.e., wine in which honey and pepper are mixed.115 One may even fulfill his obligation with [such wines] as an initial preference if he does not have other wine that is of the same quality as them, as explained in sec. 272[:9].

Similarly, [wine made from] soaking raisins in water is acceptable for the four cups [of the Seder] if it was made in a manner that it is acceptable for Kiddush, i.e., some moisture would emerge from [the raisins] when [they were] crushed without their being steeped in water.116 Therefore, one who does not drink wine because he took a vow [against doing so] should take raisin [wine] for the four cups.

כז כָּל הַיֵּינוֹת הַכְּשֵׁרִים לְקִדּוּשׁ בִּשְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת כְּשֵׁרִים לְאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת,113 כְּגוֹן יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל114 וְקוֹנְדִּיטוֹן,רט דְּהַיְנוּ יַיִן שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין בּוֹ דְּבַשׁ וּפִלְפְּלִין.רי,115 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה יָכוֹל לָצֵאת בָּהֶם אִם אֵין לוֹ יַיִן אַחֵר מְשֻׁבָּח כְּמוֹתָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ב.ריא

וְכֵן מֵי שְׁרִיַּת צִמּוּקִים כְּשֵׁרִים לְד' כּוֹסוֹתריב אִם הֵם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֵׁרִים לְקִדּוּשׁ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶן לַחְלוּחִית קְצָת עַל יְדֵי דְּרִיכָה בְּלֹא שְׁרִיָּה בְּמַיִם.ריג,116 וּלְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מֵחֲמַת נֶדֶר – יִקַּח מֵי צִמּוּקִים לְאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת:ריד

28 Similarly, in places where wine is not commonly found, the optimum way of fulfilling the mitzvah is to use raisin [wine]. Nevertheless, according to the letter of the law, in places where grapevines do not grow abundantly within a day’s journey around a town, only sparsely, one may take other beverages which are chamar medinah (“the wine of the region”)117 [and use these beverages] for the four cups [of wine at the Seder. One must use a beverage that is a chamar medinah] in that town, e.g., mead in places where it is common to drink [mead] on Pesach. There is no concern that perhaps flour was mixed into [the mead], as explained in sec. 467[:14-16].118

With regard to Kiddush on other festivals and Shabbasos, it is preferable to recite Kiddush over bread rather than to recite Kiddush over other beverages even though they are chamar medinah, as explained in sec. 272[:11]. Nevertheless, on the night of the Pesach [Seder], it is impossible to recite Kiddush on bread,119 because one is obligated to drink four cups of wine and the first is the cup of Kiddush.

כח וְכֵן בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין יַיִן מָצוּי – מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לִקַּח מֵי צִמּוּקִים.רטו אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין יַיִן מָצוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּהֲלַךְ יוֹם אֶחָד סְבִיבוֹת הָעִיר אֵין גָּדֵל שָׁם יַיִןרטז הַרְבֵּה אֶלָּא מְעַט מִזְּעֵירריז – יָכוֹל לִקַּח לְד' כּוֹסוֹת שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים שֶׁהֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה117 בְּאוֹתוֹ הָעִיר, כְּגוֹן מֵי דְּבַשׁ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁרְגִילִין לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַחריח וְאֵינָן חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְזִיּוּף קֶמַח,ריט וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז.רכ,118

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת מִלְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ב,רכא מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת119, שֶׁהֲרֵי חַיָּב בְּאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת,רכב וְהָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ:

29 All the above120 applies only to mead and other similar prestigious beverages which are considered like wine in a given town. [Different rules apply to] undignified beverages like apple juice,121 ginger water, or licorice.122 Even though the typical drink of the average person in that town is [one] of these beverages, since they are not prestigious beverages, they are considered like water. And even when water is used for most of the drinking needs of a town, it may not be used for a cup over which a [special] blessing is recited, as stated in sec. 182[:3].

כט וְכָל זֶה120 בְּמֵי דְּבַשׁ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין הַחֲשׁוּבִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם בְּאוֹתוֹ הָעִיר בִּמְקוֹם יַיִן. אֲבָל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין הַגְּרוּעִין,רכג כְּגוֹן מֵי תַּפּוּחִים121 (שֶׁקּוֹרִין עפי"ל טראנ"ק), וּמֵי זַנְגְּבִיל שֶׁקּוֹרִין (אינגב"ר וואש"ר), וּמֵי שֹׁרֶשׁ שֶׁקּוֹרִין (לאקרי"ץ),122 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹב שְׁתִיַּת הַבֵּינוֹנִים בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר הִיא מִמַּשְׁקִים הַלָּלוּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן מַשְׁקִין חֲשׁוּבִין – הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמוֹ מַיִם,רכד שֶׁאַף שֶׁרֹב שְׁתִיַּת הָעִיר הוּא מַיִם – אֵין נוֹטְלִין אוֹתָן לְכוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה,רכה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ב:רכו

30 Even a poor person who derives his livelihood from charity123 and who does not have money to purchase wine for the four cups, nor was it given to him by the administrators [of the charitable fund],124 is obligated to borrow money, sell his clothing,125 or hire himself out to [purchase] wine for the four cups, or [to purchase] other beverages in places where they are [acceptable as] chamar medinah.

If [a person] only has a minimal amount of money and if he [uses it] to purchase wine for the four cups, he will not have a lamp for his home, a lamp for his home takes priority over the four cups, because [it leads to] peace in the home.126 [In such an instance, the person] should carry out the Seder on bread127 [in the manner] to be explained in sec. 483[:1-3].

(See that source regarding the laws that govern how one should conduct himself when he has only a small amount of wine and it is not sufficient for four cups for both nights.)

ל אֲפִלּוּ עָנִי הַמִּתְפַּרְנֵס מִן הַצְּדָקָהרכז,123 וְאֵין לוֹ מָעוֹת לִקְנוֹת יַיִן לְאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא נָתְנוּ לוֹ הַגַּבָּאִיםרכח,124 – חַיָּב לִלְוֹת אוֹ לִמְכֹּר כְּסוּתוֹ125 אוֹ לְהַשְׂכִּיר אֶת עַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל יַיִן לְד' כּוֹסוֹתרכט אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה.

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא מְעַט מָעוֹת וְאִם יִקְנֶה בָּהֶן יַיִן לְד' כּוֹסוֹת לֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ נֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ – הֲרֵי נֵר בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם לְד' כּוֹסוֹת מִפְּנֵי שְׁלוֹם בֵּיתוֹ,רל,126 וְיַעֲשֶׂה הַסֵּדֶר עַל הַפַּת127 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"ג.רלא

(וְעַיֵּן שָׁםרלב דִּין מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מְעַט יַיִן וְאֵינוֹ מַסְפִּיק לוֹ לְד' כּוֹסוֹת לִשְׁנֵי הַלֵּילוֹת אֵיךְ יַעֲשֶׂה):

31 It is a mitzvah to distribute roasted seeds and nuts to children on Pesach night128 before carrying out the Seder so that the children will notice the change129 and ask: Why is this night different than all other nights?

Although we do not have an answer for them [concerning this matter], since they will see this change and be aroused to ask about it, they will be aroused to ask about the other changes [that take place], e.g., that matzah and maror are eaten, that we sit reclining, [etc.] And [then,] we will answer them: “We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt….”

לא מִצְוָה לְחַלֵּק לַתִּינוֹקוֹת קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִיםרלג בְּלֵיל פֶּסַחרלד,128 קֹדֶם עֲשִׂיַּת הַסֵּדֶר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ שִׁנּוּי129 וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ:רלה "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת".רלו וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַל שְׁאֵלָה זוֹ אֵין לָנוּ מַה לְּהָשִׁיב לָהֶם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ שִׁנּוּי זֶה וְיִתְעוֹרְרוּ לִשְׁאֹל עָלָיו יִתְעוֹרְרוּ גַּם כֵּן לִשְׁאֹל עַל שִׁנּוּיִים אֲחֵרִים,רלז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹכְלִין מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר וְיוֹשְׁבִין בַּהֲסִבָּה, וְיָשִׁיבוּ לָהֶם: "עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ וְכוּ'":