SECTION 193 When May Individuals Join Together in a Zimun and When May They Not. (1–2)

קצג אִם מִצְטָרְפִין לְזִמּוּן אִם לָאו, וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is not appropriate for two people [who eat together] to join together in a zimun.1Instead, as an initial preference, each one should recite Grace individually.2 Nevertheless, when two people ate together, sitting down to eat in a manner that had there been three, they would be obligated in a zimun,3 if one knows how to recite Grace and the other does not know how to recite Grace, the one who knows [how to recite Grace] may fulfill the obligation on behalf of the one who does not know.4

[The one listening] must pay attention, word for word, to what the person reciting the blessing is saying. The one reciting Grace must intend to fulfill the obligation [of reciting Grace also] on behalf of [the one listening].

Whether it is necessary for the unlearned person to understand [the wording of Grace] in Lashon HaKodesh5is explained in sec. 185[:1].6

א שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָכְלוּ כְּאַחַת, אִם נִקְבְּעוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת הַמּוֹעֶלֶת לְצָרֵף לְזִמּוּן בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה,א,3 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנַיִם אֵין רְאוּיִם לְזִמּוּן,ב,1 וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ כָּל אֶחָד לְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה,ג,2 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶחָד יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ וְהַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ – מְבָרֵךְ הַיּוֹדֵעַ וּמוֹצִיא מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ.ד,4

וְצָרִיךְ לְכַוֵּןה מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה לְכָל מַה שֶׁיֹּאמַר הַמְבָרֵךְ,ו וְהַמְּבָרֵךְ צָרִיךְ לְכַוֵּן לְהוֹצִיאוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.ז

וְאִם צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָעָם הָאָרֶץ מֵבִין בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ,5 נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קָפֶ"ה: ח,6

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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2 What is meant by sitting down [to eat] in a manner that would join the people for a zimun? When [the people dining together] recline7 on couches8 or — in the present era when we do not recline, but rather sit [and eat] at one table or around one tablecloth,9 [when they are eating] without a table — or if they establish a common sitting….

[The remainder of the section is not extant. Based on the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro, it is apparent that several subsections are lacking.]10

ב אֵיזוֹ הִיא קְבִיעוּת הַמִּצְטָרֶפֶת לְזִמּוּן? כְּשֶהֵסֵיבוּט,7 עַל הַמִּטּוֹת,8 אוֹ שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בְּשֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד, אוֹ בְּלֹא שֻׁלְחָן בְּמַפָּה אַחַת,9 בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ הֲסֵבָה,י אוֹ שֶׁקָּבְעוּ [חָסֵר] יא:10