SECTION 79 [Laws Relating to] One who Discovers Feces while Reciting [the Shema]. (1–11)

סימן עט מִי שֶׁנִּזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ צוֹאָה בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאָה וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 If human feces are located behind a person, he must distance himself four cubits1 away from them [before reciting the Shema]2 even if they have no odor.3 This is [implied by] the verse,4 “And your camp shall be holy.” A person’s camp, i.e., his base, covers a radius of four cubits in all directions (for this is the place a person occupies when he lies down and extends his hands and feet, as will be explained in 349[:1]).

An exception is [the area] in front of him, which is his primary base. There his camp must be holy for as far as he can see.5 Even at night when he does not actually see [the feces]6 or if he is blind, he must distance himself [from them] to a place from which a sighted person would not see them during the day. If they are not directly in front of him,7 it is as if they were in front of him. If they are not directly behind him,8 it is as if they were behind him. ([The laws that apply] when they are directly to his side are explained in sec. 81[:3].)

א הָיְתָה צוֹאַת אָדָם מֵאַחֲרָיו אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לָהּ רֵיחַא,3 – צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מִמֶּנָּה2 ד' אַמּוֹת,ב,1 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:4 "וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ",ג וּמַחֲנֵהוּ שֶׁל אָדָם דְּהַיְנוּ חֲנָיָתוֹ – הַיְינוּ ד' אַמּוֹת לְכָל רוּחַד (שֶׁזֶּהוּ מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁכֹּב וְיִפְשֹׁט יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיוה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן שמ"טו), חוּץ מִכְּנֶגֶד פָּנָיו שֶׁשָּׁם עִקָּר חֲנָיָתוֹ. וְצָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת מַחֲנֵהוּ קָדוֹשׁז כִּמְלֹא עֵינָיו.ח,5 וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ,ט,6 אוֹ שֶׁהוּא סוּמָאי – צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהַפִּקֵּחַ לֹא יוּכַל לִרְאוֹתָהּ בַּיּוֹם. וּצְדָדִים שֶׁלְּפָנָיו7 – הֲרֵי הֵם כִּלְפָנָיו, וְשֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו8 – כִּלְאַחֲרָיויא (וּצְדָדִין מַמָּשׁ – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן פ"איב):

2 If the feces are malodorous, it is necessary that their odor not be detectable within [a range of] four cubits behind or to the side of [the person praying]. Otherwise, his camp is not holy.9 Accordingly, he must move four cubits away from the place where the odor ceases. Even if a person has no sense of smell, he must distance himself four cubits from the place at which a person who has that sense [would detect the odor]. ([When the feces are] in front of him, he need not distance himself to the extent that he cannot see the place at which the odor ceases to be detectable. Rather, as long as he cannot see [the feces],10 his camp is holy.)

ב וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהּ רֵיחַ – צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה רֵיחָהּ בְּתוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו וּצְדָדִין, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן – אֵין מַחֲנֵהוּ קָדוֹשׁ.9 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק ד' אַמּוֹת מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּלֶה הָרֵיחַ.יג וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ חֳלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵרִיחַ – צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק ד' אַמּוֹת מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּלֶה הָרֵיחַ לְמִי שֶׁמֵּרִיחַיד (אֲבָל מִלְּפָנָיו אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מְלֹא עֵינָיו מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּלֶה הָרֵיחַ, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִרְאוֹתָהּ10 – הֲרֵי מַחֲנֵהוּ קָדוֹשׁ):

3 [The following rule applies if] a sheliach tzibbur is [repeating] Shemoneh Esreh and feces are [discovered] in the synagogue or [room]11 in which he is praying. Even if they are behind him, anywhere in the [room], he must remain silent until they are removed.12 [The rationale is that he is praying] to enable the congregants to fulfill their obligation [to recite Shemoneh Esreh] and it is impossible that one of [them] not be within four cubits of the place at which the odor of the feces ceases to be detectable. Thus it is impossible for [that person to fulfill his obligation by] concentrating and listening to the sheliach tzibbur,13 and the sheliach tzibbur does not fulfill his obligation for him unless he is listening to him.14

If the sheliach tzibbur [is reciting] Pesukei DeZimrah — in which instance he is not fulfilling an obligation on behalf of others — he is permitted to recite [the prayers] in his ordinary manner provided he is not within four cubits of [the feces or their odor].15

As to urine that does not have a [foul] odor, the entire congregation may distance themselves four cubits from it,16 [and hence] the sheliach tzibbur can pray in his ordinary manner regardless.

ג שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְצוֹאָה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹ בְּאֵיזֶה בַּיִת11 שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא לְאַחֲרָיו בְּכָל הַבַּיִת – צָרִיךְ הוּא לִשְׁתֹּק עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיאוּהוּ,12 מֵאַחַר שֶׁמּוֹצִיא רַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה אֶחָד מִן הַקָּהָל בְּתוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹתטו מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּלֶה הָרֵיחַ,טז וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְכַוֵּן וּלִשְׁמֹעַ מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,13 וְאֵין הַשָּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מוֹצִיאוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שׁוֹמֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ.יז,14 וְאִם הוּא בִּפְסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן – מֻתָּר לַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לוֹמַר כְּדַרְכּוֹ אִם הוּא חוּץ לד' אַמּוֹת.יח,15 וּבְמֵי רַגְלַיִם שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם רֵיחַ – יְכוֹלִים כָּל הַקָּהָל לְהַרְחִיק ד' אַמּוֹת,16 וְיָכוֹל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לוֹמַר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן:יט

4 If [the feces] are [located] in a place ten handbreadths high or ten handbreadths deep, they are considered [being in] a separate domain17 and [accordingly] one’s camp18 is deemed holy. [This applies] even if one sits next to them and sees them while reciting [the Shema], provided their odor does not reach him.

[Some] authorities maintain that the area of the [higher or deeper] place [where the feces are located] must be [at least] four handbreadths by four handbreadths. [Only] then is it considered a halachically significant area that may be deemed a domain in its own right, as is the law with regard to the domains [as defined in the laws] of Shabbos.19 Their view should be taken into account and one should rule stringently, [because the observance of] a Scriptural [commandment is involved].

ד הָיְתָה בְּמָקוֹם גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים אוֹ נָמוּךְ י' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי זֶה רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ17 וְנִקְרָא מַחֲנֵהוּ18 קָדוֹשׁ,כ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בְּצִדָּהּ וְרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ וְקוֹרֵא.כא וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין רֵיחָהּ מַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו.כב וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכג שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רֹחַב מָקוֹם הַהוּא ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים וְאָז הוּא מָקוֹם חָשׁוּב לַחֲלֹק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ כְּמוֹ בָּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּת.כד,19 וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְהַחֲמִיר בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה:

5 Similarly, if feces are in one room it is permitted to recite [the Shema] in another room,20 even though the entrance between the two rooms is open and one is sitting next to the entrance and sees them, provided their odor not reach him. [The rationale is that] since the entrance has doorposts on either side separating one room from the other, it is considered as if it were closed off.

There is an authority who forbids one who sees [the feces from reciting the Shema] even though he is in another domain. The halachah, however, follows the first opinion. Since [the feces] are in a separate domain, even though he can see them [they are governed by the same law] as feces covered by a glass lantern, in which instance there is no prohibition at all [against reciting the Shema] while seeing them.21 Nevertheless, it is proper to bear in mind [the more stringent view].22 If one closes his eyes or if it is nighttime, it is permitted [to recite the Shema] according to all authorities, for [the feces] are in another domain, and in addition he does not see them.

ה וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה בְּחֶדֶר אֶחָד וְהוּא קוֹרֵא בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר,כה,20 אֲפִלּוּ הַפֶּתַח פָּתוּחַ בֵּינֵיהֶם וְהוּא יוֹשֵׁב אֵצֶל הַפֶּתַח בְּסָמוּךְ לָהּ וְרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ – מֻתָּרכו אִם אֵין רֵיחָהּ מַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו,כז לְפִי שֶׁהַפֶּתַח הִיא כְּסָתוּם,כח כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ גִּפּוּפִים מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן הַמַּבְדִּילִים בֵּין חֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר.כט וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵרל מִי שֶׁרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בִּרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת. וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,לא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא בִּרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּצוֹאָה בַּעֲשָׁשִׁיתלב שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל בִּרְאִיָּתָהּ.לג,21 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו.22 וְאִם מַעֲצִים עֵינָיו אוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה – מֻתָּר בָּזֶה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא בִּרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת וְגַם אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ:לד

6 If feces were passed through a [room] and their odor lingered, one should be stringent — even though the feces have already passed through — and not recite [the Shema] there until the odor ceases.23 Nevertheless, a person who does not smell [the odor] is permitted to recite [the Shema] in such a situation, since there are no feces in the [room].

ו אִם הֶעֱבִירוּ צוֹאָה בַּבַּיִת וְנִשְׁאַר עֲדַיִן רֵיחַ רַע בַּבַּיִת – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לִקְרוֹת בּוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרֵיחַ,23 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַצּוֹאָה כְּבָר חָלְפָה וְעָבְרָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵרִיחַ – מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹת בָּזֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין צוֹאָה בַּבַּיִת:לה

7 [The following principles apply if] a small courtyard was opened up entirely to a large one, and in the larger courtyard, there are projections24 that extend beyond the opening at either side.25 [In such a case,] the smaller [courtyard] is not deemed a domain26 in its own right, but as a corner of the larger [courtyard], since it is entirely opened up to it. The larger courtyard, [by contrast,] is considered as a domain in its own right, since it has projecting walls that remain on either side.27

Accordingly, if there are feces in the larger [courtyard], it is forbidden to recite [the Shema] in the smaller one (unless one moves away the required distance).28 If, by contrast, there are feces in the smaller [courtyard], one may recite [the Shema] in the larger one without distancing himself — since it is deemed a separate domain26 — provided their odor does not reach him and, according to the more stringent views cited in subsection 5, provided also that he cannot see it.

(When does the above apply? When the longer walls of the smaller courtyard project into the larger one and [continue for at least] three handbreadths beyond the longer walls of the larger [courtyard].29 For if not, [i.e., if the walls of the smaller courtyard extend only as far as the remaining “shoulders,”30] [then not only will the larger courtyard be set off from the smaller one, but] the smaller courtyard will also be deemed an independent domain26 by virtue of the [remaining] projections of the larger courtyard, because [of the halachic principle that walls] visible from the outside, [although they] appear flush on the inside, [are considered as walls for the inside, too], as will be explained in sec. 360[:7].)31

ז חָצֵר קְטַנָּה שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ לַגְּדוֹלָּהלו וּבַגְּדוֹלָה יֵשׁ גִּפּוּפִים24 הָעוֹדְפִים עַל הַפִּרְצָה מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאןלז,25 – הַקְּטַנָּה אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּבַיִת26 בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ אֶלָּא הוּא כְּקֶרֶן זָוִית שֶׁל הַגְּדוֹלָהלח הוֹאִיל וְנִפְרְצָה לָהּ בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, וְהַגְּדוֹלָה הִיא כְּבַיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ הוֹאִיל וְנִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ בָּהּ גִּפּוּפִים מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן.27 לְפִיכָךְ אִם צוֹאָה בַּגְּדוֹלָה – אָסוּר לִקְרוֹת בַּקְּטַנָּה (א) (עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק כְּשִׁעוּרלט),28 אֲבָל אִם צוֹאָה בַּקְּטַנָּה – מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹת בַּגְּדוֹלָה בְּלֹא הַרְחָקָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא כְּבַיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,26 רַק שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה רֵיחָהּ מַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו,מ וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאֶנָּה לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִים לְעֵיל סָעִיף ה' (בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁכָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַקְּטַנָּה נִכְנָסִים לְתוֹךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמֻפְלָגִים שָׁם ג' טְפָחִים מִכָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה,29 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אַף הַקְּטַנָּה הִיא כְּבַיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ26 עַל יְדֵי גִּפּוּפֵי הַגְּדוֹלָה,30 מִשּׁוּם נִרְאֶה מִבַּחוּץ וְשָׁוֶה מִבִּפְנִים,מא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"סמב):31

8 [The following laws apply with regard to] the feces of a dog or a pig. If one had placed hides in them,32 he must distance himself from them as he distances himself from human feces. If not, the laws applying to them are like those applying to the feces of other animals, beasts and fowl, in which instance there is no requirement to distance himself from them at all if they are not malodorous. If they are malodorous, all that is necessary is to move away until the odor is no longer detectable. The [only] exceptions are the soft feces of a donkey that has returned from a journey and those of a cat and a marten,33 which are like human feces because they are typically malodorous. Therefore, even if it once happens that they are not malodorous, [the recitation of the Shema in their vicinity] is still forbidden, as is the law with regard to human feces. If they are malodorous, it is [thus] necessary to distance oneself from them four cubits beyond the place at which the odor is no longer detectable. This law also applies with regard to a foul-smelling carcass.

Nevertheless, when a person proceeding on the road sees animal feces in front of him, if its odor does not reach him, he need not take into consideration the minority [of animals] and think that they may be donkey feces. In places where donkeys are common and one is close to a town, however, some authorities maintain that this must be taken into consideration, because most of the animals found there are donkeys.

ח צוֹאַת כֶּלֶב אוֹ חֲזִיר, אִם נָתַן בָּהֶם עוֹרוֹת32 – מַרְחִיק מֵהֶם כְּמוֹ מִצּוֹאַת אָדָם.מג וְאִם לָאו – דִּינָן כְּמוֹ צוֹאַת שְׁאָר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהִתְרַחֵק מֵהֶם כְּלָל אִם אֵין בָּהֶם רֵיחַ.מד וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם רֵיחַ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרֵיחַ וְלֹא יוֹתֵר.מה חוּץ מִצּוֹאָה רַכָּה שֶׁל חֲמוֹר הַבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְמו וּמִצּוֹאַת חָתוּל וּנְמִיָּהמז,33 שֶׁהֵן כְּצוֹאַת אָדָם, לְפִי שֶׁסְּתָמָן רֵיחָן רַע. וְלָכֵן אֲפִלּוּ יִזְדַּמֵּן פַּעַם אַחַת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם רֵיחַ – אָסְרוּ כְּצוֹאַת אָדָם.מח וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהֶם רֵיחַ – צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק ד' אַמּוֹת מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרֵיחַ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בִּנְבֵלָה מַסְרַחַת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הַהוֹלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרוֹאֶה צוֹאַת בְּהֵמָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, אִם אֵין הָרֵיחַ בָּא לוֹ – אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לַמִּעוּט לִתְלוֹתָהּ בְּשֶׁל חֲמוֹר.מט אֲבָל בְּסָמוּךְ לָעִיר – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁרֹב בְּהֵמוֹת הַמְּצוּיִים שָׁם הֵם חֲמוֹרִים, בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהַחֲמוֹרִים מְצוּיִים:נא

9 Some authorities forbid one from reciting [the Shema] in view of the urine of a donkey that has returned from a journey and in view of the feces of red chickens (commonly known as “Cornish hens”, or turkeys), for the feces of these fowl are very malodorous. (They are therefore considered as human feces, and it is forbidden [to recite the Shema in view of them] even if it happens that they are not malodorous. And if they are malodorous, one must distance himself four cubits from the place at which the odor is no longer detectable — as is the rule with human feces and not with feces of other fowls that are malodorous.) The feces of other chickens that wander around the house, by contrast, are considered like the feces of other fowl. Their coop, however, contains much putrid matter and is therefore governed by the laws applying to human feces.

ט יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין לִקְרוֹת כְּנֶגֶד מֵי רַגְלֵי חֲמוֹר הַבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְנב וּכְנֶגֶד צוֹאַת תַּרְנְגוֹלִים אֲדֻמִּיםנג (שֶׁקּוֹרִין ענגלי"שן הא"ןנד בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז אוֹ אינדי"ק), שֶׁתַּרְנְגוֹלִין אֵלּוּ צוֹאָתָן מַסְרַחַת מְאֹד (וְלָכֵן הִיא כְּצוֹאַת אָדָם, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיִּזְדַּמֵּן שֶׁאֵין לָהּ רֵיחַ רַע – אָסוּר. וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהּ רֵיחַ – צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק ד' אַמּוֹת מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּלֶה הָרֵיחַ, כְּמוֹ בְּצוֹאַת אָדָם וְלֹא כְּצוֹאַת שְׁאָר עוֹפוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן רֵיחַ). אֲבָל צוֹאַת שְׁאָר תַּרְנְגוֹלִים הַהוֹלְכִים בַּבַּיִת – דִּינוֹ כְּדִין צוֹאַת שְׁאָר עוֹפוֹת. אֲבָל הַלּוּל שֶׁלָּהֶם יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִרְחוֹן לָרֹב, וְלָכֵן דִּינוֹ כְּצוֹאַת אָדָם:נה

10 It is forbidden to recite the Shema in view of a foul-smelling garbage heap.34 ([This applies] even if the odor does not come from feces exposed on its surface, but from [feces] that are hidden and covered) or from feces that were already removed [from the place], except that their odor lingers, (provided one can detect [it]).

י אָסוּר לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע כְּנֶגֶד אַשְׁפָּה שֶׁרֵיחָהּ רַענו,34 (אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הָרֵיחַ מִצּוֹאָה מְגֻלָּה שֶׁעָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא מֵהַטְּמוּנָה וּמְכֻסָּה), אוֹ מִצּוֹאָה שֶׁחָלְפָה וְעָבְרָה וְנִשְׁאַר רֵיחָהּ שָׁםנז (וְהוּא שֶׁהָרֵיחַ מַגִּיעַ אֵלָיונח):

11 In order to distance people from [saying words of Torah in a place where there is] a foul odor stemming from a [visible] substance, the Sages extended the prohibition against [saying] words of Torah to include [even] a place where there is a foul odor not stemming from a [visible] substance, e.g., flatulence.35 One is forbidden [to say] words of Torah until the odor ceases,36 but one is not required to move away at all. [Moreover,] if the source of the flatulence was one’s fellow, one is permitted to say words of Torah. [Leniency is granted] because here it is impossible to set safeguards, for at night some of the students in the house of study are studying, while others are sleeping37 and they vent wind in their sleep. This is why [the Sages] did not extend the prohibition against the recitation of words of Torah to include a case in which the source of the flatulence is one’s fellow. Accordingly, [in such a situation,] even if one is studying alone and could depart to another place, he is not required to do so, for the Sages did not at all ordain such [a restriction] with regard to [saying] words of Torah. By contrast, they did ordain such a restriction against reciting the Shema (or Shemoneh Esreh)38 in the presence of flatulence even when its source is one’s fellow, until the odor ceases, since one can always go to another place and recite the Shema or Shemoneh Esreh there.

יא רֵיחַ רַע שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עִקָּר,נט כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ רוּחַ מִלְּמַטָּהס,35 – גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו חֲכָמִים מִשּׁוּם רֵיחַ רַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עִקָּר,סא וְאָסוּר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרֵיחַ,36 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק כְּלוּם.סב וְאִם יָצָא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ – מֻתָּר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִזָּהֵר מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁהַתַּלְמִידִים שֶׁבְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ קְצָתָם גּוֹרְסִים בַּלַּיְלָה וּקְצָתָם יְשֵׁנִיםסג,37 וּמְפִיחִים בְּתוֹךְ הַשֵּׁנָה, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא גָּזְרוּ עַל שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ לְדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְלָכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם לוֹמֵד בְּיָחִיד וְאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לָצֵאת לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לָצֵאת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עַל זֶה כְּלָל לְדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. אֲבָל לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע (אוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּלסד)38 גָּזְרוּ אֲפִלּוּ עַל שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרֵיחַ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר לִקְרוֹת אוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם:סה