SECTION 197 Joining Three or Ten People Together in a Zimun. (1–9)

קצז דִּין צֵרוּף לְזִמּוּן שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹ עֲשָׂרָה, וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following rules apply when] two people ate together and completed their meal and then a third person came and sat down1 [to eat his meal] next to them:2 If they are not entirely satiated, [as could be seen from the fact that] were a food they relished to be brought to them for dessert, they would be able to eat at least something from it, they are not [considered] to have completed their meal as of yet and the third person may join them [in a zimun] even though they did not eat anything after he joined them.3

If they already said: “Let us recite Grace,” they have already diverted their attention from eating further and have concluded their meal. From this point onward, no one can join them unless they eat with him. (Needless to say, [the above applies] if they explicitly diverted their attention from eating more.4 [This ruling applies] even according to those authorities who maintain5 that diverting one’s attention from eating does not require one to recite the blessing HaMotzi again if he changes his mind and decides to eat again, because it is common for a person to change his mind during his meal and be drawn from a small meal to a larger meal. Nevertheless, as long as he does not change his mind and does not eat again, his first meal is concluded when he diverted his attention, since [in his present state], he is maintaining his decision [not to eat further] and not retracting it.)

Nevertheless, even if they already performed the washing after the meal (mayim acharonim), it is a mitzvah for them to wash [for bread] again,6 recite the blessing HaMotzi, and partake of an olive-sized portion so that they can recite Grace with a zimun. Even if [the third person] does not desire to eat at all, it is a mitzvah to give him [at least] a small amount to eat, so that he can be included in a zimun. For whenever two people eat together, it is a mitzvah for them to seek a [third person for] zimun to the greatest extent possible, as stated in sec. 193.7

א שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָכְלוּ כְּאַחַת וְגָמְרוּ סְעוּדָתָם וּבָא שְׁלִישִׁיא וְקָבַע1 אֶצְלָם,ב,2 אִם אֵינָם שְׂבֵעִים כָּל כָּךְג בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם הָיוּ מְבִיאִים לִפְנֵיהֶם אֵיזֶה דָּבָר הֶחָבִיב אֶצְלָם לְקִנּוּחַ סְעוּדָהד הָיוּ יְכוֹלִים לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּהה אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּאו – לֹא נִגְמְרָה סְעוּדָתָם עֲדַיִן וּמִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם,3 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָכְלוּ כְּלוּם מִשֶּׁבָּא אֶצְלָם.

וְאִם אָמְרוּ כְּבָר "נְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן" – הֲרֵי הֵסִיחוּ דַּעְתָּם מִלֶּאֱכֹל עוֹד,4 וְנִגְמְרָה סְעוּדָתָם, וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם,ז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָכְלוּ עִמּוֹ.ח (וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הֵסִיחוּ דַּעְתָּם בְּפֵרוּשׁ מִלֶּאֱכֹל עוֹד.ט וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםי,5 שֶׁהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת מֵאֲכִילָה אֵינוֹ זָקוּק לַחֲזֹר לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" אִם נִמְלַךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לִהְיוֹת נִמְלָךְ בִּסְעוּדָתוֹ לְהִמָּשֵׁךְ מִסְּעוּדָה קְטַנָּה לִגְדוֹלָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִמְלַךְ וְחוֹזֵר וְאוֹכֵל – נִגְמְרָה אֲכִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּהֶסַּח דַּעְתּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּדַעְתּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר מִמֶּנָּהיא [)].

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ נָטְלוּ יְדֵיהֶם מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִיםיב – מִצְוָה שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ וְיִטְּלוּ מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים6 וִיבָרְכוּ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וְיֹאכְלוּ כַּזַּיִת כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ בְּזִמּוּן.יג וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם זֶה אֵינוֹ חָפֵץ לֶאֱכֹל כְּלָל – מִצְוָה שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מְעַט כְּדֵי לְזַמֵּן עָלָיו,יד שֶׁכָּל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָכְלוּ כְּאֶחָד מִצְוָה עֲלֵיהֶם לְחַזֵּר אַחַר זִמּוּן כָּל מַה שֶּׁיְּכוֹלִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ג: טו,7

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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2 A person is included in a zimun only if he ate an olive-sized portion8 [of food], for [partaking of] anything less than an olive-sized portion is not considered “eating,”9 even if he ate bread.

Once a person partakes of an olive-sized portion, he may be included in a zimun and considered as part of a group of three or a group of ten, even if he only partook of a vegetable10 or other produce. [Moreover,] even if the vegetable itself was not the size of an olive and it reached that measure only because it was dipped in brine, that person may be included in the zimun, for the brine is combined with the food, as stated in sec. 210.11 Moreover, even if [the third person] did not eat anything at all, but merely drank a reviis12 of a beverage,13 even of water, he may be included with them [in the zimun]. He may respond “Blessed be He from Whose bounty we have eaten,”14 for drinking is included in [the general category of] eating.15

[The above applies] provided he partook of this olive-sized portion, or drank this reviis, after [he became part of their company]. In the Talmudicera, [that involved] reclining with them on [separate] couches for that was the way people would sit down for a meal. In the present era, [this is accomplished by] sitting down at the same table. Were one not to do so, he would not [be eligible to] be included in a zimun even if he ate bread, as stated in sec. 193[:2]. Nevertheless, he is required to sit only while eating or drinking. During the zimun itself, he may be included even if he stands outside by the entrance, as stated in sec. 194[:2].

Three people who ate [only] vegetables or who [only] drank can join together with seven who ate bread to recite a zimun that includes the mention of G‑d’s name, because a recognizable majority [of the company]16 partook of bread. If, however, [only] six people ate bread, they cannot mention G‑d’s name in the zimun even if four people who did not partake of bread joined them, because six is not a recognizable majority.17

There are authorities who maintain that the leniency of including someone who [only] partook of a vegetable or other foods besides bread, or who drank any beverages, was granted only with regard to including someone in a company of ten. In such an instance, there are already enough people who partook of bread to make up a zimun. It is only that they may not mention G‑d’s name when less than ten are included. Hence, it is sufficient to include three others who ate vegetables or drank a beverage so that they can also respond, “Blessed be our G‑d from Whose bounty we have eaten.” With regard to a zimun of three, by contrast, [these authorities maintain that] unless there are three people who have eaten bread and thus are obligated to recite a zimun, a zimun should not recited by including others who did not eat bread, for they are not obligated in a zimun.

As an initial preference, weight should be given to their words. Thus when two people ate [bread] together and a third person joins them, if they can influence him to eat an olive-sized portion of bread, they should give him bread. If, however, he does not desire [to eat bread], the accepted practice is to give him something to drink or have him eat pleasing fruits [or other desserts]18 and then include him in the zimun, as dictated by the first opinion.

ב אֵין מְזַמְּנִין אֶלָּא עַל מִי שֶׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִת,טז,8 שֶׁפָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא אֲכִילָה,יז,9 וַאֲפִלּוּ אָכַל פַּת.

וּמִשֶּׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִתיח מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו, וּמִצְטָרֵף בֵּין לִשְׁלֹשָׁהיט בֵּין לַעֲשָׂרָה, אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל כַּזַּיִת יָרָקכ,10 אוֹ שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת.כא וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין כַּזַּיִת בַּיָּרָק, אֶלָּא שֶׁטִּבְּלוֹ בְּצִיר וְאָכַל וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּזַּיִת עִם הַצִּיר שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַזַּיִת – מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו,כב שֶׁהַצִּיר מִצְטָרֵף, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"י.כג,11 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכַל כְּלוּם אֶלָּא שָׁתָהכד רְבִיעִית12 מֵאֵיזֶה מַשְׁקֶה,כה,13 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִן הַמַּיִםכו – מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם וְעוֹנֶה: "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ",14 שֶׁשְּׁתִיָּה בִּכְלַל אֲכִילָה.כז,15

וְהוּא שֶׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִת זֶה אוֹ שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית זוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁעָלָה וְהֵסֵב עִמָּהֶם עַל הַמִּטָּה בִּימֵי חַכְמֵי הַתַּלְמוּד, שֶׁכָּךְ הָיְתָה דֶּרֶךְ קְבִיעוּת1 סְעוּדָתָם, וּבַזְּמַן הַזֶּה בִּישִׁיבָה בְּשֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן אַף מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל פַּת אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ג.כח וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָתוֹ אוֹ שְׁתִיָּתוֹ, אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת הַזִּמּוּן יְכוֹלִים לְזַמֵּן עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ לִפְנֵי הַפֶּתַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ד.כט

וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ יָרָק אוֹ שָׁתוּ מִצְטָרְפִים לְשִׁבְעָה שֶׁאָכְלוּ פַּת לְזַמֵּן בַּשֵׁם, הוֹאִיל וְרֹב הַנִּכָּר16 הוּא מֵאוֹכְלֵי פַּת. אֲבָל שִׁשָּׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ פַּת – אֵין מְזַמְּנִין בַּשֵׁם בְּצֵרוּף אַרְבָּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אָכְלוּ פַּת, שֶׁשִּׁשָּׁה אֵינָם רֹב הַנִּכָּר.ל,17

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלא שֶׁלֹּא הֵקֵלּוּ בַּאֲכִילַת יָרָק אוֹ שְׁאָר אֳכָלִים חוּץ מִן הַפַּת וּבִשְׁתִיַּת כָּל מַשְׁקֶה, אֶלָּא לְהִצְטָרֵף לַעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁכְּבָר יֵשׁ מֵאוֹכְלֵי הַפַּת שִׁעוּר הָרָאוּי לְזִמּוּן, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לְהַזְכִּיר הַשֵּׁם בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה, לָכֵן דַּי בְּצֵרוּף שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹכְלֵי יָרָק, אוֹ שׁוֹתִים אֵיזֶה מַשְׁקֶה, שֶׁהֵם יְכוֹלִים גַּם כֵּן לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם: "בָּרוּךְ אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ", אֲבָל בְּזִמּוּן שְׁלֹשָׁה, כָּל שֶׁאֵין שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ פַּת שֶׁהֵם חַיָּבִים בְּזִמּוּן – אֵין מְזַמְּנִין בְּצֵרוּף מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל פַּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּזִמּוּן.

וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאִם אָכְלוּ שְׁנַיִם וּבָא שְׁלִישִׁי אֶצְלָם וִיכוֹלִים לְהַזְקִיקוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל כַּזַּיִת פַּת – יִתְּנוּ לוֹ פַּת. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה – נוֹהֲגִין לִתֵּן לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת, אוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מִינֵי מְגָדִים,18 וּמְזַמְּנִים עָלָיו, כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: לב

3 All of the above applies to including [others to complete a zimun]. If, however, three people ate bread and therefore recite a zimun, all authorities agree that a person who ate an olive-sized portion of a vegetable or drank a reviis of a beverage can respond together with them, even if he did not sit at the table with them, as will be explained in sec. 198[:2].

ג וְכָל זֶה לְעִנְיַן צֵרוּף, אֲבָל שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹכְלֵי פַּת שֶׁמְּזַמְּנִים לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל – יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם אַף מִי שֶׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִת יָרָק אוֹ שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית, וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּישִׁיבָה בַּשֻּׁלְחָן עִמָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ח: לג

4 A person who joins [others to complete a zimun, but did not partake of bread, only lesser foods] must be careful not to recite the blessing after his food until he recites the zimun with them. For once he has recited the blessing after his food or drink, he is no longer able to be included in the zimun and respond with them, since he already withdrew from them [by reciting that blessing].19

ד הַמִּצְטָרֵף צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַד שֶׁיְּזַמְּנוּ עָלָיו, שֶׁאִם בֵּרַךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ אוֹ שְׁתִיָּתוֹ – שׁוּב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְזַמֵּן וְלַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁכְּבָר נִסְתַּלֵּק מֵהֶם: לד,19

5 Until when does the zimun extend? Until the end of the [first] blessing, Hazan.20All of those who joined in the zimun21must concentrate and listen to the first blessing of Grace from the leader, as stated in sec. 193.22

Even though he heard the blessing Hazan, [one who ate foods other than bread or partook of beverages] is not exempt from reciting a blessing after the food he ate, unless he ate dates23 or in the case of beverages — if he drank wine, as explained in sec. 208.24 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, [even if he ate dates or drank wine], he should have the intent not to fulfill his obligation at the outset by listening to Grace, because it is initially preferable to recite the appropriate blessing for each type of food, as will be explained.25

ה עַד הֵיכָן הוּא הַזִּמּוּן? עַד סִיּוּם בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן",לה,20 שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְטָרְפִים לַזִּמּוּן21 צְרִיכִים לְכַוֵּן וְלִשְׁמֹעַ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִפִּי הַמְזַמֵּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ג.לו,22 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁמַע בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן", לֹא נִפְטַר בָּהּ מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ,לז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָכַל תְּמָרִים,23 וּבִשְׁתִיָּה לֹא נִפְטַר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁתָה יַיִן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ח.לח,24 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יְכַוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בִּשְׁמִיעָתוֹ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל מִין בְּרָכָה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ,לט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: מ,25

6 When two people ate to the point of satiation and they gave a third person a small amount [of bread] to eat so that he could be included in the zimun with them, he may recite Grace for them,26 provided he eats an olive-sized portion of bread. [This ruling applies] even if he did not eat to the point of satiation and thus is not obligated to recite Grace according to Scriptural Law as they are.27 [The rationale:] According to Scriptural Law, even one who did not eat at all may fulfill the mitzvah [of reciting Grace] on behalf of one who ate to the point of satiation.28 For [our Sages’] general principle29 that one who is not obligated in a [mitzvah] may not fulfill [the mitzvah] on behalf of others who are obligated, was stated only with regard to persons who were not commanded [to observe that mitzvah] at all, for example, women in relation to those mitzvos in which they are not obligated.30 In contrast, with regard to all the mitzvos that one is required to fulfill even though he is not obligated to perform them at a given time — only another person is [so obligated] — he is still [considered as] obligated in [the mitzvah], based on the principle of mutual responsibility.31 For all Israel are responsible for each other32 and it is thus incumbent on him to save that other person from sin and absolve him of the responsibility for amitzvah which he incurred the duty to fulfill.

True, Grace is one of the blessings recited in appreciation for receiving satisfaction (Birchos HaNehenin) and with regard to Birchos HaNehenin, one who does not receive satisfaction may not fulfill the obligation on behalf of one who receives satisfaction. [The rationale: This mitzvah is not an absolute] obligation for the person [who derives satisfaction], for he could [have chosen] not to derive satisfaction and thus, not become obligated, as stated in sec. 167[:23].33 Nevertheless, with regard to [the other person’s responsibility to recite] Grace, since he already derived satisfaction and became obligated to recite Grace, one is obligated to save him from transgressing [by] reciting Grace on his behalf.

[The above applies according to Scriptural Law.] Nevertheless, our Sages ruled34 that one who did not eat bread may not recite Grace, for one should not recite Birchos HaNehenin unless he received satisfaction. They supportedthis ruling35 by drawing on the verse:36 “When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless…,” and inferring “[only] one who ate should bless.” [They imposed this restriction universally, ruling that] even when a person who ate and was satiated does not know how to recite the blessings, another person may not recite the blessings on his behalf.37 [Although one who knows how to recite Grace has an obligation to fulfill the mitzvah on behalf of a person who does not know,] our Sages [ruled that he should refrain from doing so. This is within their power, for they] have the authority to uproot a Scriptural obligation [by instructing a person] to remain passive and refrain from action.38 Moreover, in this instance, [the Sages] are not [necessarily] uprooting [the mitzvah], for another person may come and eat with him and recite the blessings on his behalf.

When, by contrast, a person ate even an olive-sized portion of bread, [the above does not apply]. Since he is reciting a blessing in appreciation of the satisfaction that he himself received [from eating bread, while doing so,] he may also fulfill [the obligation] of the other person who ate to the point of satiation.

If, however, he did not eat an olive-sized portion of bread over which the Grace after Meals is recited, even if he ate cooked food from the five species [of grain] over which the one blessing that encapsulates the three blessings [of Grace] is recited, he may not recite Grace to fulfill the obligations of those who ate bread, even if they only ate an olive-sized portion.39

There are other authorities who maintain that one who did not eat to the point of satiation may not fulfill the obligation [of Grace] on behalf of one who ate to the point of satiation.40 It is desirable to give weight to their words as an initial preference. Thus if there are some members of a group who ate to the point of satiation and others who did not eat to the point of satiation, one of those who ate to the point of satiation should recite Grace and fulfill the obligation of the others. An exception [to this rule]: When none of the people who ate to the point of satiation knows how to recite Grace. In such an instance, a person who ate an olive-sized portion should recite Grace and fulfill the obligation for all [those present].41 ([This leniency applies] when the person was already satiated before he partook of the olive-sized portion and thus it is impossible for him to eat more and thereby bring himself to the point where he is obligated according to Scriptural Law. If, however, it is possible for him to eat more, he should give weight to the second opinion [and eat to the point of satiation before reciting Grace]).

ו שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבְעוּ וְנָתְנוּ לִשְׁלִישִׁי לֶאֱכֹל מְעַט שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם לְזִמּוּן, אִם אָכַל כַּזַּיִת פַּת – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,26 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכַל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִן הַתּוֹרָהמא כְּמוֹתָם,מב,27 לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה אַף מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל כְּלָל יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאָכַל וְשָׂבַע,28 שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ: מג,29 כָּל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם, אֶלָּא בְּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ נָשִׁים בְּמִצְוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹהֲגוֹת בָּהֶן,30 אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁמִּצְוָה זוֹ נוֹהֶגֶת בָּהֶן,מד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ עַתָּה הוּא אֶלָּא חֲבֵרוֹ – נִקְרָא הוּא גַּם כֵּן מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָרמה מִדִּין עֲרֵבוּת,מו,31 שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִים זֶה בָּזֶה,מז,32 וְעָלָיו לְהַצִּיל חֲבֵרוֹ מֵעָוֹן, וּלְפָטְרוֹ מִמִּצְוָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ.מח

וְאַף שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הִיא בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין, וּבְבִרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנָה אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲרֵבוּת הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ חוֹבָה עַל חֲבֵרוֹ, שֶׁיָּכוֹל הוּא שֶׁלֹּא לֵהָנוֹת וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְחַיֵּב בִּבְרָכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז,מט,33 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןנ כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נֶהֱנָה וְנִתְחַיֵּב לְבָרֵךְנא – מְחֻיָּב הוּא לְהַצִּילוֹ מֵעָוֹן וּלְבָרֵךְ לוֹ.

אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחֲכָמִים אָמְרוּ,34 שֶׁמִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל פַּת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁאֵין לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין בְּלֹא הֲנָאָה,נב וְסָמְכוּ זֶהנג,35 עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב: נד,36 "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ", מִי שֶׁאָכַל הוּא יְבָרֵךְ.34 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם זֶה שֶׁאָכַל וְשָׂבַע אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ – אֵין חֲבֵרוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לוֹ,נה,37 שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּחַ בְּיַד חֲכָמִים לַעֲקֹר דָּבָר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּשֵׁב וְאַל תַּעֲשֶׂה,נו,38 וְעוֹד שֶׁזֶּה אֵינָהּ עֲקִירָה, שֶׁיָּכוֹל אַחֵר לֶאֱכֹל עִמּוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ לוֹ. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאָכַל פַּת אֲפִלּוּ כַּזַּיִת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל הֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ – מוֹצִיא גַּם כֵּן חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁאָכַל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה.

אֲבָל אִם לֹא אָכַל כַּזַּיִת פַּת שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין אַחֲרָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל תַּבְשִׁיל מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין אַחֲרָיו מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָאוֹכְלִים פַּת,נז אֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכְלוּ אֶלָּא כַּזַּיִת.39

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנח שֶׁמִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאָכַל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה.40 וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאִם בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה מִקְצָתָם אָכְלוּ כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה וּמִקְצָתָם לֹא אָכְלוּ כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה – מְבָרֵךְ אֶחָד מֵהָאוֹכְלִים כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה וְיוֹצְאִים הָאֲחֵרִים.נט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהָאוֹכְלִים כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה אֵין בָּהֶם מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ – אֲזַי יְבָרֵךְ מִי שֶׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִת וְיוֹצִיא אֶת כֻּלָּם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָםס,41 (אִם הָיָה שָׂבֵעַ כְּבָר קֹדֶם שֶׁאָכַל הַכַּזַּיִת, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהָבִיא עַצְמוֹ לִידֵי חִיּוּב שֶׁל תּוֹרָהסא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל יוֹתֵר. אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל יוֹתֵר – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה):

7 When all those dining ate to the point of satiation and some also drank, while others did not drink — and they desire to drink — it is preferable that one of those who drank should lead Grace. For there are authorities who maintain that according to Scriptural Law, one is not obligated to recite Grace unless he drank — if he desires to drink.

Our Sages42 derived this from the verse: “When you have eaten and are satiated,” stating “When you have eaten” — this refers to eating; “And are satiated” — this refers to drinking. Although fundamentally, the halachah does not follow their view, for [their interpretation of the verse] is merely an asmachta which the Sages used as a support for their ruling that one is obligated to recite Grace even when he ate only an olive-sized portion.

[To explain: Instead of interpreting the verse simply, that one is required to recite Grace only when he ate until he is satiated, they interpreted it as implying] “When you have eaten” — this refers to eating and “eating” means partaking of an olive-sized amount. “And are satiated” — this refers to drinking. [Thus seemingly one may be required to “bless,” i.e., recite Grace, even when he is not satiated. In truth,] however, a verse may not be extended beyond its literal meaning and one is not obligated to recite Grace unless he ate and was satiated, even if he did not drink. Nevertheless, it is commendable to give weight to their words where possible and have a person who [not only ate, but also] drank recite Grace.

If, however, some of the company ate to the point of satiation, but did not drink and others did not eat to the point of satiation, but drank, Grace should be led by one who ate to the point of satiation, even though he did not drink, because fundamentally, the halachah follows the approach of the authorities who maintain that the Scriptural obligation of Grace depends on eating to the point of satiation, [and] not [at all] on drinking.

ז וְאִם אָכְלוּ כֻּלָּם כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה, וּמִקְצָתָם שָׁתוּ וּמִקְצָתָם לֹא שָׁתוּ וְהֵם תְּאֵבִים לִשְׁתּוֹת – טוֹב שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ מִי שֶׁשָּׁתָה,סב לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסג שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא אִם שָׁתָה אִם הוּא תָּאֵב לִשְׁתּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרסד,36 "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים: סה,42 "וְאָכַלְתָּ" – זוֹ אֲכִילָה, "וְשָׂבָעְתָּ" – זוֹ שְׁתִיָּה.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דִּבְרֵיהֶם עִקָּר, שֶׁזֶּה סֶמֶךְ בְּעָלְמָא35 הוּא שֶׁסָּמְכוּ חֲכָמִיםסו לְחַיֵּב בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל כַּזַּיִת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְאָכַלְתָּ" – זוֹ אֲכִילָה, וַאֲכִילָה בְּכַזַּיִת, "וְשָׂבָעְתָּ" – זוֹ שְׁתִיָּה, אֲבָל אֵין הַמִּקְרָא יוֹצֵא מִידֵי פְּשׁוּטוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאָכַל וְשָׂבַע וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא שָׁתָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר, שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ מִי שֶׁשָּׁתָה.

אֲבָל אִם מִקְצָתָם אָכְלוּ לָשֹׂבַע וְלֹא שָׁתוּ וּמִקְצָתָם לֹא אָכְלוּ לָשֹׂבַע וְשָׁתוּ – יְבָרֵךְ מִי שֶׁאָכַל לָשֹׂבַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁתָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁחִיּוּב בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִן הַתּוֹרָה תָּלוּי בַּאֲכִילָה כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה וְלֹא בִּשְׁתִיָּה: סז

8 All of the above applies when Grace is recited as ordained by the Sages. i.e., the leader of Grace alone recites Grace and fulfills the obligation on behalf of all the others. At present, when all recite Grace quietly together with the leader, there is no need to be concerned with all the above. [Instead,] even a person who ate only an olive-sized portion [of bread] and did not drink may lead Grace, even though there are others who ate to the point of satisfaction and drank.

Nevertheless, it was already explained in sec. 183[:10] that it is not proper for people to conduct themselves in this manner. Instead, they should listen to the leader of Grace at least until he concludes the blessing Hazan.

ח וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמְּבָרְכִים בְּזִמּוּן כְּתִקּוּן חֲכָמִים, שֶׁהַמְזַמֵּן לְבַד הוּא מְבָרֵךְ וּמוֹצִיא אֶת כֻּלָּם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם. אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו שֶׁכֻּלָּם מְבָרְכִים בְּלַחַשׁ עִם הַמְזַמֵּן – אֵין לָחֹשׁ לְכָל זֶה, וְיָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ אַף מִי שֶׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִת לְבַד וְלֹא שָׁתָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲחֵרִים שֶׁאָכְלוּ לָשֹׂבַע וְשָׁתוּ.סח

אֶלָּא שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"גסט שֶׁאֵין לִנְהֹג כֵּן, אֶלָּא יִשְׁמְעוּ מִפִּי הַמְזַמֵּן לְפָחוֹת עַד סִיּוּם בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן":

9 [The following laws apply if] someone was already satiated before he ate, but nevertheless overate [grossly].43 If his palate derived satisfaction from eating,44 he should recite a blessing beforehand and afterwards, and he may fulfill the obligation on behalf of others, even though they are obligated according to Scriptural Law and his own obligation is merely Rabbinic in origin. If, however, eating [more] repulses him and his palate does not derive satisfaction from it, he should not recite a blessing at all, neither before eating, nor afterwards. For [eating in such a manner] is not considered eating at all with regard to any of the Torah’s mitzvos, neither in regard to positive commandments, as stated in sec. 476[:5],45 nor with regard to negative commandments, as stated in sec. 612[:5].46

ט מִי שֶׁהָיָה כְּבָר שָׂבֵעַ קֹדֶם שֶׁאָכַל וְאָכַל אֲכִילָה גַּסָּה,43 אִם נֶהֱנָה גְּרוֹנוֹ מֵאוֹתָהּ הָאֲכִילָה44 – מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו, וּמוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָםע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם חַיָּבִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְהוּא אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.עא אֲבָל אִם נַפְשׁוֹ קָצָה עָלָיו וְאֵין גְּרוֹנוֹ נֶהֱנָה מֵאֲכִילָתוֹ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל, לֹא לְפָנֶיהָ וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ,עב לְפִי שֶׁזּוֹ אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה אֲכִילָה כְּלָל לְכָל מִצְוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, בֵּין לְעִנְיַן מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ו,עג,45 בֵּין לְעִנְיַן מִצְוֹת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, כְּמָה שֶׁכָּתַבְנוּ בְּסִימָן תרי"ב: עד,46