SECTION 589 The Individuals who are Fit to Sound the Shofar. (1–9)

סימן תקפט מִי הֵם הָרְאוּיִים לִתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 If1 a person is half bondman and half free,2 it is necessary that a person who is [entirely] a free man sound the shofar to enable him to fulfill his obligation.3 He cannot fulfill it by sounding the shofar himself because, being partly free, he is required4 to hear nine5 complete and perfectly valid shofar blasts. And if he sounds the shofar himself, every blast that he emits is partially invalid, because in part he is a bondman.6

א מִי1 שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין2 צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּתְקַע לוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין לְהוֹצִיאוֹ,א,3 אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בִּתְקִיעָתוֹ שֶׁל עַצְמוֹ,ב לְפִי שֶׁצַּד חֵרוּת שֶׁבּוֹ נִתְחַיֵּב4 בְּתֵשַׁע תְּקִיעוֹת5 שְׁלֵמוֹת בְּכַשְׁרוּתוֹ, וְאִם יִתְקַע בְּעַצְמוֹ תְּהֵא כָּל תְּקִיעָה וּתְקִיעָה שֶׁיּוֹצֵאת מִפִּיו חֶצְיָהּ פְּסוּלָה מֵחֲמַת צַד עַבְדוּת שֶׁבּוֹ:ג,6

2 Women are not obligated [to hear the sounding of the shofar], yet if they desire to sound the shofar themselves, they may.7 Although the Sages forbade the sounding of the shofar on Yom-Tov for no purpose, in order to generate satisfaction for the women they relaxed this lightweight prohibition. For this activity does not even fully entail a shvus;8 it was forbidden merely because it resembles a mundane activity.9

Similarly, a person who has already fulfilled his obligation may sound the shofar for them and may take a shofar into the public domain to sound it for them.

It was explained above, in sec. 17[:3], that it is the accepted custom for women to recite a blessing over all positive commandments whose observance is linked to a specific time.10 Hence, in this instance as well, the women themselves should recite the blessing. A man who has fulfilled his own obligation and is now sounding the shofar only for sake of the women should not recite the blessing for them, for that would be reciting a blessing in vain. For the women are under no obligation that should warrant the recitation of this blessing by a man [for their sake alone]. It is only that they have permission to recite the blessing [themselves] for the reasons explained in the above source. Why should another person recite an unwarranted blessing?

A person who desires to sound the shofar for women and recite a blessing for them should sound the shofar for them before he hears the sounding of the shofar in the synagogue.11 Alternatively, he should intend not to fulfill his obligation [when hearing] the shofar blasts in the synagogue. He may then recite a blessing for himself, because he has not yet fulfilled his own obligation.

Even if he goes to sound the shofar for the women in their own homes, and then returns to the synagogue to hear the tekios me’umad12 that are sounded in the course of the blessings [of Mussaf], he does not have to recite a blessing over them even though he made an interruption between the blessing and these [latter shofar] blasts by walking to the synagogue. For even if he made an interruption between the two by speaking, he would not be required to repeat the blessing, for the reason explained in sec. 592[:7].13

ב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת,ד מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם רָצוּ לִתְקֹעַ בְּעַצְמָן הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָן.ה,7 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתְּקִיעָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב בְּחִנָּם אֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ו מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת נַחַת רוּחַ לַנָּשִׁים הִתִּירוּ לָהֶן אִסּוּר קַל כָּזֶה ז שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר8 אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם עוּבְדִּין דְּחֹל.ח,9

וְכֵן אָדָם אַחַר שֶׁיָּצָא כְּבָר יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מֻתָּר לִתְקֹעַ לָהֶן.ט וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא הַשּׁוֹפָר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כְּדֵי לִתְקֹעַ לָהֶן.י

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן י"[ז] יא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ הַנָּשִׁים לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא,10 עַל כֵּן גַּם כָּאן יְבָרְכוּ הַנָּשִׁים לְעַצְמָן,יב אֲבָל אֲנָשִׁים לֹא יְבָרְכוּ לָהֶן אִם כְּבָר יָצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם וְאֵינָן תּוֹקְעִים רַק בִּשְׁבִיל הַנָּשִׁים,יג לְפִי שֶׁהִיא בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנָּשִׁים בְּעַצְמָן אֵינָן חַיָּבוֹת בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ זֶה לְהוֹצִיאָן יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלָּהֶן בְּעַצְמָן הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָן לְבָרֵךְ יד מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, אֲבָל אַחֵר לָמָּה יְבָרֵךְ בְּחִנָּם.

וְהָרוֹצֶה לִתְקֹעַ לַנָּשִׁים וּלְבָרֵךְ לָהֶן – יִתְקַע לָהֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע הַתְּקִיעוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,טו,11 אוֹ שֶׁיְּכַוֵּן בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּתְקִיעוֹת שֶׁל בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, דְּאָז יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.טז וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לָהֶן לִתְקֹעַ בְּבָתֵּיהֶן וְחוֹזֵר לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְשׁוֹמֵעַ הַתְּקִיעוֹת דִּמְעֻמָּד12 שֶׁעַל סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִפְסִיק בַּהֲלִיכָה לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בֵּין בִּרְכָתוֹ לִתְקִיעוֹת אֵלּוּ,יז שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ אִם הִפְסִיק בְּשִׂיחָה בֵּינְתַיִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקצ"ב:יח,13

3 Even if a person has taken a vow not to derive benefit from a fellow Jew by saying, “It is banned for me to benefit from so-and-so,” that fellow Jew may sound the shofar [to enable] him [to fulfill this] mitzvah,14 because [in the context of vows, the fulfillment of a mitzvah] is not considered a [pleasurable] benefit, as explained in sec. 586[:24, 26].15

[The above applies] provided that fellow Jew sounds the shofar for him on his own volition. [He may not be asked to do so], for since [the person under ban] forbade himself from benefiting from him, he cannot designate him as an agent to sound the shofar for him.16

ג מִי שֶׁהוּא מֻדַּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁאָמַר קוֹנָם שֶׁאֲנִי נֶהֱנֶה מִפְּלוֹנִי – מֻתָּר חֲבֵרוֹ לִתְקֹעַ לוֹ תְּקִיעָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה,יט,14 שֶׁאֵין זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הֲנָאָה כ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ו.כא,15 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּתְקַע לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ מֵעַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל הוּא לֹא יֹאמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיִּתְקַע לוֹ,כב דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסַר חֲבֵרוֹ הֲנָאָתוֹ עָלָיו – אָסוּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת חֲבֵרוֹ שָׁלִיחַ לִתְקֹעַ לוֹ:כג,16

4 When does the above apply? When he forbade himself from benefiting from this fellow Jew. If, however, he forbade himself from [listening to his] shofar blasts by saying, “I ban the shofar blasts of so-and-so upon myself,” he is forbidden to hear even the shofar blasts his colleague sounds for the sake of a mitzvah.

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאָסַר הֲנָאַת חֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו, אֲבָל אִם אָסַר תְּקִיעַת חֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו שֶׁאָמַר קוֹנָם תְּקִיעָתוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי עָלָיו – אָסוּר לוֹ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֲפִלּוּ תְּקִיעָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ:כד

5 A person does not fulfill his obligation regarding any of the mitzvos unless he carries out the relevant activity with the intent of thereby performing a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 60[:5].17 Therefore a person who sounds the shofar as a casual activity,18 for practice, has not fulfilled his obligation. Similarly, a person who hears the shofar blasts from someone who sounded them as a casual activity has not fulfilled his obligation19 even if he intended to [do so] — for since the person sounding the shofar did not have the [required] intent, the sounds [that were heard] were invalid.

ה כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְכַּוֵּן כה בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר זֶה לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה כו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס'.כז,17 לְפִיכָךְ, הַמִּתְעַסֵּק בִּתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר כְּדֵי לְהִתְלַמֵּד18 – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.19 וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִן הַמִּתְעַסֵּק – לֹא יָצָא,כח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִתְכַּוֵּן הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַתּוֹקֵעַ לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן אִם כֵּן תְּקִיעָה פְּסוּלָה שָׁמַע:

6 Likewise, a person who sounded the shofar as a musical instrument without intending to fulfill the mitzvah thereby has not fulfilled his obligation, nor did a person who heard [those sounds] from him fulfill his obligation.20

ו וְכֵן הַתּוֹקֵעַ לְשׁוֹרֵר וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לִתְקִיעַת מִצְוָה – לֹא יָצָא.כט וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ – לֹא יָצָא:20

7 If a person sounding the shofar had the intent of enabling a listener to fulfill his obligation, but the listener did not have the intent of fulfilling his obligation by listening, or if a listener had the intent of fulfilling his obligation, but the person sounding the shofar did not have the intent of enabling the listener to fulfill his obligation but [simply] sounded the shofar for himself, the listener did not fulfill his obligation.21 Both the listener and the person sounding the shofar must [share the appropriate] intent.

If a person sounding the shofar has the intent that whoever hears his shofar blasts may fulfill his obligation thereby, and a listener hears those blasts and has the intent of fulfilling his obligation, the listener has fulfilled his obligation. [This applies] even though the person sounding the shofar did not have this intent for this particular individual who heard his shofar blasts and [indeed] knows nothing of him — for his intent was that anyone who heard him should thereby fulfill his obligation.

Accordingly, a person who was proceeding on his way or sitting at home, and heard the shofar blasts sounded by the sheliach tzibbur, has fulfilled his obligation, for a sheliach tzibbur has the intent of enabling the public to fulfill their obligation by hearing his shofar blasts.22

ז אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן הַתּוֹקֵעַ לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן הַתּוֹקֵעַ לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ אֶלָּא תָּקַע לְעַצְמוֹ – לֹא יָצָא הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,21 עַד שֶׁיִּתְכַּוְּנוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹמֵעַ וּמַשְׁמִיעַ.ל

מִי שֶׁתָּקַע וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיא כָּל מִי שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע תְּקִיעָתוֹ וְשָׁמַע הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַתּוֹקֵעַ מִתְכַּוֵּן לִפְלוֹנִי זֶה שֶׁשָּׁמַע תְּקִיעָתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדְעוֹ כְּלָל, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָצָא הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתּוֹקֵעַ נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיא לְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּשְׁמָעֶנּוּ.לא לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אוֹ יוֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁמַע תְּקִיעוֹת מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר – יָצָא אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ,לב שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בִּתְקִיעָתוֹ:לג,22

8 If a person heard the shofar blasts [sounded] for this mitzvah, but later became doubtful whether he had intended to fulfill his obligation by hearing them, the shofar should be sounded for him again because of the doubt.23

If, by contrast, a person was walking [on his way] and stopped to hear the shofar blasts from a sheliach tzibbur, but was later doubtful whether he had intended to fulfill his obligation by hearing them, there is no need to sound the shofar for him again. Since he stopped walking, it may be assumed that he intended to fulfill his obligation.

ח מִי שֶׁשָּׁמַע תְּקִיעַת מִצְוָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִיעָתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ לוֹ שֵׁנִית מִסָּפֵק.לד,23 אֲבָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְעָמַד כְּדֵי לִשְׁמֹעַ הַתְּקִיעוֹת מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִיעָתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ לוֹ שֵׁנִית, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁעָמַד מֵהֲלִיכָתוֹ חֲזָקָה שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ:לה

9 [The following rule applies when] a person goes to the synagogue with the intent of hearing [the shofar] sounded by the sheliach tzibbur and fulfilling his obligation with the congregation. Even if at the time he heard [the shofar] he had no intent in mind but simply heard [it], he has fulfilled his obligation, because he is considered to be acting in the wake of his initial intent — to go to the synagogue to fulfill his obligation.

[Different rules apply when,] by contrast, a person went to the synagogue without any intent, i.e., he did not intend that by going there he would fulfill his obligation when hearing the shofar blasts sounded by the sheliach tzibbur. [If] he then heard [the shofar] without having any intent in mind, he has not fulfilled his obligation — because, [as stated above,] in order to fulfill one’s obligation one must have the intent of performing a mitzvah.24

ט מִי שֶׁבָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כְּדֵי לִשְׁמֹעַ הַתְּקִיעוֹת מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְלָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ עִם הַצִּבּוּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁשָּׁמַע לֹא הָיָה לוֹ שׁוּם כַּוָּנָה אֶלָּא שָׁמַע סְתָם – יָצָא,לו לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נִגְרָר אַחַר מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לז שֶׁבָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כְּדֵי לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁבָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בִּסְתָם,לח שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן בְּבִיאָתוֹ כְּדֵי לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעַת הַתְּקִיעוֹת מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁמַע בִּסְתָם בְּלֹא שׁוּם כַּוָּנָה – לֹא יָצָא, שֶׁמִּצְוֹת צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה כְּדֵי לָצֵאת בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן:24