SECTION 67 Laws Relating to a Doubt as to whether One Recited the Shema. (1–2)

סימן סז דִּין סָפֵק אִם קָרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 If there is a doubt as to whether or not one recited the Shema, he must go back and recite it,1 because the recitation of the Shema is a Scriptural obligation, and whenever an unresolved doubt involves a point of Scriptural Law, one must follow the more stringent opinion.

Even according to the authorities who hold that only the first verse — or the first passage — is of Scriptural origin and the remainder is a Rabbinic ordinance,2 one must go back and recite all three passages. For this was the ordinance of the Sages, that whenever one recites the Shema as prescribed by the Torah, he must recite all three passages. For this reason, if he is in doubt whether he recited the blessings that precede and follow [the Shema], he must go back and recite them as well, even though the blessings are of Rabbinic origin. For this was the ordinance [of the Sages], that whenever the Shema is recited [as prescribed by] the Torah, even because of doubt, it is to be recited together with its blessings. If, however, one knows that he recited [the Shema], but is in doubt whether he recited the blessings before it and after it, he should not go back and recite the blessings, for whenever there is doubt regarding a blessing, the lenient ruling prevails.3

Moreover, if one is in doubt whether he recited the passage of tzitzis while reciting the Shema or not, he must go back and recite it together with the blessing Emes veyatziv that follows it, for there is also doubt if it was recited,4 and it is a doubt concerning a Scriptural obligation.5 The same applies to the blessing Emes veemunah in the Evening Service, for it is a positive mitzvah of Scriptural origin to recall the Exodus from Egypt every day, by day and by night — as it is written,6 “So that you will recall the day of your Exodus from the land of Egypt all the days of your life.” [The Sages taught:] “The days of your life” — this refers to the days; “all the days of your life” — this alludes to the nights as well. Since one is obligated to recall the Exodus from Egypt because of the doubt, he must recall it in the blessing as worded by the Sages, i.e., the blessing Emes veyatziv. (He must also repeat the passage of tzitzis, for it and Emes veyatziv constitute one subject and one mitzvah.)7

If one [previously] recited a verse that [recalls] the Exodus from Egypt or a halachah in which the Exodus from Egypt is mentioned, he has fulfilled his obligation according to Scriptural Law. The blessing Emes veyatziv then becomes a Rabbinic obligation, and the doubt concerning it is thus to be judged leniently.

There is an authority who holds that if one recites the Song of [the Crossing of] the Sea, one certainly has fulfilled his obligation according to Scriptural Law.8

א סָפֵק קָרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע סָפֵק לֹא קָרָא – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹת,א,1 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,ב וְסָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה הוּא לְהַחֲמִיר.

וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁפָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ פָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה בִּלְבַד הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְהַשְּׁאָר תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִיםג,2 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹת כָּל הַג' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת, שֶׁכָּךְ הָיְתָה הַתַּקָּנָה שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל תּוֹרָה – יִקְרָא כָּל הַג' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת.ד וּמִטַּעַם זֶה צָרִיךְ גַּם כֵּן לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם אֲמָרָם,ה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבְּרָכוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ו לְפִי שֶׁכָּךְ הָיְתָה הַתַּקָּנָה שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁקּוֹרִין קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֲפִלּוּ מִפְּנֵי הַסָּפֵק בִּלְבַד – קוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ. אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁקְּרָאָהּ אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּסֻפָּק אִם בֵּרַךְ לְפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ – לֹא יַחֲזֹר וִיבָרֵךְ,ז שֶׁסָּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.ח,3

וְאִם מְסֻפָּק גַּם בְּפָרָשַׁת צִיצִית אִם קְרָאָהּ בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע אִם לָאו – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹתָהּט עִם בִּרְכַּת "אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב" שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ, שֶׁהִיא גַּם כֵּן בְּסָפֵק אִם אֲמָרָהּ,4 וְהוּא סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.י,5 וְהוּא הַדִּין לֶ"אֱמֶת וֶאֱמוּנָה" שֶׁל עַרְבִית, שֶׁמִּצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לִזְכֹּר יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם בְּכָל יוֹם, בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה,יא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:יב,6 "לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר אֶת יוֹם צֵאתְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ", "יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ" – הַיָּמִים, "כָּל יְמֵי חַיֶךָ" – לְהָבִיאיג הַלֵּילוֹת, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְחֻיָּב לְהַזְכִּיר יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם מִפְּנֵי הַסָּפֵק – צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּירָהּ בַּבְּרָכָה וּבַנֻּסָּח שֶׁתִקְּנוּ לָהּ חֲכָמִים, שֶׁהִיא בִּרְכַּת "אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב"יד (א) (וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לַחֲזֹר גַּם פָּרָשַׁת צִיצִית, שֶׁהִיא וְ"אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב" הֵן דָּבָר אֶחָד וּמִצְוָה אַחַתטו).7

וְאִם אָמַר אֵיזֶה פָּסוּק שֶׁל יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם אוֹ אֵיזֶה הֲלָכָה שֶׁנִּזְכַּר בָּהּ יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְנַעֲשֵׂית בִּרְכַּת אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב סָפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּלְהָקֵל.טז (ב) וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵריז שֶׁמִּכָּל שֶׁכֵּן אִם אוֹמֵר שִׁירַת הַיָּם שֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַתּוֹרָה:8

2 If one knows that he recited [only] the first verse or even the first passage, but is in doubt with regard to the second, all authorities — even those who maintain [that reciting the second paragraph] is a Rabbinic ordinance — agree that he must go back and recite it. For from the outset, the Sages ordained that [the obligation to recite it] be equivalent to the recitation of the Shema as required by Scriptural Law, with regard to the necessity of repeating it because of doubt.

ב וְאִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁקָּרָא פָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ פָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמְסֻפָּק בַּשְּׁנִיָּה – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹתָהּ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהִיא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, לְפִי שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה כָּךְ תִּקְּנוּהָ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, לְעִנְיָן שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לִקְרוֹתָהּ עַל הַסָּפֵק כְּמוֹ קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל תּוֹרָה:יח