SECTION 110 Laws Relating to a Person Setting Out on a Journey and to What Day-Laborers should Pray; the Prayers of Travelers and of People who Frequent the House of Study. (1-10)

סימן קי דִּין הַיּוֹצֵא לַדֶּרֶךְ וּפוֹעֲלִים מַה יִּתְפַּלְלוּ וְסֵדֶר תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ וּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וּבוֹ יוּ"ד סְעִיפִים:

1 In a pressing situation, when one cannot recite [all] eighteen blessings, e.g. —

[a] the time for prayer is passing, or

[b] he is on a journey and is afraid that passersby will interrupt him1 if he recites all eighteen blessings while he is walking or when sitting or when standing, as described in sec. 90[:5], or

[c] he is standing in a place where he is anxious and is afraid that he may be interrupted, or

[d] he feels unable to recite a full-length Shemoneh Esreh with concentration because of distractions,

— he should recite a brief paraphrase of She­moneh Esreh,2 i.e., the prayer beginning Havineinu3 that incorporates all the thirteen intermediate blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh], and should conclude with the words, “[Blessed are You, G‑d,] Who hears prayer.” [Even in such a situation,] he must recite the first three blessings before this prayer and the last three blessings as ordained.4

One must recite all [these seven blessings] while standing still.4 He may not recite them as he is proceeding on his journey, as was permitted with regard to Shemoneh Esreh [where leniency was granted] lest his mind be distracted due to the delay of his journey and he will not be able to concentrate, as was explained [in sec. 90:5]. [The rationale for the distinction is that] since he is reciting a shortened prayer that is [merely] a summary of Shemoneh Esreh, standing still [for this brief time] should not disturb him as much. When he arrives home, he need not repeat She­moneh Esreh,4 since he has already recited this brief paraphrase [of it].

Havineinu may not be recited in the rainy season3 because rain must be requested5 in the blessing for material prosperity,6 nor may it be recited on the night at the end of Shabbos or a Yom-Tov, because one must recite Havdalah7 in the blessing Chonen HaDaas. (He cannot include [these matters] in Havineinu by briefly paraphrasing Havdalah or the request for rain, because [this] request and Havdalah are not independent blessings, but were ordained as insertions in the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh — the request for rain in the blessing for material prosperity, and Havdalah in the blessing Chonen HaDaas. If one would interpolate a brief paraphrase of Havdalah or the request for rain in Havineinu, it would appear that they, too, are independent blessings, like all the intermediate blessings that he briefly paraphrases in Havineinu.)

א בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָקא שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַשָּׁעָה עוֹבֶרֶת,ב אוֹ שֶׁהוּא בַּדֶּרֶךְג וְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא יַפְסִיקוּהוּ עוֹבְרֵי דְּרָכִיםד,1 אִם יִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ אוֹ מְיֻשָּׁב אוֹ מְעֻמָּד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ",ה אוֹ שֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא טָרוּד וְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא יַפְסִיקוּהוּ,ו אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה אֲרֻכָּה בְּכַוָּנָה מֵחֲמַת טִרְדַּת דַּעְתּוֹז – מִתְפַּלֵּל מֵעֵין שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה,ח,2 שֶׁהוּא תְּפִלַּת "הֲבִינֵנוּ"ט,3 שֶׁכּוֹלֶלֶת כָּל י"ג בְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת וְחוֹתֵם בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה". וְצָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְפָנֶיהָ ג' בְּרָכוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת כְּתִקְנָן וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ ג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת כְּתִקְנָן.י,4

וְצָרִיךְ לְאָמְרָן כֻּלָּן מְעֻמָּד,יא,4 וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְאָמְרָן דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בִּתְפִלַּת שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטָּרֵד לִבּוֹ בְּעִכּוּב דַּרְכּוֹ וְלֹא יוּכַל לְכַוֵּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה מֵעֵין י"ח לֹא יִטָּרֵד כָּל כָּךְ בַּעֲמִידָתוֹ.יב וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח,יג,4 הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר אָמַר מֵעֵין י"ח.יד

וְאֵינוֹ מִתְפַּלֵּל "הֲבִינֵנוּ" לֹא בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִיםטו,3 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר שְׁאֵלָה5 בְּ"בִרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים",טז,6 וְלֹא בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹביז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַבְדָּלָה7 בְּ"חוֹנֵן הַדַּעַת"יח (וְאֵין לוֹ לְכָלְלָן בַּ"הֲבִינֵנוּ"יט לוֹמַר בָּהּ מֵעֵין הַבְדָּלָה וּשְׁאֵלָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַשְּׁאֵלָה וְהַבְדָּלָה אֵינָן בְּרָכוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן אֶלָּא תִּקְּנוּ לְכָלְלָן בְּבִרְכוֹת י"ח, שְׁאֵלָה בְּ"בִרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים" וְהַבְדָּלָה בְּבִרְכַּת "חוֹנֵן הַדַּעַת", וְאִם הָיָה אוֹמֵר בַּ"הֲבִינֵנוּ" מֵעֵין הַבְדָּלָה וּשְׁאֵלָה – הָיָה נִרְאֶה שֶׁהֵן גַּם כֵן בְּרָכוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָןכ כְּמוֹ כָּל בְּרָכוֹת הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁאוֹמֵר מֵעֵין כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת בַּ"הֲבִינֵנוּ"[)]:

2 When day-laborers are performing work for an employer8 and he does not pay them any wages other than their meals, they should recite eighteen complete blessings.9 However, they should not [have a sheliach tzibbur repeat Shemoneh Esreh],10 nor recite the Priestly Blessing,11 out of consideration for the neglect of the employer’s work. If he pays them a wage in addition to their meals, they must hurry to work. [Hence,] they recite a brief paraphrase of Shemoneh Esreh.

In the present era, an employer is not usually exacting on this matter and it may be assumed that he hired them on the understanding that they would recite the [full] Shemoneh Esreh. Similarly, [it may be assumed that he understood] that they would go to the synagogue in order to pray with [a quorum of] ten, in a place in which an employer will not usually be exacting on this matter.

ב הַפּוֹעֲלִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂים מְלָאכָה אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִתכא,8 אִם אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לָהֶם שָׂכָר חוּץ מִסְּעוּדָתָן – מִתְפַּלְלִין י"ח בְּרָכוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת.9 אֲבָל אֵין יוֹרְדִין לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה10 וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין כַּפֵּיהֶם,11 מִשּׁוּם בִּטּוּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת. וְאִם נוֹתֵן לָהֶם שְׂכַר פְּעֻלָּתָם לְבַד סְעוּדָתָם – צְרִיכִים לְמַהֵר הַמְּלָאכָה וּמִתְפַּלְלִין מֵעֵין י"ח.

וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין דֶּרֶךְ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהַקְפִּיד בְּכָךְ,כב וּמִן הַסְּתָם עַל דַּעַת כֵן שׂוֹכְרִין אוֹתָם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלְלוּ י"ח. וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתכג לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעֲשָׂרָה,כד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהַקְפִּיד בְּכָךְ:כה

3 When one is walking through a place where there are bands of wild beasts [or] robbers, he should recite a short prayer,2 i.e., Tzorchei amcha merubim...,12 and conclude with “[Blessed are You, G‑d,] Who hears prayer.” He need not recite the first three [blessings], nor the last three.4 He may pray while walking, though if he can stand still, he should do so.

When he arrives at a civilized place and his mind becomes composed he should recite the [full] Shemoneh Esreh as ordained, if its statutory time has not passed. [This applies] even though he recited this [very] short prayer while standing still, since [it did not comprise] even a brief paraphrase of Shemoneh Esreh. If he forgot, or the time for Shemoneh Esreh passed, he is bound by the laws that apply to a person who forgot and did not pray at all; i.e., he must compensate [for the omission of Shemoneh Esreh] at the time of the prayer service that follows it, as stated in sec. 108.

ג הַהוֹלֵךְכו בִּמְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיָּה וְלִסְטִים – מִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה,2 שֶׁהוּא "צָרְכֵי עַמְּךָ מְרֻבִּים כו'"12 וְחוֹתֵם בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה",כז וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לֹא לְג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת וְלֹא לְג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת.כח,4 וּמִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ. וְאִם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד – עוֹמֵד.כט

וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְיִשּׁוּבל וְתִתְבָּרֵר דַּעְתּוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח כְּתִקְנָהּ אִם לֹא עָבַר זְמַנָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה מְעֻמָּד,לא הוֹאִיל וְלֹא אָמַר בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ מֵעֵין י"ח.לב וְאִם שָׁכַח אוֹ שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנָּהּלג – דִּינוֹ כְּשׁוֹכֵחַ וְלֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִים אוֹתָהּ בִּזְמַן תְּפִלָּה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ח:

4 When a person sets out on a journey he must recite the Traveler’s Prayer;13 i.e., “May it be Your will, G‑d, our L‑rd, and L‑rd of our forefathers, that You lead us in peace....”14 Even though he is traveling alone, he should recite the prayer in the plural,15 for in this way his prayer will be heeded. If he desires to add words that request Divine grace,16 he may say them in the singular, for [they] are not part of the wording established as an obligation for people at large. (There is an authority who maintains that for Kabbalistic reasons, the phrase usneini lechein should be recited in the singular,17 even though it is part of the version instituted as an obligation for people in general.)

According to law, one may recite the Traveler’s Prayer even while walking. Nevertheless, in keeping with the charge that “one who could be good should not be called evil,”18 one should stand still while reciting it if possible,19 as is the case when one’s fellow travelers in the caravan have also come to a halt. Nevertheless, one is only required to stop walking. If one is riding, he need not dismount, though if he can prevent his mount from proceeding he should do so, for if he rides, it is as if he was walking. (Similarly, if one is sitting in a wagon,20 he need not climb down. Instead, he should bring the horses to a halt if he can.21)

ד הַיּוֹצֵא לַדֶּרֶךְ – צָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְלד,13 שֶׁהִיא "יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ וֵאלֹקֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁתּוֹלִיכֵנוּ לְשָׁלוֹם וכו'".לה,14 וְאַף אִם הוֹלֵךְ יְחִידִילו יֹאמְרֶנָּה בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים,לז,15 שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ תְּפִלָּתוֹ נִשְׁמַעַת. וְאִם בָּא לְהוֹסִיף בָּהּ דִּבְרֵי רִצּוּי16 – יָכוֹל לְאָמְרָם בִּלְשׁוֹן יָחִיד,לח כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִמַּטְבֵּעַ הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁקָּבְעוּ חוֹבָה לָרַבִּים (וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרלט שֶׁעַל פִּי הַסּוֹד יֵשׁ לוֹמַר מִלַּת "וּתְנֵנִי לְחֵן" בִּלְשׁוֹן יָחִיד17 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִמַּטְבֵּעַ הַבְּרָכָה הַקָּבוּעַ לָרַבִּיםמ).

וּמִן הַדִּין יָכוֹל לוֹמַר תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ,מא אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם "מִהְיוֹת טוֹב אַל תִּקָּרֵא רַע"18 – יַעֲמֹד כְּשֶׁיֹּאמְרֶנָּה אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ,מב,19 כְּגוֹן שֶׁבְּנֵי הַשַּׁיָּרָא גַּם כֵן עוֹמְדִים.מג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲמֹד אֶלָּא מִלֵּילֵךְ, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה רָכוּב אֵין צָרִיךְ לֵירֵדמד אֶלָּא יַעֲמִיד הַבְּהֵמָה מִלֵּילֵךְמה אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ, שֶׁאִם יִרְכֹּב הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְהַלֵּךְ (וְהוּא הַדִּין לְיוֹשֵׁב בַּעֲגָלָה20 שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לֵירֵד אֶלָּא לְהַעֲמִיד הַסּוּסִים אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמו):21

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5 The Traveler’s Prayer must be recited only once a day when one is on a journey, even if he rests in a town in the middle of the day and then proceeds to journey further from it or to return to his home.22

However, if one intended to stay overnight in that town and later changed his mind and then left it in order to continue on his way or to return home, he must recite this prayer again, as if he had already spent the night there. (For this principle applies with regard to all blessings: When one [had decided to stop eating, for example, and then] changed his mind [and decided to resume], he must recite another blessing, as explained in sec. 206[:9].)

ה אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַתמז בְּכָל יוֹם שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ,מח וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יָנוּחַ בָּעִיר בְּאֶמְצַע הַיּוֹם וְחוֹזֵר לָלֶכֶת מִמֶּנָּה לְהָלְאָה אוֹ לָשׁוּב לְבֵיתוֹ.22 אֲבָל אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לָלוּן בָּעִירמט וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וְיָצָא מִמֶּנָּה לַעֲבֹר חוּצָה לָהּ אוֹ לָשׁוּב לְבֵיתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת כְּאִלּוּ כְּבָר לָן בָּהּ (שֶׁכֵן הוּא בְּכָל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא נִמְלָךְ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ונ):

6 From what point should [the Traveler’s Prayer] be recited?4 From the time that one is proceeding on his way, but not while he is still in his hometown, for it is not appropriate to recite the Traveler’s Prayer until one has set out on his way. The outskirts of a town — i.e., the 70-odd23 cubits24 that are nearest to it — are considered as being within the town. There is an authority who permits this blessing to be recited even within a town, from the time that one has decided and prepared himself to leave that day. For he is also considered as one who set out on his journey, since it can definitely be assumed that he will set out. After the fact, one may rely on his ruling. (According to all opinions, one may recite this prayer while within the town in which he spends the night, for he has already set out on his journey and is still proceeding on his way. In this town, he is merely like a wayfarer who spends the night there.)

ו מֵאֵימָתַי מִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ?נא,4 מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמְּהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִירנב שֶׁדָּר בָּהּ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ. וְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל עִיר, דְּהַיְנוּ ע'23 אַמָּה24 וְשִׁירַיִם סָמוּךְ לָעִיר – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּתוֹךְ לָעִיר.נג וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּירנד אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר, מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁגָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ וְהֵכִין עַצְמוֹ לָצֵאת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁזֶּה נִקְרָא גַּם כֵן הֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁמֻּחְזָק לֵילֵךְ בְּוַדַּאי. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו בְּדִיעֲבַדנה (וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל כְּשֶׁהוּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ יָכוֹל לְאָמְרָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר שֶׁלָּן בָּהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הֶחֱזִיק וְהוֹלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְעוֹדֶנּוּ מַחֲזִיק בָּהּ, שֶׁבְּעִיר זוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא אוֹרֵחַ נָטָה לָלוּןנו):

7 The Traveler’s Prayer concludes with Baruch Atah..., but does not begin in that manner.25 [The rationale is that] it is merely a request for mercy. Nevertheless, it is desirable to recite it immediately after another blessing so that it will be a blessing recited in conjunction with another blessing,26 in which instance it does not need to begin with Baruch. For example, if he is journeying in the morning, he should recite it in direct sequence to the blessing Hagomel chassadim tovim le’amo Yisrael, if he recites the Morning Blessings after he sets out on his journey, as explained [in the previous subsection].

If one is traveling in the middle of the day, he should eat or drink an amount that requires that a blessing be said after it,27 or he should urinate and recite the blessing Asher Yatzar. He should then immediately begin [reciting the Traveler’s Prayer]: “May it be Your will....”

ז תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ חוֹתֶמֶת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְאֵינָהּ פּוֹתַחַת בְּ"בָרוּךְ",נז,25 לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בַּקָּשַׁת רַחֲמִים. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טוֹב לְהַסְמִיכָהּ לְאֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה,נח,26 כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה בְּרָכָה הַסְּמוּכָה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִפְתֹּחַ בְּ"בָרוּךְ", כְּגוֹן אִם הוֹלֵךְ בַּבֹּקֶר – יַסְמִיכֶנָּה לְבִרְכַּת "הַגּוֹמֵלנט חֲסָדִים טוֹבִים לְעַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל" אִם מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַשַּׁחַר לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְס כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,סא וְאִם הוֹלֵךְ בְּאֶמְצַע הַיּוֹםסב – יֹאכַל אוֹ יִשְׁתֶּה כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,סג,27 אוֹ יָטִיל מַיִם וִיבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר"סד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַתְחִיל מִיָּד "יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ כו'":

8 The Sages ordained that the Traveler’s Prayer should be recited only when one will journey [at least] a parsah,28 which is 8000 cubits,29 for the area within a parsah of a town is generally not dangerous. If one desires to recite [this prayer] for a journey of less than a parsah, one should not conclude Baruch (Atah A-donai...). If, however, [one’s route] is known to be dangerous, one should recite this prayer even if [he is traveling] less than a parsah.

Some authorities maintain that it was ordained that the Traveler’s Prayer be recited only at the beginning of one’s journey, i.e., within the first parsah. One should give weight to their words and, as an initial preference, recite it during the first parsah.30 If he forgot to recite it [at that time], he should recite it as long as he is traveling, provided he has not reached within a parsah of the town in which he desires to spend the night. From that point onward, he should recite it without a blessing.31

ח לֹא תִּקְּנוּ תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לֵילֵךְ פַּרְסָה,סה,28 שֶׁהִיא ח' אֲלָפִים אַמָּה,סו,29 שֶׁפָּחוֹת מִפַּרְסָה בְּקֵרוּב לָעִיר – אֵינוֹ מְקוֹם סַכָּנָה מִן הַסְּתָם.סז וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְאָמְרָהּ עַל דֶּרֶךְ פָּחוֹת מִפַּרְסָה – לֹא יַחְתֹּם בְּ"בָרוּךְסח (אַתָּה ה')". אֲבָל אִם הוּא מָקוֹם מֻחְזָק בְּסַכָּנָה – צָרִיךְ לְאָמְרָהּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִפַּרְסָה.סט

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶלָּא בִּתְחִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁהִיא פַּרְסָה רִאשׁוֹנָה.ע,30 וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה לְאָמְרָהּ בְּפַרְסָה רִאשׁוֹנָה.עא וְאִם שָׁכַח מִלְּאָמְרָהּ – יֹאמַר אוֹתָהּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ,עב וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לְתוֹךְ פַּרְסָה הַסְּמוּכָה לָעִיר שֶׁרוֹצֶה לָלוּן בָּהּ, וּמִשָּׁם וְאֵילָךְ יֹאמַר אוֹתָהּ בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה:31

9 When a person is about to set out on a journey, it is desirable that he take leave of the spiritual leaders of the town, even though they are not his mentors, so that they will bless him. They should not tell him, “Go in peace,” but rather “Go to peace.”32 For Yisro told Moshe, “Go to peace,”33 and he rose to success, whereas David told Avshalom, “Go in peace,”34 and he went and [ultimately] met his death by hanging.

While traveling one should study [words of] Torah,35 (as it is written,36 “[And you shall speak of them...] as you walk on the way”). One should not engage in a detailed analysis of Torah law lest he stray from his path,37 unless he is sitting in a wagon and another person is driving the horses.

On a journey one should not eat more than is usually eaten in years of famine, for fear of digestive ailments, unless he is sitting in a ship or the like. When he enters a town to spend the night, he should enter during daylight and depart during daylight,38 lest he fall into a pit. When, however, he is close to his own town, where he knows how to be watchful of the pits, he may journey at night, provided that he does not proceed alone, so that he will not have to be wary of demons.39

ט הַיּוֹצֵא לַדֶּרֶךְ – טוֹב שֶׁיִּטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִגְּדוֹלֵי הָעִירעג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם רַבּוֹתָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּבָרְכוּהוּ, וְאַל יֹאמְרוּ לוֹ "לֵךְ בְּשָׁלוֹם" אֶלָּא "לֵךְ לְשָׁלוֹם",עד,32 שֶׁהֲרֵי יִתְרוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לְמֹשֶׁה "לֵךְ לְשָׁלוֹם"עה,33 – עָלָה וְהִצְלִיחַ, וְדָוִד שֶׁאָמַר לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם "לֵךְ בְּשָׁלוֹם"עו,34 – הָלַךְ וְנִתְלָה.

וּכְשֶׁהוּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ – יַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָהעז,35 (שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:עח,36 "וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ"עט). וְלֹא יַעֲסֹק בְּעִיּוּן הֲלָכָה, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעֶה בַּדֶּרֶךְ,37 אֶלָּא אִם כֵן יוֹשֵׁב בַּעֲגָלָהפ וְאִישׁ אַחֵר מַנְהִיג הַסּוּסִים.

וְאַל יֹאכַל בַּדֶּרֶךְ יוֹתֵר מִשִּׁעוּר אֲכִילַת שְׁנֵי רְעָבוֹן,פא מִשּׁוּם חֳלִי מֵעַיִם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵן יוֹשֵׁב בִּסְפִינָהפב (וְכַיּוֹצֵא) בָּהּ.

וּכְשֶׁנִּכְנָס לָעִיר לָלוּן – יִכָּנֵס בְּ"כִי טוֹב" וְיֵצֵא בְּ"כִי טוֹב",פג,38 שֶׁמָּא יִפֹּל בְּאַחַת הַפְּחָתִים.פד אֲבָל סָמוּךְ לְעִירוֹ שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְהִזָּהֵר שָׁם מֵהַפְּחָתִים – יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ שָׁם בַּלַּיְלָה, אִם אֵינוֹ הוֹלֵךְ יְחִידִי שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לַמַּזִּיקִים:פה,39

10 On entering a house of study one must pray that he should not be the cause of a mishap [by delivering a mistaken halachic ruling],40 and when he departs, he should offer thanks for his lot.2

What should one say when he enters? “May it be Your will, G‑d, our L‑rd, and L‑rd of our forefathers, that I not stumble with regard to a point of Torah law....”2 This also applies to someone who is sitting and studying alone.41 In particular, if one has attained a level at which he can render halachic decisions, he should pray that he not err in his study and in his rulings, declaring as pure that which is impure, or declaring as permitted that which is forbidden. It is advisable to recite one short comprehensive text, as follows:42 “May it be Your will, G‑d, our L‑rd, and L‑rd of our forefathers, that You illumine my eyes with the light of Your Torah and save me from any stumbling block and error, whether with regard to questions of what is forbidden and what is permitted, or in matters of financial law, or in other rulings, or in points of study. ‘Unveil my eyes and let me gaze upon wonders from Your Torah.’43 Where I have erred, have me appreciate the truth. ‘Do not remove from my mouth the words of utmost truth.’44 ‘For G‑d grants wisdom, from His mouth emerge knowledge and understanding.’ ”45 (When one studies in a group, he should also pray that he not rejoice in the blunders of others, nor they rejoice in his.)

When one leaves [the house of study], what should he say? “I thankfully acknowledge [You, G‑d, my L‑rd, for having caused my lot to fall among those who sit in the house of study...].” Likewise, when one studies Torah alone, he must say this every evening when he completes his study (if he had been studying the entire day).46

י הַנִּכְנָס לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ – צָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּלפו בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱרַע דְּבַר תַּקָּלָה עַל יָדוֹ,40 וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן הוֹדָאָה עַל חֶלְקוֹ.2

בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר:פז "יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ וֵאלֹקֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא אֶכָּשֵׁל בִּדְבַר הֲלָכָה כו'".2 וְהוּא הַדִּין מִי שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב לִלְמֹד בִּיחִידוּת,פח,41 וּבִפְרָט אִם הִגִּיעַ לְהוֹרָאָה – צָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעֶה בְּלִמּוּד וּבְהוֹרָאָה לוֹמַר עַל טָמֵא טָהוֹר וְעַל אָסוּר מֻתָּר.פט וְטוֹב לוֹמַר נֻסָּח אֶחָד קָצָר כּוֹלֵל הַרְבֵּה, וְזֶהוּ:42 "יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ וֵאלֹקֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ, שֶׁתָּאִיר עֵינַי בִּמְאוֹר תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְהַצִּילֵנִי מִכָּל מִכְשׁוֹל וְטָעוּת, הֵן בְּדִינֵי אִסּוּר וְהֶתֵּר, הֵן בְּדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, הֵן בְּהוֹרָאָה, הֵן בְּלִמּוּד, גַּל עֵינַי וְאַבִּיטָה נִפְלָאוֹת מִתּוֹרָתֶךָ,צ,43 וּמַה שֶּׁשָּׁגִיתִי כְּבָר הַעֲמִידֵנִי עַל הָאֱמֶת, וְאַל תַּצֵּל מִפִּי דְבַר אֱמֶת עַד מְאֹד,צא,44 כִּי ה' יִתֵּן חָכְמָה מִפִּיו דַּעַת וּתְבוּנָה"צב,45 (וּכְשֶׁלּוֹמֵד בַּחֲבוּרָה – צָרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ גַּם כֵן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׂמַח בְּתַּקָּלָתָם וְלֹא יִשְׂמְחוּ בְּתַקָּלָתוֹצג).

בִּיצִיאָתוֹ מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר:צד "מוֹדֶה אֲנִי כו'". וְהוּא הַדִּין הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה בִּיחִידוּת,צה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כֵן בְּכָל עֶרֶב אַחַר גְּמַר לִמּוּדוֹ (אִם לָמַד כָּל הַיּוֹם):46