SECTION 30 The Time [Tefillin] are Worn. (1–5)

סימן ל זְמַן הֲנָחָתָן, וּבוֹ ה סְעִיפִים:

1 According to Scriptural Law, night is a time when tefillin may be worn. [One might point to] the verse,1 “And you shall observe this statute in its season from day to day,” as an indication [that tefillin should be worn] during the day and not during the night.2 [However,] the verse is not referring to the statute of tefillin, but rather to the statute of the Paschal sacrifice3 which is referred to in an earlier verse:4 “You shall perform this service....”

Nevertheless, [our] Sages forbade wearing tefillin at night.5 Since it is a time when people sleep, [they enacted] this decree lest one forget [that he is wearing them] and sleep in them. And one is forbidden to sleep in tefillin, for the reason[s] explained in sec. 44[:1].

Therefore even after dawn,6 which is considered as part of the day with regard to all the mitzvos stated in the Torah,7 it is forbidden to put on [tefillin] until the time that most people rise from sleep, i.e., until there is enough light to enable one to see an acquaintance from a distance of four cubits8 and recognize him.9 This refers to an acquaintance with whom one is slightly familiar.10 For if he knows him well, he will recognize him even from far, and if he is not familiar with him at all, he will not recognize him even from nearby.

אלַיְלָה זְמַן תְּפִלִּין הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,א שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ב "וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת הַחֻקָּה הַזֹּאת לְמוֹעֲדָהּ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה", שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעוֹ יָמִים וְלֹא לֵילוֹת ג, 2 – אֵין הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר בְּחֻקַּת הַתְּפִלִּין, אֶלָּא בְּחֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח ד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְמַעְלָה: ה, 4 "וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת וגו'".ו

אֲבָל חֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין בַּלַּיְלָה,ז,5 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא זְמַן שֵׁנָה, וּגְזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִישַׁן בָּהֶם,ח וְאָסוּר לִישֹׁן בִּתְפִלִּין מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן מד.ט

וְלָכֵן אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר,6 שֶׁהוּא יוֹם לְכָל הַמִּצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה י,7 – אָסוּר לַהֲנִיחָן עַד שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ עֵת קִימָה מִשֵּׁנָה לְרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם,יא דְּהַיְנוּ עַד שֶׁיָּאִיר הַיּוֹם בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּרִחוּק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת8 וְיַכִּירֶנּוּ,יב,9 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חֲבֵרוֹ הָרָגִיל עִמּוֹ קְצָת,יג,10 שֶׁאִלּוּ רָגִיל עִמּוֹ הַרְבֵּה – יַכִּירֶנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ מֵרָחוֹק, וְאִם אֵינוֹ רָגִיל עִמּוֹ כְּלָל – לֹא יַכִּירֶנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּקָרוֹב מְאֹד:

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2 If one put on [tefillin] before the stars appeared11 and night fell while he was wearing them, it is permitted [to leave them on],12 even if he left them on all night. This law should not, however, be taught as halachah to be actually applied, lest people [begin] to put on tefillin at night as an initial option.13

For this reason one should not [leave tefillin on at night] except when alone, but not in public, lest [onlookers] err and think that one may put on tefillin at night as an initial option. [The tefillin may be left on,] however, in the house of study, for people who frequent the house of study will not make such a mistake.

If one did not take off his tefillin when the stars appeared because he had no safe place to keep them, and he continued to wear them in order to protect them, [keeping them on] is permitted. This law may be taught publicly, (though one must inform any onlookers that [the tefillin are being worn] for their own protection.)

At the outset, however, one may not put on tefillin at night in order to protect them. (If one puts on [tefillin] while it is still day so that he will be able to continue wearing them at night in order to protect them, this is permitted. One should not, however, teach [publicly] that it is permitted to put on [tefillin] initially for that reason.)

ב אִם הִנִּיחָן יד קֹדֶם צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים טו, 11 וְחָשְׁכָה עָלָיו, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן עָלָיו כָּל הַלַּיְלָה – מֻתָּר,12 וְאֵין מוֹרִין כֵּן הֲלָכָה לְמַעֲשֶׂה, שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹאוּ לַהֲנִיחָן לְכַתְּחִלָּה בַּלַּיְלָה.טז, 13 וְלָכֵן לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן אֶלָּא בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא בָּרַבִּים, שֶׁמָּא יִטְעוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַהֲנִיחָן לְכַתְּחִלָּה בַּלַּיְלָה.יז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ,יח שֶׁבְּיוֹשְׁבֵי בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיִּטְעוּ.

וְאִם לֹא חָלַץ תְּפִלָּיו כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה לוֹ מָקוֹם לְשָׁמְרָן יט וְנִמְצְאוּ עָלָיו כְּדֵי לְשָׁמְרָן – מֻתָּר,כ וּמוֹרִין כֵּן כא (וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָרוֹאִים שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה כְּדֵי לְשָׁמְרָן).כב

אֲבָל אָסוּר לַהֲנִיחָן עָלָיו לְכַתְּחִלָּה בַּלַּיְלָה כְּדֵי לְשָׁמְרָן כג (וְאִם מְנִיחָן עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כד בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עָלָיו בַּלַּיְלָה כְּדֵי לְשָׁמְרָן – מֻתָּר, וְאֵין מוֹרִין כֵּן לַהֲנִיחָן לְכַתְּחִלָּה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ):

3 If one desires to set out on a journey before daybreak, he may put on [tefillin] before he departs, and when the time [to wear tefillin] arrives, he should touch them and recite the blessing.14 [He is permitted to put them on at night in this instance] because there is no fear that he will fall asleep while wearing them, since he rose early and took to the road.

When does the above apply? When he is on foot, for he cannot sleep while walking. If, however, he is riding or traveling in a carriage where he may fall asleep, it is forbidden to put them on before their prescribed time.

ג הָיָה רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ בַּהַשְׁכָּמָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּאִיר הַיּוֹם כה – יָכוֹל לַהֲנִיחָן קֹדֶם יְצִיאָתוֹ, וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַנּוֹ – יְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בָּהֶן וִיבָרֵךְ,כו, 14 שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִישַׁן בָּהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִשְׁכִּים וְיָצָא לַדֶּרֶךְ.כז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּהוֹלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו,כח שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִישֹׁן בְּהִלּוּכוֹ, אֲבָל הָרוֹכֵב אוֹ יוֹשֵׁב בְּקָרוֹן, שֶׁיּוּכַל לִישֹׁן – אָסוּר לַהֲנִיחָן קֹדֶם זְמַנָּן:

4 If one is traveling homeward while wearing the head-tefillin15 and night falls, i.e., the stars appear,16 and he does not want to take [the tefillin] off and carry it by hand lest it fall, he should cover it with his hand until he reaches home,17 so that onlookers will not mistakenly think that it is permitted to put on tefillin at night as an initial option.

Similar [laws apply to] one sitting in a house of study in the fields18 and wearing head-tefillin at the onset of Shabbos or a festival — which are not times when tefillin are worn — and he cannot remove [his head-tefillin] and leave it in the house of study because it is not safe there. [When walking home,19] he should cover the tefillin with his hand until he arrives [there]. He is permitted to wear it as a garment and bring it into the city in this manner so that the tefillin not be desecrated.

If there is a house close to the [city] wall where [his head-tefillin] would be safe, he should take it off and deposit it there; he should not walk any further in the city [wearing] it. [This applies] both on nights of Shabbosos and festivals and on weekday nights.

ד הָיָה בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וּתְפִלִּין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ15 וְשָׁקְעָה עָלָיו חַמָּה,כט דְּהַיְנוּ צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים,ל, 16 וְאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְחָלְצָן וְלִשָּׂא אוֹתָן בְּיָדוֹ לא שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ מִיָּדוֹ – מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ,17 מִפְּנֵי הָרוֹאִים,לב שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוּ לוֹמַר מֻתָּר לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין לְכַתְּחִלָּה בַּלַּיְלָה.

וְכֵן הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ18 וּתְפִלִּין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ,לג וְקָדַשׁ עָלָיו בְּעַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁאֵין זְמַן תְּפִלִּין,לד וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲלֹץ וְלַהֲנִיחָן שָׁם בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ שֶׁבַּשָּׂדֶה,19 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר לה – מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ עֲלֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁיָבוֹא לְבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁמִּשּׁוּם בִּזְיוֹן הַתְּפִלִּין הִתִּירוּ לְהַכְנִיסָן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ לָעִיר.לו

וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּיִת קָרוֹב לַחוֹמָה שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּרִין שָׁם – חוֹלְצָן וּמַנִּיחָן שָׁם,לז וְלֹא יֵלֵךְ בָּהֶן יוֹתֵר בָּעִיר, בֵּין בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים בֵּין בְּלֵילֵי הַחֹל:

5 If one forgot to put on tefillin throughout the entire day, recited the Evening Service while it was still daytime,20 and afterwards remembered, there are authorities who forbid him from putting on tefillin at that time. [The rationale is that] (by reciting the Shema and the Shemoneh Esreh of the Evening Service,) he has already deemed the time as night, (the time when people sleep). If he would now put on tefillin, he would be deeming it as day again. [He would thus be relying on] two contradictory leniencies.

If, however, he had not yet recited the Evening Service, then even if the congregation had already done so this would be of no consequence, [and he should put on tefillin]. For then, he personally would not be [relying on] two contradictory leniencies.

There are, however, those who differ [and require the person to put on tefillin even if he has recited the Evening Service himself]. It is proper to respect the latter opinion.21

ה מִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְלֹא הֵנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין כָּל הַיּוֹם לח וְנִזְכַּר אַחַר שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם20 – יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לַהֲנִיחָן אָז, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר עֲשָׂאוֹ לִזְמַן זֶה לַיְלָה לט (וּזְמַן שְׁכִיבָה בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה שֶׁל עַרְבִית).מ וְאִם יָנִיחַ בּוֹ תְּפִלִּין – יַחֲזֹר וְיַעֲשֵׂהוּ יוֹם,מא וַהֲרֵי הֵן שְׁתֵּי קֻלּוֹת שֶׁסּוֹתְרוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ.מב

אֲבָל אִם הוּא לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל עֲדַיִן,מג אֲפִלּוּ הַצִּבּוּר הִתְפַּלְּלוּ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,מד כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵין עוֹשֶׂה שְׁתֵּי קוּלוֹת שֶׁסּוֹתְרִין זוּ אֶת זוּ.

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁחוֹלֵק עַל זֶה.מה וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לַסְּבָרָה הָאַחֲרוֹנָה:21