SECTION 99 Laws Relating to the Prayer of a Tipsy or Intoxicated Person. (1-4)

סימן צט דִּין שָׁתוּי וְשִׁכּוֹר לִתְפִלָּה וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 One who drinks a revi’is1 of wine at once should not pray until the influence of the wine abates,2 even though the time for prayer3 will pass. If one drank more, but would be able to speak in the presence of a king, he is not considered as intoxicated, but tipsy, and his prayer is accounted as prayer if he transgressed4 and prayed. He need not pray again after the influence of the wine wears off, even though the time for that prayer service has not passed.

If, however, he would not be able to speak in the presence of a king, he is considered as intoxicated. If he transgressed and prayed, his prayer is an abomination and it is as if he served idols.5 This [is evident from the interchange between Eli the kohen and Chanah]:6 “And Eli thought that she was drunk.... And she said... ‘Do not consider your maidservant to be a rebellious woman.’ ” And the term bliyaal [here translated “rebellious”] signifies idolatry, as in the verse,7 “Rebellious men have emerged from your midst and have led astray....”

A person intoxicated to that degree must recite Shemoneh Esreh a second time when the influence of the wine subsides. Even if the time for that prayer service passes, he should compensate for it at the time of the following prayer service, as stated in sec. 108[:12].

The laws applying to the recitation of the Shema and its blessings when intoxicated are the same as those applying to Shemoneh Esreh. The laws that apply if one is [merely] tipsy are explained in sec. 185[:5].8 By contrast, other blessings may be recited even when intoxicated.

א שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית1 יַיִןא בְּבַת אַחַתב – אַל יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו2 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה.ג,3 וְאִם שָׁתָה יוֹתֵר,ד אִם הוּא יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא שִׁכּוֹר אֶלָּא שָׁתוּי וּתְפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה אִם עָבַר4 וְהִתְפַּלֵּל, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁיָּפוּג יֵינוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עֲדַיִן זְמַן תְּפִלָּה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ – נִקְרָא שִׁכּוֹר. וְאִם עָבַר וְהִתְפַּלֵּל – תְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה וּכְאִלּוּ עוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה,ה,5 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ו,6 "וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ עֵלִי לְשִׁכֹּרָה וגו' וַתֹּאמֶר וגו' אַל תִּתֵּן אֶת אֲמָתְךָ לִפְנֵי בַּת בְּלִיָּעַל וגו'", וְאֵין בְּלִיַּעַל אֶלָּא עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה,ז שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ח,7 "יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ וגו'". וְצָרִיךְ הוּא לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁיָּסִיר יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו.ט וַאֲפִלּוּ עָבַר זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה – מַשְׁלִים אוֹתָהּ בִּזְמַן תְּפִלָּה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ,י כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ח.יא

וְדִין קְרִיאַת שְׁמַעיב וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָיג לְעִנְיַן שִׁכּוֹר הוּא כְּדִין תְּפִלָּה, וּלְעִנְיַן שָׁתוּי יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ה.יד,8 אֲבָל שְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שִׁכּוֹר:טו

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2 Wine that is drunk in the course of a meal is not [necessarily] intoxicating.9 Some authorities maintain that this also applies with regard to wine drunk before a meal began, as will be explained in sec. 473[:11].

ב יַיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֵינוֹ מְשַׁכֵּר.טז,9 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים גַּם יַיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמָּזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ג:יז

3 Even the shortest sleep negates the influence of wine, provided one drank only a revi’is,10 whereas if one drank more than a revi’is, a short sleep makes one even more intoxicated. If, however, one sleeps at length, the influence of the wine will definitely wear off.

Similarly, traveling for a mil,11 whether by foot or riding an animal, negates the influence of wine if one drank only a revi’is.10 If, however, one drank more than a revi’is and [then] traveled by foot, the journey will disturb him even more. If he is riding, in which instance he does not exert himself as much, the ride will cause [the influence of wine] to abate even if he drank more than a revi’is, provided he travels three mils [or more]. Nevertheless, everything depends on the quantity of wine he drinks: if he drank in quantity, a journey of three mils will not cause its influence to abate.

ג שֵׁנָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא מְפִיגָה אֶת הַיַּיִן, אִם לֹא שָׁתָה אֶלָּא רְבִיעִית.יח,10 אֲבָל אִם שָׁתָה יוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית – כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁשֵּׁנָה מוּעֶטֶת מְשַׁכַּרְתּוֹ. אֲבָל שֵׁנָה הַרְבֵּה – וַדַּאי מְפִיגָתוֹ.יט

וְכֵן דֶּרֶךְ מִיל11 מְפִיגָה אֶת הַיַּיִן,כ בֵּין מְהַלֵּךְ בְּרַגְלָיו בֵּין רוֹכֵב עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָהכא אִם לֹא שָׁתָה אֶלָּא רְבִיעִית.10 אֲבָל אִם שָׁתָה יוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית – כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ טוֹרַדְתּוֹ, אִם מְהַלֵּךְ בְּרַגְלָיו. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה רָכוּבכב שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טֹרַח כָּל כָּךְ – אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית דֶּרֶךְ מְפִיגָתוֹ. וְהוּא שֶׁרָכוּב ג' מִילִין.כג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הַכֹּל לְפִי רֹב הַיַּיִן, שֶׁאִם הִרְבָּה לִשְׁתּוֹת מְאֹד – אֵין דֶּרֶךְ ג' מִילִין מְפִיגָתוֹ:כד

4 It is sufficient for anyone who is tipsy to wait until he feels that the influence of his wine has abated. Therefore at present we do not show caution with regard to our wines and we pray even after we have drunk a revi’is of wine or more, because we feel and know that our wines are not strong. How much less is there need for concern about a slight degree of intoxication if one prays from a Siddur. And even if one prays by heart, nowadays there is no reason for concern to the extent that one should refrain from praying when he is tipsy if the time for prayer will pass before the influence of the wine subsides — because today people do not concentrate so much while praying [in any case].12

By contrast, someone who is so utterly drunk that he would not be able to speak before a king should [refrain from praying] even in the present era, for his prayer is an abomination and it is considered as if he worshiped idols. [And if he prayed,] he must pray again [after the influence of the wine wears off].

ד כָּל אֶחָד שֶׁהוּא שָׁתוּי – דַּי לוֹ לְהַמְתִּין לְפִי שֶׁמַּרְגִּישׁ בְּנַפְשׁוֹ שֶׁיָּפִיג יֵינוֹ.כה וְלָכֵן אֵין נִזְהָרִין עַכְשָׁו בַּיֵּינוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁתוּ רְבִיעִית יַיִן וְיוֹתֵר,כו כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָנוּ מַרְגִּישִׁים וְיוֹדְעִים בַּיֵּינוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינָם חֲזָקִים. וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם מִתְפַּלְלִים מִתּוֹךְ הַסִּדּוּר שֶׁבְּיָדָם, שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְשִׁכְרוּת מְעַט.כז וְאַף בְּעַל פֶּה אֵין לָחוּשׁ כָּל כָּךְ ֹעַכְשָׁו מִלְּהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׁתוּיכח אִם יַעֲבֹר זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה עַד שֶׁיָּפִיג יֵינוֹ,כט כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין מְכַוְּנִים כָּל כָּךְ ֹבַּתְּפִלָּה.ל,12

אֲבָל שִׁכּוֹר לְגַמְרֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר אַף עַכְשָׁולא כֵּיוָן שֶׁתְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה וּכְאִלּוּ עוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל: